Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 07/2021
Contents of Issue 07/2021
History of ideas and teachings
Pigalev S. - The human problem in the context of New European theory of progress pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.35713

Abstract: This article analyzes the anthropological paradigm of modernism in light of the New European theory of progress. The author underlines the importance of these worldview constructs for understanding the phenomenon of modernism, and based on the hermeneutical method conducts a historical-philosophical reconstruction of the corresponding ideas. It is noted that the specific features of New European anthropology alongside New European interpretation of the idea of progress, can be understood only in relation to each other. Special attention is given to determination and analysis of the fundamental, although not implicit contradictions arising within the worldview of modernism The New European image of the world is based on the synthesis of progressive pathos and assurance in fundamental imperfection of human nature. A participant of the progressive movement is proclaimed an atomized subject that follows selfish principles. Such way of thought leads to a contradictory result: namely the imperfect essence of a human is the foundation for the development. An important role is assigned to the idea of historical law that regulates the collision of selfish human for producing social good. This paradoxical construct can be viewed as an attempt to solve the fundamental for modernism problem of the part and the whole. Based on the research of H. Blumenberg, the origins of this problem can be traced in the dispute on the universals that took place in the late Middle Ages . The victory of nominalism with its thesis on the primacy of the singular undermined the medieval model of integrity, depriving human of the ontological foundations. Namely the crisis of integrity underlied the philosophical pursuits of modernism. By reconciling the singular represented by an atomized subject and the universal represented by the historical law, the theory of progress resembles the model of integrity. However, this model can only be effective in a situation of “comfortability” of the historical process. In the conditions of catastrophism of the XX century, the confidence in the progress is being problematized, and the problem of human nature becomes increasingly relevant.
Social dynamics
Tuzovskii I.D. - Utopian universals in the context of the concept of information society pp. 18-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.36034

Abstract: This article explores the problem of utopian universals applicable to the concept of “information society”. The author interprets utopian universals as most general representations on the best social structure that became widespread within a particular epistemological tradition. The subject of this research is the determination and evolution of the universal social attributes characteristic to projects of best social structure within the epistemological tradition of scientific rationality developed throughout the XVI – XXI centuries. From T. Mohr's "Utopia" to D. Bell's "post-industrial Society" and M. Castells '"Information Age", the author traces the universal features of social attribution. The researcher comes to the conclusion that projects of an optimal or ideal social structure, changing their concrete form of expression, retain a utopian character throughout the entire line of development of the epistemological tradition of scientific rationality. Utopian universals of aggregation and codification of theoretical knowledge, transformation of science into the major driving force of political and economic development, transition of power to the wisemen-philosophers, collective maximally egalitarian and democratic participation in decision-making is the attributes that to greater or lesser degree are inherent to the utopias of Western civilization, beginning with the work of T. More. These same attributes retain in the concept of information society, which allows raising the question of the need for critical revision as a theoretical scientific concept and practical political project of the information society.
Philosophy of religion
Abramov A. - Catholic Magisterium on euthanasia: from Pope Pius XII to Pope Francis pp. 30-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.36102

Abstract: The subject of this research is the so-called Magisterium of the Popes on the topic of euthanasia, i.e. a set of formal texts that have high authority and normativity in the Roman Catholic Church. The history of development of the Vatican doctrine in this field stretches from 1950s, undergoing substantial changes. The author traces the evolution of philosophical and religious-ethical grounds of the views of the Holy See on euthanasia and assisted suicide. The goal of this article consists in determination of continuity of the concept of Magisterium, as well as the level of adaptability to the challenges of time. The author reveals the moral concepts and categorical apparatus that are essential for the formation of the magisterial doctrine in its modern form. Within the Russian research practice, the materials of the Catholic Magisterium has not previously become the subject of a separate in-depth examination as special group of philosophical-religious texts. The set of papal doctrinal documents dedicated to euthanasia is studied in the chronological aspect, as well as in light of the development of the socio-philosophical value system of Catholicism. The article employs virtually all documents that are of key importance for studying the establishment of the Roman doctrine of euthanasia. Many text, namely of the last two decades, are introduced into the Russian-language scientific discourse for the first time. The conclusion is made that the social transformations become a serious challenge for the conceptual core of the Magisterium, and force the Vatican theology to reason out the renewed system of argumentation in the post-secular and anti-clerical space of the Western society.
Question at hand
Ilin P.A. - Metaphorical truth and neopragmatic realism of Richard Rorty pp. 46-58

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.35416

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of neopragmatic realism of Richard Rorty through the prism of the concept of metaphorical truth of Paul Ricoeur. The key goal lies in the attempt to fill the “black box of reality” in the philosophy of R. Rorty with the methodological instruments derived from the concept of metaphorical truth of P. Ricoeur. Having dedicated certain time to describing the core ideas of R. Rorty, the author analyzed the methodology of P. Ricoeur regarding the problem of reality and the cognitive opacity of language characteristic to the system of the American philosopher. The author seeks to determine the common and contradictory aspects in methodology of both philosophers for the purpose of conducting the substitution of the elements of Rorty’s philosophy that is organic for the entire logical construct, concluding on the cognitive opacity of language and elements of Ricoeur’s thoughts that lead to backward reasoning. The crucial element is the idea of “physis” borrowed by Ricoeur from Aristotle for ontological substantiation of the concept of metaphorical reality. Namely this idea that becomes the key to recoding of the philosophical system of R. Rorty to what can be called full realism in the philosophical sense. As a result of application of the idea of “physis” to Rorty's philosophy, the author finds the way to saturate the concept of reality with certain ontological content; however, this content is not susceptible to structural description, and thus does not allow solving the problem of cognitive opacity of language characteristic to Rorty's philosophy. Nevertheless, the application of P. Ricoeur’s concept of metaphorical truth to the philosophical system of R. Rorty in the context of ontological problem of accessing reality is the original tactic of reasoning that has not been previously implemented within the scientific and philosophical circles. Although one of the advanced hypothesis that suggests the possibility of substantiation of the cognitive opacity of language was being refuted, the concept of P. Ricoeur allowed saturating the concept of reality of the American philosopher with the ontological content.
Kerimli N.I. - Artistic image of a woman in the culture of Azerbaijan pp. 59-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.36084

Abstract: The subject of this research is the image of the Azerbaijani woman. The centuries-long history has explored the female images in artistic culture, where female characters are in the limelight. Since the ancient times, Azerbaijani women have been actively engaged in social governance, culture, science, and art; felt the beauty of nature raising it to the level of the phenomenon of cultural life. The article also describes the current state, obstacles, problems, and opportunities of Azerbaijani women in folk art. The Turkic women do not blindly follow the principles of the Sharia, but rather guided by the moral principles of Islam, which broadens their cultural mindset. It is concluded that the female image in evolution of the artistic culture of Azerbaijan plays a crucial role in upbringing and spiritual enrichment of the world. The history of the Turkic culture has created the female images that refute the idea that women's creativity is the second grade art. In folklore, which is the product of artistic thinking and mythological consciousness of the Turkic people, women are depicted with the greatest regard. Female image is illustrated in various forms of art. One of the core indicators of the improvement of spirituality and artistic-aesthetic worldview of the Turkic people is the examples of anthropomorphic plastic art depicting female image in the ancient national artistic thought.
History of ideas and teachings
Dzhokhadze I.D. - Neopragmatism as Lebensphilosophie pp. 65-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2021.7.36042

Abstract: This article analyzes the modern American pragmatism as “uniform in its diversity” movement of the philosophical thought. The author reveals the differences between neopragmatism and classical pragmatism, the key of which consists in transformation of representation of the American philosophers on the specificity of their discipline, purpose of philosophy, and its role within the system of sciences. The classics, such as C. S. Peirce, J. Dewey, C. I. Lewis, referring to instrumental success and practical orientation of natural science, viewed the contemporary to them technoscience as a model for the philosophical research, while the neopragmatists rely on the cultural studies and hermeneutics. The problems of substantiation of knowledge, verification, logical analysis, scientific experimental proof/disproof of hypotheses, which drew the interest of the classics of pragmatism, are being replaced with the problematic of dialogue, interpretation, and social communication. The associated with it “communological trend” of neopragmatism found drastic reflection in ethnocentrism of R. Rorty. The author highlights the characteristic features and trends in the development of nonclassical pragmatism in the United States and Europe, as well as assesses its current state is assessed. prospects. The conclusion is made on the substantial heuristic potential of pragmatist tradition and possibilities of its effective convergence with other philosophical trends and schools: as “method of settling disputes” (W. James), neopragmatism considering the demand for its ideas and growing popularity among the European philosophers, can make certain contribution to the convergence and mutual enrichment of the Anglo-American analytical and continental philosophy, as well as overcoming the schism between the two intellectual traditions.
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