Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 08/2018
Contents of Issue 08/2018
Question at hand
Sharov K.S. - Construction of the systems of gender power: the peculiarities of the discourse of favoritism pp. 1-7


Abstract: Using the example of gender power relations structured by Marquise Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour, mistress of the French King Louis XV, most famous favorite in history, the article analyzes the female power discourses and complex systems of the gender social roles that were developed by the mistresses – women who possesses a “shadow” social and political power. The goal of this work lies in examination of the typical strategies of gender power, structure by the royal favorites, using the example of Marquise de Pompadour, in which a male was included into the decentralized system of female authority. The article determines the basic regularities of establishment of the system of gender power roles by the mistresses and codification of a number of social statuses. It is demonstrated that the system of the formation of such roles corresponds to the Lacanian triad: Symbolic-Imaginary-Real. The symbolic level of the gender roles for a mistress that possessed shadow authority is the language field. The imaginary – is the formed by woman cultural traditions. The real – is the created by a woman social and political administrative strategies that include the involvement of males as the subjects of female decentralized authority into the system of gender power relations projected by a mistress. It is concluded that favoritism as a complicated social, psychological and cultural phenomenon is one of the most successful methods of manifestation of the female “shadow” authority in history.  
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Gashkov S.A. - The problem of interpretation of the Ancient Greek civilization. Castoriadis and Mamardashvili: between structuralism and hermeneutics. pp. 8-20


Abstract: Modern philosophers often not only refer to the classical studies, but also are impacted by the philosophers of Classical Antiquity. At the same time, the two strategies are possible: hermeneutic that recognizes the fundamental importance of classical civilization revealed through interpretation of its leading texts, and structural-anthropological that aspires to elucidate the succession of civilization. The subject of this research is examination of the presence of both strategies in comparison of interpretation of the classical (Ancient Greek) civilization in the works of two distinct philosophers of the XX century:  Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997) and Merab Mamardashvili (1930-1990). The basis for such comparison serves the attention of the Greek-Frencj and Soviet-Georgian thinkers to the fundamental questions of studying the Ancient Greek civilization: shift from myth to logos, emergence of philosophy and democratic institutions, role of tragedy, religion, and civil valor and laws of self-consciousness and self-determination of the Ancient Greeks. The following conclusions were made: 1) philosophy of the XX century, particularly Castoriadis and Mamardashvili, denies to see in Classical Antiquity a naïve and contemplative stage of European civilization, referring to the ancients as an independent source of social cognition and ontological inquiry; 2) for both thinkers is became impossible to analyze only the rational aspect of classical philosophy, not taking into account the mythology and tragic worldview of the Ancient Greeks, as well as the specificity of their society; 3) examining the phenomenon of “Greek miracle”, Castoriadis focuses on the collective symbolic mechanisms of the emergence of Ancient Greek democratic institutions, while Mamardashvili is interested in the individual symbolism of the Ancient Greek philosophical reasoning. The author underlines that the reconstruction of the Ancient Greek mentality unambiguously contributed to the formation of professional and sociocultural identity of the modern intellectuals.
Philosophy of knowledge
Vorobev D.N. - Genealogy of truth. To the question of social legitimation of epistemological realism pp. 21-33


Abstract: The opponents of epistemological constructivism traditionally accuse it of relativism, the desire to serve society, rather than the objective reality. In response to such accusations, leaning on the principle of sociology of knowledge, the author explores the question of social legitimation of the position of epistemological realism. The article analyzes the content of the two competitive paideia projects – Isocrates and Plato, in the aspects of correlation between the key notions of the virtue, power and truth. As a result of the victory of Plato’s project were formed the dispositions of metaphysical realism. A conclusion is made that the strive for cognizing the objective truth is an intrinsic component of elitaristic ideology in Plato’s metaphysics. The ideology of elitarism was complementary to monarchical regimes; it ensured social legitimation of philosophy as intuition, called to nurture the mind and judge the truth. This research allows to better understand not only the contemporary discussions between the realists and constructivists, but also the sociocultural importance of metaphysical realism that for centuries became an example of the Western philosophy as such.
Characteristics of society
Koptelova T.I. - Interpretations of digital economy in mechanistic and organic philosophy pp. 34-42


Abstract: This article analyzes the concept of digital economy and the prospects of its development from the perspective of mechanistic and organic philosophy. The author examines such components of digital economy as the information communication technologies and NeuroWeb, “complemented” reality and “virtual” market. A danger of creating the abstract economy in Russia under the guise of digital and its negative features, namely deception and manipulation for the purpose of increasing exploitation, are being considered. The article explores the prospect of digital economy in terms of multicultural unity of Russia, as well as analyzes the possibility of establishment of digital infrastructure in the country, role of the government and creative participation of citizens in creation of economy of the future. The applied method of historical-philosophical reconstruction allows viewing the digital economy though referring to its historical evolution and possible interpretation as a phenomenon of social life, while the comparative analysis juxtaposes the various intellectual traditions and philosophical paradigms. The phenomenological methods within the framework of organic philosophy allow understanding the ideal essence of digital economy and include it to the context of national and universal traditions. The scientific novelty lies in the comparative examination of digital economy through the prism of mechanistic and organic philosophy. The paradigm of organic philosophy helps to realize the need for creativity as an intrinsic part of human existence and full-fledged economic activity. Spiritual creativity imparts the spontaneity and pliability of economy that encourages adaptation of the society (ethnos or nation) to the new circumstances and preserves the integrity of economic system, which is the foundation of the constructive, human and nature oriented digital economy.
Meaning and silence
Perunova N.V. - Word in revelation of human destiny: the reflection of St. Father Gregory Palamas heritage in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky pp. 43-53


Abstract: The object of this research is the works of F. M. Dostoevsky in the context of Gregory Palamas’ teaching on human destiny. The subject is Dostoevsky’s examination of the key contents of human consciousness: the moment of making a value choice in existential situation of the encounter with his true Self, and the establishment of such choice by the life fabrics of human fate, which is brought to focus by Dostoevsky in word of the character. The topic of the article is the revelation of human word as a result of spiritual battle, when a person can return to his real self. Methodology on one hand leans on the doctrine of Gregory Palamas on human destiny that reveals the dialectics of spiritual battle, flexibility of human consciousness, ability of a person to create the surrounding world; and on the other – founds on the works of M. M. Bakhtin dedicated to Dostoevsky’s poetics and analysis of the writer’s art of declamation. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of Dostoevsky’s works as a reflection in the art of declamation of the interaction between consciousness and reality, content and consequences of the spiritual battle. The following conclusions were made: 1) word as a content of consciousness is the human instrument for creating the world. It is capable of building or destroying a man and his surrounding world; 2) Dostoevsky’s description of the dialectics of word takes place in the dialogue-clash with the inner, intimate work and outside spoken word, on the background of the divine screen – existential encounter of a character with his own self; 3) world is the product of consciousness that makes an existential value choice.
Philosophical anthropology
Boyko M. - Simulation of pain and the typology of virtual realities pp. 54-61


Abstract: This article analyzes the problems of philosophical nature associated with simulation of pain in electronic virtual reality (EVR). Unlike other sensations, pain is characterized by certain threshold value, which results in neurogenic shock with possible fatal outcome (for example acute cardiac insufficiency). The author reviews the possibility of neurogenic shock in EVR and the caused by it death of an individual in generating reality. It is demonstrated that the solution of problem depends on the method of simulation of pain used in generating of the electronic virtual reality. A comparative analysis of the possible ways of simulating pain is conducted. Film art dedicated to the problem of virtual reality serves as a spectacular example. The author suggest the typology of EVR depending on the method of simulation of pain; the three main types are determined: 1) with equivalent simulation; 2) with modified simulation; 3) with transgressive simulation. Mathematical algorithm of modified simulation of pain in electronic virtual reality with the “virtual invulnerability” and “virtual immortality” is proposed.
Philosophy of technology
Baeva A. - The concept of D. Bairds material epistemology pp. 62-66


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to reconstructs the main positions of the concept of material epistemology of the contemporary scholar D. Baird on the example of his book “Thing knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments”. In modern scientific research, knowledge is understood as a homogenous field of propositional forms of perception, but rather a heterogeneous field of dynamic elements existing in the nonlinear and historically variable relations of coordination. Renunciation of the attempt to describe science as a whole leads, on one hand, to elimination of the problem of searching for the unified foundation of scientific knowledge allowing to focus on the particular scientific practices, namely laboratory practices, which are not reduced only to propositional form of the perception of knowledge. On the other hand, such renunciation problematizes the sociocultural factors of the formation of scientific knowledge. Instrumental realization of theoretical constructs becomes an intrinsic part of experimental science of Modern History: new equipment and technologies ensure science with actions that are not subordinate to nature beyond the tuned optics. Baird’s concept of material epistemology is based on the idea about knowledge that belongs to the thing themselves: equipment and instruments of scientific knowledge. This materialized knowledge defies the propositional description similar to the practices of the formation of knowledge. In terms of radical augmentation of the research objects and increase of the orders of reflection, instrumental epistemology becomes inseparable with the material ontology, perceiving the “thing knowledge” as a certain research artifact.
Philosophy of science and education
Timoshchuk E.A. - Phenomenology in modern education pp. 67-72


Abstract: The object of this research is the impact of phenomenological method upon modern education. The subject is the conceptual basis of Husserl’s teaching and possibilities of its implementation in education and upbringing: 1) subjectivity of phenomenology; 2) dialogueness of phenomenology; 3) sustainability of phenomenology; 4) principle of individuation in phenomenology. The author leans on the hypothesis that phenomenology of education cannot shift off the antinomies of modern education, such as massification/elitism, normativity/enthusiasm; routinization/ practical orientation. At the same time, despite all antinomies of the modern educational process, phenomenology can provide a student with understanding of life in the context of personal world, so that through cleansing the experience from overlaying of perceptions, he will be able to derive the most valuable for the future. The article attempts to reveal the phenomenology of education as a positive experience of self-individuation. The main axiological conclusions of phenomenology of education are the following: 1) individual genesis of a human that develops personal qualities, as well as forms the destiny through the sense of experience; 2) harmonization of the lifeworlds is possible through understanding of the strategy of description and hermeneutics of the Other; self-individualization shifts off the contradictions of the creative and formal, global and regional, humanitarian and technical; 4) procedures and practices of phenomenology of education is rooted in horizon of a lifeworld. The scientific novelty lies in application of the methodology of phenomenology (intentionality, lifeworld, reduction) to the realities of modern Russian education in form of the Unified State Exam, competent approach, academic standards, institutionality of education. The area of implementation of the results is the phenomenology of education, phenomenology of culture, and cross-cultural communication.
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