Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 09/2021
Contents of Issue № 09/2021
The issues of holistic world
Abramov P.D. - Ontology of the three worlds in the context of Buddhist philosophy pp. 1-14


Abstract: Dalai Lama notes that the Buddhist system of the objects of the realm largely coincides with such developed by Karl Popper. The subject of this article is ontology of the three worlds. The goal lies in analysis of the components of this ontology, demonstration of its prospects and advantages over dualism. First come matter or physical objects; second come mind, subjective reality; third come abstract concepts. Any object of reality is reduced to one of the three worlds and is refracted in a peculiar way in the other two. The third world is the mediator between others worlds; and the autonomous sphere that is not fully conditioned by them. We experience through representations, rather than directly, which is depicted in Buddhism as the image of a gloved hand. The knowledge concentrated in the third world contribute to development of consciousness. A thought experiment with the central and peripheral atoms reveal that there are no indivisible elements and everything exists in mutually dependent, while Buddhist logic substantiates that love and compassion can develop boundlessly. The concept of interdependent existence and non-substantiality of things draws Buddhism and quantum physics closer together. On the one hand, consciousness cannot be naturalized, reduced to matter; and on the other hand, it is inextricable from the energy processes. The conclusion is made that the three fundamental attributes of consciousness in Buddhism outlined by Thubten Gyats (13th Dalai Lama) – subjectivity, intentionality, and reflexivity, can be complemented by another two –  ability to continuously develop virtues, positive traits, and t interdependence between consciousness and subtle forms of matter. The three realms of Buddhism are such only on the phenomenal level; however, on the noumenal level, which unlike Buddhism is not recognized by Popper, is not the trinity, but the unity.
The new paradigm of science
Myakinnikov S.P. - The illusion of matter, energy, environmental issues pp. 15-30


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the establishment of correlation between the illusion of the world of matter and environmental issues. The object of this research is the concepts of “illusion”, “matter”, and “energy”. The author traces the evolution of representations of the illusion of the world and its perception. The author dwells on the philosophical aspects of quantum physics, questioning the postulates of materialism on the primacy of matter, and acknowledgement of its esthesis by human as the criterion of the only true being. Special attention is given to the role of consciousness in the illusory distortion of matter and quantum field reality, which is substantiated by the complexity of comprehension of multiple quantum phenomena. The author underlines the need for studying the correlation between environmental issues and the processes in quantum field reality. The main conclusion consists in explication of the fact that the material world is perceived delusively by imperfect human sensory receptors, and its very being is somewhat an illusion. For denoting a single substance, the author employs the term “foreign matter”, which implies the imperceptible reality of energy waves of different frequency. A hypothesis of the continual-energy model of atom, which complements the Rutherford discrete-corpuscular planetary model of atom is advanced. The author’s special contribution lies in the statement that the actual causes of many environmental issues should be sought for not in the world of matter, but in the foreign matter of quantum field reality. The novelty consists in the proposal to develop the consciousness of anthropocentrism, naturecentrism, and theocentrism, which prompt the reduction to part (merism), to the whole (holism) or uniform (henotheism) respectively; and the consciousness of post-holism, where the uniform (i.e. energy) is within the whole and each part of the physical world, considering its unique characteristics. It is noted that the worldview of ecocentrism, and ecological version of post-holism form the true environmental picture of the world. 
History of ideas and teachings
Chebunin A. - Modern Confucianism and the concept of sustainable development pp. 31-44


Abstract: This article examines interrelation between the concept of Confucianism and sustainable development, as well as their theoretical mutual influence in the context of the development of China’s modern social-humanistic thought. The research employs the methods of comparative analysis, system and structural approaches. The subject of this study is mostly modern scientific articles from the publication “Confucianism and Sustainable Development of Mankind” of November 16-19, 2019 based on the VI Congress of the International Confucian Association in Beijing, as well as the research of the Chinese authors on the topic. Special attention is given to the impact of the traditional spiritual heritage upon substantiation of the modern concept. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the ideas of Confucianism are widely used for the theoretical justification of the concept of sustainable development, namely from the ethical perspective, which proves rather declarative-propagandistic nature of these works. Similar focus on the humanistic and ethical aspects of Confucianism as a reputable evidence of the modern concept of sustainable development on the level of scientific abstraction and theorization levels out the systemic problem of economic and sociopolitical structure as the key source of the all-round crisis. Namely this structure reproduces the consumer type of personality as the foundation of capitalistic system, which in many ways contradicts the traditional spiritual values. This may lead to humanization of the traditional spiritual doctrines, including Confucianism, which is oriented towards humanistic values of individualism and primacy of a human. Such influence of the liberal-humanist ideology on Confucianism distorts its basic worldview attitudes as a conservative patriarchal ideology, and turns it into the instrument of ethical manipulation.
Philosophy of religion
Lepeshkin D.G. - Representations of secularism in the modern confessional theology pp. 45-53


Abstract: The subject of this research is comprehension of the concept of secularism by theologians of the Abrahamic religious tradition (Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) in the late XX – early XXI centuries. The object of this research is secularism as the phenomenon of modernity. Leaning on the methodology of contextualism, comparative and content analysis, in terms of civilizational approach, the author studies the interpretation of the concept of secularism within the framework of confessional theological discourse. The author has examined the corresponding representations of theologians of the Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christian traditions, including the inter-Christian movement of radical Orthodoxy. Analysis is also conducted on the concept of secularism in modern classical Islam and moderate Orthodox Judaism. The main conclusions are as follows: the theologians of all indicated denominations trace the origins of secularism in the West; Islamic theologians agree upon the fact that radical Orthodoxy takes roots in Christianity itself; the representatives of Catholic tradition see secularism as the ideology similar to fundamentalism, however, they deny its universality, and thereby supporting the Orthodox interpretation of secularism. A number of Orthodox theologians view secularism not just as the ideology aimed at achieving the complete elimination religions from public life to purely private life, but also as quasi-religion, which is extraneous to the principles of secularism. Islamic theology believes that secularism, which is alien to the Muslim world, is a serious but not critical challenge brought from the West. Islamic theology tends to see secularism only as ideology, which at times is irrational. Jewish moderate Orthodoxy views secularism as the challenge to traditional meanings that are fundamental to human community. In this regard, they advocate for the so-called ideological consensus between religious belief and secular modernity.
Kiryanov D.A. - The problem of incommensurability and the crisis of foundations of the Ancient Greek mathematics pp. 54-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of incommensurability and the crisis of foundations of the Ancient Greek mathematics. The article describes that the crisis of foundations was caused by the discovery of irrationality by the Pythagorean Hippasus of Metapontum, which resulted in the theoretical instability of mathematics of the Pythagoreans, who believed that everything could be expressed through numbers. The discovery of incommensurable line segments demonstrated that the relations between rational numbers cannot express any variable, for example the diagonal of a square with one side equal to one. Analysis is conducted on the achievements of the Pythagorean School in the field of mathematics. Special attention is given to the role of a number in the philosophy of this school. The article explores the main ways for overcoming this crisis, philosophical explanation of the unfolded situation, based on which the Pythagoreans formulate the methodological ways out of the discovered problem of incommensurability. It is noted that the Pythagoreans were actively elaborating on their philosophy and mathematical apparatus intending to find the answer to the discovery of incommensurability. The author’s special contribution lies in the statement that the discovery of irrationality was not critical for the Pythagoreans: they continued working towards the answer to the problem of incommensurability, as well as refined the mathematical theory of proportions, reconsidered the representation of infiniteness as a certain numerical characteristic of the things and processes. This article is first to advance a hypothesis on the possibility of dividing the object into an infinitely large number of infinitely small parts, which is now understood as the limit of function, which contributes to the development and application of dialectics. The problem of incommensurability led to the creation of new, complex theories in the history of science, culture, architecture, and art.
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