Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 07/2018
Contents of Issue 07/2018
Philosophy of religion
Smirnov I. - Is the theology of philosophy possible? Paradigms of the relationship between theology and philosophy pp. 1-17


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the relationship between theology and philosophy in sight of juxtaposition of the critical and speculative approaches. The object of this research is the theoretical concepts that reflect the paradigms of relationship between theology and philosophy within the history of thought, particularly over the period of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The author carefully examines such aspects of the topic as the typology of relationship between theology and philosophy according to S. Wszolek, correlation method in theology and philosophy in the “Systematic Theology” of P. Tillich, paradigms of relationship between theology and philosophy in the “diaspora” concept of D. Barber. Special attention is given to consideration of the concept of post-secularity and its impact upon the comprehension of relationship between theology and philosophy. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the speculative approach allows seeing the alternative to critical project through tracing the doctrinal unity of theology and philosophy. Since on one hand, the “Teos” in modern mentality can be not just the God, but also the incomprehensible, nirvana, khora, etc., thus theology can be “atheistic”, “after the death of God”, anatheism (R. Kearney); and on the other hand – the philosophical speculation of the truth and self-cognition reduces to analysis and assessment of the appropriateness of utterings, thus it is necessary to return the theology and philosophy their true source. The scientific novelty is defines in author’s proposition of the concept of the theology of philosophy as a fundamental interrogation underlying the theology and philosophy, and uniting, even through separation, the “God of religion” and the “God of philosophers”?
Space and time
Prozumentik K. - Hasdai Crescas versus Moses Maimonides: discussion about time in the medieval Jewish philosophy pp. 18-23


Abstract: The subject of this research the discussion about time and eternity between the two most prominent Jewish philosopher and theologians of the Middle Ages – Hasdai Crescas versus Moses Maimonides. Special attention is given to the concept of time proposed by Hasdai Crescas in his primary work “Or Adonai” (The Light of the Lord). It is demonstrated that the position of Crescas is largely similar to Neo-Platonic tradition of the interpretation of time (Plotinus, Iamblichus, Damascius), while the views of Maimonides on temporality contain the spirit of Aristotelian physics. The key research method is the hermeneutic approach to analyzing the texts in Ancient Jewish, Ancient Greek and Latin languages, as well as the comparative-historical method. The author comes to a conclusion that the clash of views between Moses Maimonides and Hasdai Crescas regarding the nature of time and eternity is a result of the fundamental disagreements of both thinkers in the question of the divine attributes and relationship between God and mortal plain.
History of ideas and teachings
Lutsenko V.E., Klimova O.M. - Maine de Biran the initiator of French philosophy of the XIX century pp. 24-29


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical doctrine of the French thinker of the early XIX century Maine de Biran. The subject is the views of the French philosopher upon the origin and nature of human cognition. The authors reveal the philosophical ideas of François-Pierre-Gontier Maine de Biran, who has traveled a long path in evolution of his ideas, and laid the foundation for the development of a new phase in French philosophy, turning it in a spiritualistic direction. Analyzing the doctrine of Maine de Biran, the authors prove that is was structured by means of independent considerations over the facts, as well as demonstrate its substantial impact upon the views of the prominent representatives of spiritualistic tradition in France –  Victor Cousin, Paul Janet, Felix Ravaisson, and the Russian theists, representatives of the Kazan Theistic School – V. A. Snegirev and V. I, Nesmelov
Philosophy of science
Surovyagin D.P. - The problem foundations of mathematics as a philosophical puzzle pp. 30-41


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the problem of foundations of mathematics in works of the representatives of logical empiricism and Wittgenstein. It is demonstrated that their solutions were original and significantly differed from the logicistic solution. If logicism suggests accepting this problem as a fact and develops the technical means for its circumvention, the logical empiricism tries to eliminate it as a pseudo-problem (and Wittgenstein as a philosophical puzzle) that occurred as a result of the intricacy of the language. Analyzing the problem of impredicative definition of mathematical concepts, the non-positivists and Wittgenstein acted in their usual role of analytical philosophers who clarify the meaning of the propositions of science. Textological analysis of the works of B. Russell, F. Ramsey, R. Carnap, P. Kaufman and L. Wittgenstein illustrates that neo-positivists and Wittgenstein grounded the solution of the problem of foundations of mathematics on the attempt of rectification of mathematical concepts (such as multiplicity, function, and definition), as well as initiating of mathematical and natural scientific discourses. Their approach is a vivid example of the analytical philosophy of science, if the philosophy of science is viewed as systematic comprehension of a certain scientific problem. The scientific novelty lies in identification of the elements of constructivism and finitism in the philosophy of mathematics of the aforementioned representatives of analytical philosophy. The author draws an original comparison between the positions of logicism, neo-positivism and Wittgenstein regarding the question of logical admissibility of the impredicative formation of concepts. Because the criticism of neo-positivists and Wittgenstein was aimed against the inaccurate application of the concepts, it is valuable in itself as a model of thought, despite the fact that at the time it did not lead to the revolutionary changes in mathematics.  
Social philosophy
Gonotskaya N. - Mass media in modern social communication space pp. 42-54


Abstract: This article examines the role of mass media in establishment of the modern social communication space. Special attention is given to the socio-philosophical concepts of G. Debord, P. Virilio, N. Postman, J. Baudillard, T. Adorno, M. Horkheimer, and H. Marcuse, which depict mass media as the power that “derealizes reality”, manipulates public opinion, as well as produces a destructive effect on personality. The analysis of ambivalent potential of media industry through referring to the works of the leading scholars in this area allows prudently assessing both – the critical theories that underline the negative impact of mass media; and the apologetic concepts of M. McLuhan and G. Vattimo that indicate the positive impact of mass media, resulting in establishment of a unified global communication space. The research demonstrates that the destructive role of mass media is quite exaggerated. Mass media design the global communication space, but their role lies not in imposing any truths or values upon the audience, but rather create the conditions for mutual understanding the consensus for an extensive circle of the subjects of communication, suggesting various discursive topics and discussion schemes.
Political philosophy
Nekhorosheva K. - Cartesian method the philosophical foundation of modern democracy? pp. 55-61


Abstract: This article examines the philosophical grounds of the modern concept of democracy on the basis of Cartesian tradition demonstrated in works of Alexis de Tocqueville and Jean-Paul Sartre. The philosophical-anthropological interpretation of Descartes by the two French thinkers of different generations raised new questions and offered new answers important for understanding the essence of Western democracy. They believed that the achievement of Descartes mostly lies in the fact that he posed the problem of free and independent reasoning, which is the foundation of democratic regime. The article applies the method of philosophical comparative studies, axiological and anthropological approaches. The author’s main contribution into the research of this topic is defined by the fact that he traced the French contribution into the American strategy of “self-sufficient” thought, and afterwards, having returned to the French context, examines what was exactly borrowed by the political theory and social knowledge that developed the idea of democracy within the methodological doubt of Descartes.
Philosophy of religion
Urbanaeva I.S. - The Buddhist ontology of gradual and sudden from the perspective of Mahayana: comparative coverage of Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions pp. 62-78


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Mahayana, which as commonly knows, was being transmitted in two directions: Tibet and Mongolian world (Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva), and Eastern Asia (China, Korea, Japan). Comparison of the two directions of Mahayana with regard to traditions lead to the question: why the mainstream of Indo-Tibetan Mahayana manifests as a “gradual” path to enlightenment, while the mainstream of Chinese / Far Eastern Mahayana as a “sudden” path; which one most vividly reflects Chan/Zen? For answering this question, the author analyzes the differences between Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions in terms of interpreting the Buddhist ontology. The scientific novelty consists in the subject itself – the ontological differences between the two directions of Mahayana that manifest in the alternative ways of conceptualization of the Path (gradual and sudden path to enlightenment), as well as in the method of philosophical cross-cultural analysis applied to the philosophical comparison of the two directions of Mahayana. A conclusion is made that the methods and content of philosophical interpretations of the basic Buddhist doctrines and substantiation of the path in Indo-Tibetan and Chinese Madhyamaka have significant differences, which require the further detailed analysis.
Mysteries of the human being
Gorokhov P.A., Yuzhaninova E.R. - Historiosophical representations in the works of Mikhail Bulgakov pp. 79-97


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-philosophical reconstruction of representations of M. A. Bulgakov concerning the paramount questions of the philosophy of history. The author particularly analyzes the writer’s views upon the following historicophilosophical problems: 1) meaning of history and the causes of historical catastrophes; 2) coincidences and regularities in the historical process; 3) physical and social death in history; 4) relationship between people and government, politics and ethics; 5) possibility of creating a new human during the turning periods in history; 6) role of personality in history. Mikhail Bulgakov expressed the original philosophy of history in his works. Not being systemically formulated, the historical representations of Bulgakov capture the paramount ontological questions of the historical process, among which are: the specificity of historical process and correlation between evolution and revolution within it; meaning and purpose of history; problem of freedom and must in history; possibility of creating a new human in the turning historical epochs; role of personality in history. Bulgakov interlinks the historiosophical reasoning and philosophical-anthropological, ethical and axiological thoughts, creating the syncretic concept that is based on a distinct socio-philosophical anthropology. The key element in this concept is life, sufferings and death of a human, who desires to live, develops in accordance with the laws of evolution, rather than revolution – the social cataclysm that destroys the religious-ethical and value foundations in a human.
Dasein of the human being
Voronov V. - Existential grounds of human identity in the era of Gestell (base on the criticism and evolution of M. Heideggers ideas) pp. 98-106


Abstract: This article analyzes the problem of existential grounds of human identity in the context of technocratic challenges of modern era, among which are: temporality, ectaticism, connectedness of individual being with being of the Others. Attention is given to the existential meanings of mortality and temporality of the Other, which lie in the ontological moods of pain and anxiety. Such moods are defined as the ground of the genuine in various sociocultural identification. The specificity of modernity is determines within the framework of M. Heidegger’s philosophy of technology, in other words, the dominance of a particular way of human existence – Gestell. The anthropological risks along with the challenges of modern era are viewed as a possible enframed attitude towards any self-identifications. In the theoretical-methodological aspect, the article is based on the critical interpretation and evolution of M. Heidegger’s ideas associated with the project of existential analytics and philosophy of technology. The scientific novelty consists in application of the theoretical-methodological principles of Heidegger’s philosophy to the problem of human identity, which allows its examination from the existential perspective. At the same time, ontologically are viewed not only the moods originated by the fact of personal mortality, but also the fact of mortality of the Other.
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