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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 07/2020
Contents of Issue № 07/2020
Spivakov M. - The origin of visibility: Marie-José Mondzain, André Leroi-Gourhan on the establishment of image, speech and desire pp. 1-9


Abstract: This article examines the elements of the philosophy of image of Marie-José Mondzain in light of the problem of relation between image, speech and desire. Although the main subject of Mondzain’s research is the iconic image and correlation between patristic concept of depiction and the modern technical regimes of its production and circulation, in a number of work she turns from the analysis of iconic image to studying the phenomenon of rock painting, analyzing interrelation and difference of the ability to production and performance of the image and speech. In these works, proceeding from the paleoanthropological theory of André Leroi-Gourhan, Mondzain analyzes the process of production and performance of rock painting as an event that defines the movement of anthropogenesis and forms human as a “desiring and speaking spectator”. The philosophy of image of Marie-José Mondzain is usually analyzed in the context of constructs of the modern French phenomenology and its “theological turn”. At the same time, a synthetic in its nature project of Mondzain sidesteps from the unambiguous affiliation with one or another philosophical tradition. This article reviews the elements of Mondzain’s philosophy of image not only in the context of paleoanthropological theory of André Leroi-Gourhan, but also a number of position of the philosophy of Jacques Derrida and Jean-François Lyotard, genetically connected with the phenomenological tradition of projects, but overcoming it in their own way. The analyzed in such context research of Marie-José Mondzain allow clarifying the meaning of invisibility, hollowness in structure of the image, attribution of the image to a speech or visible sign, and transformation of desire in the process of production and performance of the image.
History of ideas and teachings
Anikin S.A. - Role of the method of divination in hermeneutics of F. Schleiermacher pp. 10-21


Abstract: This article examines the method of divination proposed by Friedrich Schleiermacher as one of the key means of interpretation. In literature dedicated to the philosophical views of Schleiermacher, this method is often associated with the intuitive grasp or empathy. However, Schleiermacher himself associated it primarily with creativity and ability of imagination. In order to clarify the meaning of the concept divination and a method related thereto, it is necessary to refer to a course of lectures of the philosopher devoted to dialectics. These lectures describe the method of divination as the main tool of cognizing surrounding reality, which establishes the link between dialectics and hermeneutics and allows reading Schleiermacher’s hermeneutics as hermeneutics of being. In the course of this research, the author made an attempt of original interpretation of Schleiermacher’s texts leaning on the development of modern Western scholars, whose works did not receive due attention within the Russian academic community. The result of this work lies in the restored and structured philosophical concept of Friedrich Schleiermacher, which centers on the method of divination. The obtained materials can be applied in the area of historical-philosophical study of the thoughts and ideas of German romantic philosophy of the XIX century. The examined in the article philosophical ideas of F. Schleiermacher allow getting a new perspective upon the problems of language, dialogue, understanding and interpretation.
Ravochkin N.N., Baumgarten M.I., Porkhachev V.N. - From “The Problem of the Ideal” of E. V. Ilyenkov to research of ideas within the modern social philosophy pp. 22-44


Abstract: This article analyzes the results of studying the ideal and ideas since the Soviet time (intellectual geritage of E. V. Ilyenkov) until the present. The authors examine a discussion between Ilyenkov and Dubrovsky that unfolded around the problem of the ideal. Special attention is given to the ideological reception and evolution of representations on the ideal in accordance with the historical framework. Depending on affiliation of the representatives of one or another intellectual tradition, the ideas was interpreted from the perspective of three approaches: activity (E. V. Ilyenkov), information (D. I. Dubrovsky), and ontognoseological (M. A. Lifshitz). It is noted that these trends are primary for the modern Russian philosophical thought as well. The scientific novelty consists in the establishment of coherence for development of problematic of the ideas in modern social philosophy. Emphasis is made on continuity of representations on the ideas of foreign and national researchers. The acquired results demonstrate that currently, there are very few works that in some way explore ideas; this category is predominantly used applicable to philosophical heritage of certain groups of intellectuals. The conducted review of the literature illustrates underestimation of determination potential of the ideas as the results of cognitive activity in the aspect of carrying out social reforms.
Social philosophy
Blokhina N.V. - Socio-philosophical understanding of transformation of family in the dynamics of civilization over the period from Middle Ages to Modern Age pp. 45-58


Abstract: Understanding of reasons and consequences of ongoing transformations with modern institution of the family is impossible without gaining insight into the processes, results and concept of changes that rook place with the family in its historically observable past. The subject of this research is the family and transformation of functions of the family in a historical context. The author conducts a socio-philosophical comparative analysis in compliance with the principle of systematicity and value of functions of the family through structural-comparative analysis of a historical type of medieval family with three ideal models of transitional historical periods from Middle Ages to Modern Age. The utopic concepts of T. More, T. Companella and F. Bacon served as the foundation for this research. Having examined the acceptable for philosophers types of family structure at various stages of the indicated historical period, the author determines dominant factors that affected the qualitative and essential changes of internal environment of the family as a small group, as well as structural-functional changes of the family as an institution, which led to transformation of the family and its functions. The author sees family as the basis of harmonious and happy life of an individual and a source of social well-being. The article is written from the perspective of familialism and viewed as a social institution. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of the historical type of family with hypothetical models of family, reflected in philosophical texts of this historical period, in order to determine the dominants that transform family, and establish the peculiarities of emergence of socio-philosophical concepts of studying institution of the family depending on social processes in the historical context of development. Such approach allow identifying the inward nature of structural relationships “individual – family – society – government” in a specific society.
Tolkachev P., Davtyan T.A. - Althusser’s turn in Marxism and its meaning for the social theory pp. 59-71


Abstract: Rehabilitation of Marxist thought present in Althusser’s compilation of the articles titled by catching appeal “For Marx” is carried out in two directions: general – when theoretical line of understanding of the society and history is derived out of Marxism as political ideology; specific – when revealing the “ rational kernel” of Marxist philosophy of history or society, Althusser extracts dialectical contradiction rooted it his methodology of basis and superstructure. The subject of this research is the hermeneutic project of Althusser aimed at new interpretation of the Marxist philosophy of history, as well as elucidation of the “absence” of dialectical turn in Marx’s continuity of Hegel’s philosophy. The object of this article is the new methodology of social research oriented towards finding additional meanings of the principle of overdetermination, which allows Althusser to reconsider the Marxist method of basis and superstructure in a structuralistic way. The essence of its rehabilitation criticism (criticism of elimination of false understanding of Marxist philosophy) consists in the fact that the latter contributed to neglecting the superstructure and led the research to acknowledgement of its nature as a nonexistent phantom, illusion, behind which lies the only true reality resembled by the determinant of economic formations.
Social dynamics
Igosheva M.A. - Economic resource of ethnic identity in the conditions of current migration processes pp. 72-84


Abstract: The object of this research is the problem of confrontation between the traditional forms of economic activity of ethnocultural communities and unifying effect of economic integration in the context of migration processes. The establishment of world economic system in the modern conditions of global transformation created an unprecedented level of interdependence of the economies of nation states and general rules of their functioning. At the same time, the traditional forms of economies that are greatly affected by ethnic factor also retain. The author explores such questions as definition of the concepts “ethnic economy” and “ethnic entrepreneurship” within the scientific discourse, the factors of emergence of these economic phenomena, proclivity of particular ethnoses for commercial activity and small business. Special attention is paid to the analysis of ethnic entrepreneurship as a form of economic activity of local communities in the foreign cultural space. It is demonstrated that being in a new social environment and attempting to adjust to it, the representatives of ethnic group occupy free zones in economic system of the country, or create own forms of economic activity related to cultural traditions of the ethnos. The acquires results allow to theoretically substantiate that ethnic identity has a strong economic potential, which manifests in the forms of ethnic economy, ethnic entrepreneurship, and stimulates the process economic adaptation of migrants in the accepting society. Affiliation to a particular ethnocultural community significantly influences economic behavior of the people; its specificity is defined by the set of historical, cultural, and economic and living conditions of the ethnos. Economic potential of ethnic identity is substantiated by a number of factors: historically established forms of organization of economic activity of the ethnos; preservation of economic structure due to localization of life of the traditional communities; reproduction of the tested model of economic behavior; specifics of economic culture with the value orientations of a local ethnic community.
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