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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Man and mankind
Alenevskiy K.A. - Hypothesis of a communist subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou. The author reveals the thesis on the subject of truth, different from human as an animal; as well as examines the modern ideology of humanism and human rights that support the existing anthropological trend of dehumanization, turning of human into an animal, driven by the principle of enjoyment foredooming humanity to death. Such state of things is a consequence of annihilation of the subject-object division and Cartesian philosophy of mind. The so-called “hypothesis of Communism” is viewed as an alternative, which describes Communism as an eternal idea, capable of realizing in the new historical circumstances. The author establishes a link between the theory of the subject of truth and the “Communist hypothesis” in the works of Alain Badiou. The research methodology contains the reconstruction of key positions of the concept of subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou, and the analytics of the main development stages and criticism of the concept of subject in modern works dedicated to the anthropological dynamics of current civilization. The conclusion is made that the cognizing subject or the subject of truth has a hypothetical or unstable character of existence; turning of human into an animal annuls the figure of the rational and reformative in accordance with the truth of subject’s world. The thesis on elimination of division into the subject and object leads to a gradual animalization of a human. The criticism of such elimination is the consideration of subject as a result of the event-driven origination of truths in science, politics and art. The subject is viewed as possessing a character of exclusion from the sphere of bare life. Such approach advances a thought asserting the return of Communism.
History of ideas and teachings
Gashkov S.A., Rubtсova M.V. - Apology of ineffective subject: In the footsteps of M. Foucault pp. 11-23


Abstract: This article is dedicated to fundamentals of the social criticism of the prominent French philosopher Michel Foucault(1924-1986). The author begins with the “duality” of non-European subject, which on one hand, manifests as the carrier of the “relation to truth” appearing in “techniques” and “technologies” of itself; while on the other hand, represents a subject of spiritual self-analysis and “care of itself”. The author believes that such duality justifies the evolution of Foucauldian interpretation of power: from disciplinary concept of power, Foucault shifts towards the concept of “biopower”, outlining the field of the future social criticism. But does the subject, in Foucault’s opinion, becomes “ineffective” as a subject of social action? This work carries mostly a historical-philosophical character, leaning on the comparison of Foucault’s texts of various periods, as well as some of his successors (Laval, Budet, Balibar), and scholars (Bourdain, Metzger, Pizzorno). The author also touches upon the questions of history and theory of sociology. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt of rationalize Foucault’s philosophical thought in a particular context of scientific paradox that introduces a complex dialectical and critical social theory, never created by the author. The subject contains not only the “technology of truth”, but also “spirituality”; the power – not only “disciplinarity”, but also “governmentality”. It is concluded that, according to Foucault, the ineffectiveness of social action at the present day functionally depends on the potential intellectual criticism of the fundamentals of modernity. Refraining from the social action, the “ineffective subject” commits the process of critical conceptualization.
Dzhokhadze I.D. - Deflationary comprehension of truth and the problems of substantiation of knowledge in neopragmatism pp. 24-35


Abstract: On the example of “ethnocentrism” of R. Rorty, this article analyzes one of the most controversial and discussible in the modern philosophical literature versions of deflationary solution of the problem of truth and rational substantiation of knowledge. Opposing the metaphysical hypostatization of truth, considering it a ”mere concept”, the American philosopher, nevertheless, concedes the possibility of using the predicate of truth in the negatively-limited, fallibilistic meaning – as a cautionary reference to the future plausible refutation. Analysis of the concept alongside the discussions unfolding around it, allow concluding that in the question about truth, Rorty does not move far beyond from the pragmatism of C. S. Pierce, as he thinks he does. Virtually, in his gnoseology Rorty leans on Pierce’s theory of truth as a “final faith of scientific community; he does not decline transensus, a transition from “worse”, less substantiated and valid knowledge to the “better”, more substantiated and valid. From the perspective of common (scientific, philosophical, political, moral, etc.) sense, which may imply only one thing – approaching the objective truth.
Philosophy of religion
Zhirtueva N. - Synthesis of yoga ideas in the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi pp. 36-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is the teaching of the Indian sage Sri Ramana Maharshi, which yet did not receive sufficient coverage in the scientific literature. It is viewed in the context of processes of modernization of India’s philosophical-religious thought of the XX century, characterized by the proneness to synthesis of the ideas of various schools of Indian thought. The analysis of the teaching is conducted in accordance with the three vectors: 1) the essence of Absolute reality; 2) correlation between the ideal and material being; 3) methods of mystical psychopractice. The research methodology contains the comparative philosophical-theological analysis; comparative-analytical analysis; synthesis, generalization, individualization, historical narrative. In the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi, the author determined the desire to find an answer to spiritual questions of that time through synthesizing such philosophical-religious traditions as Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga. The teaching of Maharashi is also an immanent (non-theistic) monistic mystical tradition. The basic methods of mystical practice include the meditative contemplation (Vichara, Neti neti), and the love-trust to the Absolute (Bhakti).
Jawish O. - St. Augustine’s doctrine on faith and reason: content and evolvement pp. 44-49


Abstract: This article examines the problem of correlation between faith and reason in the philosophy of St. Augustine. The author describes the concepts of faith and reason at the various stages of evolution the philosopher’s views; as well as determines the meaning of dialogue, reason and faith for the spiritual evolution of St. Augustine. The scientific novelty reflects that the synthesis of faith and reason has a split-level character: the interaction between faith and reason takes place at the basic, median and theoretical levels. The main conclusion lies in revelation of the role of philosophical dialogues in formation of the more complex forms of synthesis of faith and reason, standing on the basic forms of faith-reason relationship in St. Augustine’s doctrine. It is determined that the dialogueness of his mentality will find reflection in his address to God. The research methodology includes the systemic-historical method, principle of synthetic unity of faith and reason, as well as the idea of dialogueness of philosophy.
Controversy and debate
Kutyrev V.A., Slyusarev V.V., Khusyainov T.M. - I am an anthropo-conservator: want do remain human…for as long as possible pp. 50-61


Abstract: This research is dedicates to the discussion of V. V. Slyusarev and T. M. Khusyainov with V. A. Kutyrev on his new book “The Owl of Minerva Flies at Twilight” (selected philosophical texts of the XXI century; SPb “Aleteya”, 2018). The article considers the impact of the unfolding Fourth Industrial Revolution upon the future opportunities of humans. V. A. Kutyrev leans on the conservative representation on human as a patrimonial creature, whose corporeal nature conflicts with the scientific and technical progress. The author examines admissibility and boundaries of transformation of human due to the innovative technologies. The discussion contains the analytical and hermeneutic methods, comparative and critical approaches of philosophizing. V. A. Kutyrev defends the anthropo-conservative vector in philosophy, which key value is the human in combination of his manifestations as biological, social, and creative being. It is demonstrated that the modern trends (digitalization, feminization, and effacing of boundaries between genders, and transformation of philosophy into STS) lead to degrading of human, reducing his biological and creative beginnings to the minimum. In order to retain human identity, it is necessary to establish the system of conscious control over technological development, in the context of which the philosophy must exercise not only methodological, but also axiological role.
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