Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 08/2021
Contents of Issue 08/2021
History of ideas and teachings
Yarkova E.N., Guseinov A.A., Apresyan R.G., Chubarov I.M., Khalin S.M., Murav'ev I.B., Dyagileva T.V., Mal'tsev Y.V. - Tyumen ethical-philosophical tradition: research methodology (round table materials) pp. 1-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the works of Tyumen ethicists: the founder of the concept of rationalistic ethics that was a milestone in the history of Soviet ethics Fedor Andreevich Selivanov; the pioneer of the applied ethics in Russia Vladimir Iosifovich Bakshtanovsky; the author of the original anthropocosmist concept of morality Yuri Mikhailovich Fyodorov; the developer of the concept of regional ethos Mikhail Grigorievich Ganopolskyl; the adherent of dialogical ethics Nikolay Dmitrievich Zotov, and others. The article discusses the scientific justification of studying the works of Tyumen ethicists as a uniform ethical-philosophical intellectual tradition. The article reviews the fundamentally different opinions on the topic. An attempt is made to create a specific field of research dedicated to the Russian regional intellectual traditions. The novelty of this article consists in examination of methodology of studying the regional intellectual traditions, as well as raising the question on the degree to which the idea of regional intellectual traditions corresponds to reality, is it false, or made up, or links the unlinkable. The author also articulates the problem of whether the research of the Russian regional intellectual traditions contributes to cultivation of such phenomena a “provincial science” and “native science”; what brings the study of the Russian regional intellectual traditions in the context of representations on the points of growth of the human capital in the country and development of the Russian science?
Philosophy and culture
Bakhareva M. - The evolution of philosophical views of R. M. Rilkein the context of his literary works of the turn of the XIX XX centuries pp. 25-40


Abstract: The works of Rainer Maria Rilke, one of the most influential modernist poets of the XX century does not lose its relevance and continues to draw interest of the researchers. The goal of this work is to trace the evolution of philosophical views of R. M. Rilke in the context of his literary works of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. The research employs hermeneutical approach for interpretation of the texts of R. M. Rilke through the prism of socio-historical conditions of that time. Systematization and generalization of the acquired data allowed assessing the formation and significance of philosophical and aesthetic views of R. M. Rilke, as well as contradictions therein. Rilke did not adhere to any philosophical systems; however, his works reflect the philosophical-worldview principles and patterns of the era, first and foremost, the symbolic aesthetics, philosophy of life, and metaphysics of art of Nietzsche. The philosophical views of R. M. Rilke in the works of his early period developed in pursuit of the unique, and in many ways, subjective attitude towards life. The conducted analysis demonstrates the process of philosophical reorientation from the subject-centered recognition of the great creator towards the objective world of things. In the lecture on Maurice Maeterlinck (1902), Rilke clearly expresses the ideas on the function of art, tasks and capabilities of an artist. After getting familiar with the work of A. Rodin, Rilke turns to the “poem-thing” genre, when the concept of thing encompasses the entire universe. The establishment of transcendental-poetic unity between the subject and the world is one of paramount philosophical ideas in the works of R. M. Rilke. The artist, objectively depicting the “thingness” of the world, is an intermediary between God and the divine spark in its interaction with the real world and man, correlates times and spaces and preserves the eternal values, which comprise the basis of the cultural code of each nation.
Question at hand
Barinov N.N. - Marxism-Leninism and Christianity: dictatorship of the proletariat and terror pp. 41-64


Abstract: This article carries out a historical-theological analysis of compatibility of the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism with Christianity. The relevance of this topic is substantiate by the ongoing polemic, which is directly pertains to the social structure. The author reviews the historical-theological aspects of this question based on the critical study of historical-philosophical research, as well as historical documents on the matter. In order to conduct comprehensive analysis on this topic, the article explores the dictatorship of the “proletariat” and terror views of opposing sides, as well as describes contrary opinions, texts of Holy Scripture, and views of the Orthodox Church Fathers. The novelty of this research lies in introduction of certain documents in the context of articulated problem for the first time. The author gives a detailed historical-theological overview on the comparison of Marxism-Leninism with Orthodox Christianity. The goal of this work lies in examination of the historical documents and historical-theological writings on the topic at hand. The conclusion is made that despite apparent similarity of certain provisions, Marxism-Leninism and Christianity are by no means compatible. In theoretical terms, socialism could exist in symbiosis with Christianity if the existing contradictions are eliminated. However, such socialism would be no longer based on Marxism-Leninism.
Man and mankind
Suslov A.V. - Russian cosmism and transhumanism in the polemic between anthropological voluntarism and providentialism pp. 65-77


Abstract: Comprehension of the finitude of individual existence entails the need to find the answer to question of overcoming death, a salvation path that would allow pass through the abyss of nonexistence. Solution to this question implies various forms of immortality: naturalistic, theological, technocratic, creative, sensually-transcendental, etc. Prolongation of life and gaining immortality has become a central problem of such philosophical movements as Russian cosmism and modern transhumanism, which view the victory over death as the project and purpose of mankind. The object of this research is the ethical content and key ideas of the philosophy of Russian cosmism and modern transhumanism. The subject is the origins and evolution of transhumanist worldview in its genetic link with the ideas of cosmic philosophy. This article aims to analyze the methods and means of how a human can improve and obtain immortality, which are advanced by transhumanists, and juxtapose them with the ideas of Russian cosmist philosophers. The conclusion is made that the central idea of cosmism and transhumanism, which lies in overcoming the finitude of human existence, does not find its global humanistic realization: both concepts offer partial and unnatural solutions (autotrophy, resurrection, cyborgization). Emphasis is placed on solution of the problem of immortality in the Christian anthropology in spiritual-moral ethical-philosophical context
Social philosophy
Pakhar' L.I., Petrova R.A. - Alienation: theoretical comprehension of the problem pp. 78-91


Abstract: The subject of this research is the review of philosophical approaches towards analyzing the processes of alienation in Western European and Russian philosophy, since the formation of the philosophy of Modern Age to the present day. The object of this research is the analysis of articulation of the problem of alienation and its essential characteristics in the concepts of certain representatives of the philosophical thought. The goal is to establish correlation between the process of alienation and contradictions of the object. Special attention is given to the social aspect of this problem, since the escalating disturbances in the sociopolitical life manifest through the processes of alienation. The authors explore the views of the philosophers of Modern Age, who explained the nature of alienation in the light of sociopolitical sphere of being, dialectical-materialistic theory of alienation of K. Marx and F. Engels, idealistic tradition represented by G. Hegel and J. Fichte. Among the representatives of the philosophy of the XX century, emphasis is placed on the views upon the problem of alienation in the philosophy of existentialism, neo-Marxism, personalism, as well as in philosophy of postmodernism. The novelty of this paper consist in gradual study of various interpretations of alienation in the development of philosophical thought, and attempts of comparative analysis of perspectives on the topic. Such approach allows concluding on the need create a holistic system of interrelated forms of alienation that evolve in their content in the course of historical development of society. The author believes that alienation as the main problem of social and spiritual sphere of human existence. In social theory, the problem is alienation is one of the key factors in comprehension of the mechanism of social development.
Theological foundations of being
Suslov A.V., Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Theism, atheism and pantheism in the context of solution of the central philosophical question: anthropological aspect pp. 92-113


Abstract: The object of this research is a centuries-old worldview polemic between the philosophical representations on the world and human associated with theism, atheism and pantheism. The subject of this research is the theoretical and practical attitudes and conclusions of anthropological nature that result from these intellectual models. The authors dwell on the worldview correlations of materialism and idealism with their worldview companions, such as atheism, evolutionism, scientism, anthropological voluntarism  on the one hand, and theism, creationism, antiscientism, providentialism – on the other. Special attention is given to examination of ideological link of atheism and pantheism with the anthropocentric attitude, as well as the questions of life navigation of a human in the context of confrontation and polemics of anthropological voluntarism  and providentialism. The novelty of this research consists in substantiation of authenticity of the philosophical idealism as a model that implies theistic and creationist view of the universe and fundamental incompatibility of the central idealistic thesis on the primacy of spiritual reality with the nature of being from the perspective of pantheism. The novelty also lies in the authors’ statement on the worldview similarity of atheism and pantheism, each of which is a specific substantiation of anthropological voluntarism  that is opposed to theistic providentialism. The conclusion consists in acknowledgment of the fundamental dichotomy of the worldview choice and life orientation of a human between the anthropocentric and providential poles, despite all ideological multifacetedness and diversity of the philosophical and religious representations.
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