Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 12/2021
Contents of Issue 12/2021
Philosophy of religion
Nesterkin S. - Formation of the image of Buddhism in Russia (the end of the XIX the beginning of the XX centuries) pp. 1-7


Abstract: This article examines the sources of formation of the image of Buddhism in the Russian cultural environment and determine the degree of representativeness of this image. The author highlights the three main sources: 1) academic research works of the Western Schools of Buddhology (based on Pāli and Sanskrit material); 2) research conducted within the framework of the Russian School of Buddhology (based primarily on Tibetan- and Mongolian-language material); 3) research of the Orthodox Russian missionaries. It is determined that the fundamental theoretical position developed by the Anglo-Germanic School of Buddhology is the thesis on authenticity of Theravada Buddhism, which is considered as “initial”, and its other forms (such as Mahayana, Vajrayana) are considered as its later modifications that emerged under the influence of external factors. The key features of Buddhism in Buddhology imply that: 1) Buddha Shakyamuni was not a transcendent being; 2) his nirvana is understood nihilistically, as a complete cessation of the process of being; 3) Buddhism, denies the existence of soul; 4) the existence of God and the representation of the transcendent are also denied. Despite the fact that the studies of Mahayana and Vajrayana material indicated inadequacy of such assessment, these theses were reproduced over again. This is explained by the interest of significant social groups in such image of Buddhism: many Orthodox figures interpreted Buddhism as a philosophical-ethical, rather than religious system; atheistically-oriented scholars and scientifically-oriented public also supported such interpretation. The rational aspects of Buddhism, which give common grounds with science, were uncritically absolutized; Buddhism was viewed as an ally of scientific thinking, completely alien to faith.
History of ideas and teachings
Lysenko V. - To be liberated the Vaisheshika way, or the Vaisheshika attempt at a Negative Soteriology by the Indian school of philosophy pp. 8-14


Abstract: The article examines the original concept of the Vaisheshika school, criticized by other Indian philosophers, according to which Self (Atman), freed from the bonds of rebirth (saṃsāra), is a pure substance (dravya), devoid of consciousness, which is believed to be its impermanent quality (guna); the opponents compared the Vaisheshika's liberated Self with a stone or a log. The author proposes an explanation of the Vaisheshika liberation doctrine (soteriology) within the framework of its categoriology, in which consciousness and Atman belong to different categories, respectively, guna and dravya. Vaisheshika proclaims knowledge of the six categories to be the highest spiritual goal (nihshreyasa), which, in turn, comes from the pure Dharma (Merit). The reason why the Vaisheshikas felt obliged to add a pure Dharma as the final step towards liberation (which distinguishes Vaisheshika from other schools, emphasizing the soteriological value of knowledge) is explained by assuming the Dharma's capacity to overcome a dichotomy of merit-demerit (dharma-adharma) as the main factor responsible for the rebirth of an embodied ātman. The pure Dharma, due to all the positive karmic energy accumulated during countless reincarnations of the soul, arises at the very last moment in a person's life to purufy his/her true Atman from the law of karma and rebirth. Since nothing can be said about Atman's future, it is not a "liberation for", but a "liberation from", which can be called a "negative soteriology".
The torment of communication
Katunin A.V. - Inappropriate arguments as a communication technology: types, peculiarities, and countering mechanisms pp. 15-32


Abstract: This article is dedicated to such type of communication technology as inappropriate arguments. Special attention is given to clarification of the key concepts of the topic – “argumentation”, “appropriateness”, “inappropriateness”, and “context”. The original classification is provided to the types of inappropriate arguments. The author reveals the contextual peculiarities of using different types of inappropriate arguments; analyzes the specificity of using inappropriate arguments; as well as offers possible countering mechanisms. Particular examples of using incorrect arguments are confirmed by links to recorded live dialogues. The article employs the methods of intent analysis and comparative analysis. The Russian tradition of studying the theory and practice of argumentation features a number of research that touch upon the problem of inappropriate arguments. However, the study of arguments is just a part of the whole variety of communication technologies. The novelty of this work consists in the centralized, systematized presentation of the assemblage of variations of inappropriate arguments. The types of inappropriate arguments are illustrated on the specific examples from literature, cinematography, cultural -historical, social and political spheres of society. The acquired results can be valuable for the development of lecture courses on the theory and practice of argumentation, students majoring in philosophy, and audience interested in modern research dedicated to communication technologies.
The rational and the irrational
Stavitskiy A.V. - Epistemological approaches of nonclassical science and the general theory of myth pp. 33-42


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of epistemological approaches offered by nonclassical science towards the ontology of myth in the context of nonclassical mythology. Myth is viewed as a basic cultural universal, responsible for the semantic field of culture; while mythopoeia is perceived as a characteristic and important function of consciousness. The goal of this article lie in outlining the opportunities opened to the researchers of myth in the context of shift of the scientific paradigm. It is namely thanks to the scientific paradigm that mythological space of culture is no longer perceived as the antagonist of science, but as the essential aspect of its effective functionality. Methodological framework is comprised of the approaches developed and accepted in nonclassical science. Examination of myth through the prism of nonclassical science reveals new perspectives that allow studying myth as an integral whole, without separating into scientific disciplines. It should be taken into account that myth plays a significant, although not always positive role in science and society, interacting with science upon the principle of mutual complementarity. In particular, myth helps to advance and substantiate the scientific hypotheses, form scientific worldviews and images of the future. The approaches of nonclassical mythology, in turn, reveal that in the modern conditions, myth becomes the instrument of politics and the method for solving social issues, manifesting as a factor of national security and mechanism for manipulation. However, its further study requires the development of the universal theory of myth, the basic prerequisites of which have already been created.
Philosophy of science
Chechetkina I.I. - Interpretation in theoretical chemistry (on the example of quantum chemistry and classical theory of structure pp. 43-53


Abstract: The subject of this research is the method of interpretation in theoretical chemistry as a combination of cognitive procedures and approaches on the example of interaction of the classical theory of structure and quantum chemistry within the framework of their history and logic of development. It is demonstrated that the process of interpretation encompasses several historical stages of the development of quantum chemistry, marking the transition from meaningful symbolic concepts of the theory of structure towards formal-logical quantum-chemical terms, and the reverse interaction of these theories – the implementation of the latter into the theory of structure. The interpretational method in quantum chemistry contributes to the construction of more complex mathematical schemes underlying the natural scientific content. Such schemes include various approximations and assumptions, as well as the elements of arbitrariness in selection of the mathematical schemes by the theoretician, which reduces the accuracy of explanations and predictions of quantum chemistry. The object of this research is the methodology of theoretical chemistry, in terms of which takes place the interaction between quantum chemistry and classical theory of structure, their cognitive abilities, structure and dynamics of theoretical knowledge. The novelty lies in the fact that the interpretation in natural sciences is yet to be fully research; the study of interpretation in the context of constructivist approach in the philosophy of science allows revealing the logical-methodological and gnoseological aspects of interpretation. The acquired results contribute to the methodology of chemistry, epistemology, and philosophy of science. It is concluded that the process of interpretation is the construction of more complex mathematical schemes, which leads to the gap between mathematical and natural scientific content of the concepts; between mathematical description, natural-scientific theoretical representations, and experiment. The gap is accompanied by origination of the new concepts of quantum chemistry as a result of integration of the various fields of knowledge and extinction of concepts of the classical theory of structure, as well as determination of the limits of mathematical method in chemistry.
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