Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 09/2020
Contents of Issue 09/2020
Philosophy of knowledge
Shimelfenig O.V. - Problem of quasi-boundaries in the Universe and its projection upon life pp. 1-13


Abstract: Modern science and culture reappraises the objectivistic-materialistic paradigm towards considering human and psychological factors in the worldview, which also leads to problematization of the concept of boundaries of the objects and phenomena in the Universe. Methodological tool for this research became the narrative-play paradigm based on the universal categories of plot, scenario, likeness, two-dimensionality and game, which generalizes the systemic approach, liberating it from a dangerous tendency towards objectivism and one-sided materialism; reveals the latent process of formation of shared life through interaction of individual perceptions, sensations, thoughts and actions. Leaning on the narrative-play methodology and polemics with the opponents, the author examines the concept of quasi-boundary (as there could be no absolute boundaries in the totally interconnected Universe), which determines the forms of material structures, as well as contradictory boundaries that appear to be the subject of various conflicts. Such approach expands the creative abilities of a person, contributing to the development of activity programs in various spheres of life: education, resolution of ethno-confessional issues, innovation management, personal growth, as well as solution of the crucial task that defines the fate of earth dwellers – upbringing each person in harmony of the spiritual and material, in understanding oneness of the Universe, their place within it, and personal responsibility for the shared present and future.
Natural philosophy
Tsypina L.V., Chenskikh E.P. - At the dawn of environmentalism: nature and human in the philosophy of R. W. Emerson pp. 14-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophy of nature of Ralph Waldo Emerson as one of the reputable sources of modern environmentalism. The object of this research is the philosophy and body of texts of the American transcendentalism. The authors examine the aspects of Emerson's natural philosophy, due to which his outlook upon nature became in demand by such reputable areas of modern thought as deep ecology, ecocriticism, and environmental ethics. Special attention is turned to the analysis of Emerson's essay “The Nature” that follows an ecocritical narrative, as well as historical origins and philosophical contexts of Emerson's anthropocentrism and values of environmental ethics. Analysis of paramount for the founder of American transcendentalism analogy of nature and man allows concluding that the used by Emerson weak version of anthropocentrism does not exclude holistic approach towards man as part of the natural world, and contains an ecological impulse that allows interpreting nature as a complex environment requiring different descriptive languages. The proposed by Emerson interpretation of nature as a “symbol of spirit”, realized through convenience, beauty, language and discipline, contains the anticipation of values of environmental ethics and allows seeing an apologist for ecosophy in the “Concord wiseman”.The authors’ special contribution consists in actualization of natural philosophy of R. W. Emerson as one of the reputable sources of environmentalism and consideration of his interpretation of human – nature relationship as a constructive components of the currently relevant environmental values. The scientific novelty consists in examination of Emerson’s ideas in the context of the ideas of ecocriticism and deep ecology, as well as in thematicization of the analogy of nature and man through the prism of environmental ethics.
Political philosophy
Podolskiy V. - Philosophy of social policy in Europe of the XVI century on the example of works of the Spanish thinker Juan Luis Vives pp. 28-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the European thought in the area of social policy in the early XVI century. The subject of this research is the ideas of Spanish philosopher Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) on helping to people in need. The article reviews the stance on social policy of the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives. His thoughts are analyzed in the context of the contemporary to him doctrines of the founders of Protestantism – Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli and Jean Calvin, as well as practices formed in the continental Europe and England in the XVI century. The teachings of theologians and philosophers of the XVI century are relevant within the framework of studying social policy from the perspective of ideas, as well as the history of institutions. The comparative-historical approach was applied for studying the practices in the area of social policy and their evolution. A discourse analysis is used for examination of Vives’ basic postulates alongside the ideas of the key philosophers of that time. The following conclusions were made: 1) despite the fact that a number of authors expressed similar ideas, Juan Luis Vives can be called the first theoretician of the social state 2) the establishment of social policy in the research literature is usually associated with Protestantism, but the theory was developed by the Catholic Vives, and the practical measures were implemented by the Catholic kings Carlos and Francis 3) Vives expressed the paramount idea of social policy – the state should prevent from marginalization of citizens in order to maintain social stability. At the same time, marginalization is caused by both, absence of help to the people in need or unwise rendering of assistance, which accustoms to idleness.
The dialogue of cultures
Rubets M.V. - Clash of the two types of rationality on the example of junction of Western and Chinese medicine (XIX XXI centuries) pp. 45-58


Abstract: This work reviews the clash and mutual knowledge of the traditions representing two types of rationality – Western and Chinese medicines upon their most considerable divergence (XIX century). The article describes the opinions of the representatives of Western analytical cognitive type in medicine regarding Eastern medical practices in the XIX century, which demonstrate rejection of the fact on the existence of medical science in Eastern tradition. The principles of translation of Western medical terminology into Chinese language developed by the English translator John Fryer are examined. The author provides the examples of application of scientific methods developed in the West for studying and verification of the achievements of Eastern medicine, as well as an attempt of implementation of automation and machine analysis in the Chinese medicine for establishment of diagnosis that help to assign appropriate therapy in the XXI century –  as an experience of interaction between the two types of rationality. The scientific novelty of consists in the analysis of the experience of junction and mutual knowledge of two civilizations in the aspect of medicine as a junction between two opposite types of rationality. An assumption is made on correlation between the existence of a logical law of non-contradiction that emerged in Western scientific worldview, and inability of the Western missionaries of the XIX century to recognize alternative medicine (same as correlation between absence of this law in Eastern philosophy and recognition of Western medicine as equal). Prevalence of analytical approach towards terminologization in holistic tradition in the work of John Fryer leads to the conclusion on inefficiency of inculcation of the approaches, methods and terminology developed in one tradition for assessment and development of another. The author suggests on the possible constructiveness of synergetic approach for the development of a new comprehensive knowledge.
Philosophy of technology
Popova A.V. - Impact of the idea of simple universal language for description of the world and calculation of thinking upon emergence of the project of Internet pp. 59-67


Abstract: The subject of this research is the idea of simple universal language for description of the world in its relation to the so-called calculative thinking. The idea of simple universal language became one of the core philosophical ideas that led to the emergence of the project of Internet. Most remarkable incarnation of the idea became the Characteristica universalis of Leibniz, intended as a project for clarification of the precise names of things in existence. Development of the project led Leibniz to the work with binary calculation, which is imparted with ontological meaning within the framework of correspondence of the philosopher with the missionary in China – Father Bouvet. The article analyzes the critical perspective upon Leibniz's philosophy as the representative of the new European calculative thinking. Research methodology is based on the correspondence of Leibniz and Father Bouvet, as well as retrospective analysis of evolution of the idea of universal language. The main conclusion consists in the thought that the idea of creation of simple universal language for describing the world through the number of historical interactions strongly affected origination of the Internet. Leibniz brings under deliberation the binary system of calculation, which he considers ontological and reflects the divine harmony of the world. The article also examines the criticism towards calculative new European thinking, formulating a conclusion that the attempt to replace reasoning with calculations and formalization does not always mean leveling things in existence to the state of objects, but rather represents one of the core vectors of thinking of the European man, and is associated with the ideas on the “great chain of existence”, completeness and continuity of all in the world.
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