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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Philosophy of love
Kuparashvili M.D., Vetrova-Deglan M.S. - Gender and love in Russian philosophy pp. 1-9


Abstract: The determination of peculiarities of comprehension of gender in the Russian philosophy and its inclusion into the philosophy of love is the main subject of this study. Specificity of Russian interpretation of gender problems has a more fundamental appearance and substantial anthological tone. The terminological apparatus for analyzing the issues of gender defines the crucial otherness of the Russian philosophy. The factors, revealing the Orthodox sounding of questions, that are associated with the gender and love, provide a more in-depth analysis of the topic. The authors examine the various aspects of love: as a universal law, passion, and eros. Methodology contains the historical approach and method of conceptual analysis of the authors who dedicated their works to the subject of gender and love. A profound ethical analysis of the key notions along with the extensive attention to the bio-physiological aspect of the phenomenon of love sublime it to joy, compassion, and sincere desire of the good. Comprehension of love as the universal virtue or cosmic greatness can become a moral foundation of the revival and preservation of humaneness.
Krapenitckii A. - The Stoic in dialectics of Aurelius Augustinus: Contra Academicos, 3.13.29. pp. 10-16


Abstract: The academic skepticism was foremost directed against the Stoic philosophy. However, in all successfulness of academicians regarding the denial of the majority of Stoic doctrine, they however, could not refute the developed by the Stoics formal identity of self-consciousness, and on the contrary, relied on it. This, Aurelius Augustinus in his treatise “Against the Academicians” demonstrates this indispensable moment in Stoics’ logics, and reinterprets it in his own dialectics for the purpose of refuting the skepticism. The article begins with description of the general attitude of skeptics to the Stoic doctrine; proceeds with the brief characteristics of Stoic logics; and having comprehended the Stoic dialectics, focuses attention on the section Contra Academicos, detecting the common and separating nuances between the Augustinus’ thought and Stoicism. The author ascertains that in his treatise against the skeptical thought, Augustinus indeed resorts to the formal identity of self-consciousness, which the skeptics were not able to overcome. Therefore, he retains this conquest of antiquity, which was later developed in the speculative form of Neo-Platonism, also inherent to Augustinus.
Cycles and tides in the global world
Ursul A.D. - Globalistics and globalization studies: formation of the new integrative directions pp. 17-29


Abstract: The author demonstrates that globalistics acquires not only a disciplinary form of its existence and development, but also manifests the integrative intentions that expand the global sphere of scientific search. The article reviews a number of directions of this search, which can be qualified as interdisciplinary sections of globalistics, since they have been formed as a result of its interaction with the specific scientific disciplines. At the same time, attention is turned to the fact that each of the examined global processes and systems formed by them can become the source of emergence of a new direction (sector) of globalistics. The trends of the indicated globally integrative processes and especially the mechanisms of their expansion are considered. The author determines the external and internal sources of the "global synthesis" of knowledge, which carries not only interdisciplinary character, but is also a part of "internal" content of globalistics that is exemplified  by globalization studies included in globalistics. It is assumed that among the new integrative directions of globalistics may appear the sections that correspond to one or another global and globalizational processes and systems. This is one of the prioritized sources of the emergence of new directions for global research of not only interdisciplinary nature.
Philosophy of knowledge
Gashkov S.A. - Episteme as a path to knowledge. Heuristic potential of the concept of Foucault's episteme for socio-ontological conceptions of language and history. pp. 30-40


Abstract: The subject of this article is the definition of episteme as a concept. The author is not limited by the original interpretation of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1954) in his works of “archeological” period. The goal is to demonstrate that the definition of episteme manifested in the work “The Order of Things” as basic for structuring of the social ontology that had never been created by the philosopher. Thus, the author considers the definition of episteme as a separate socio-philosophical concept applied in the philosophy of history and philosophy of language. It is underlined that even Foucault himself does not have an unequivocal understanding of the heuristic nature of episteme. The author suggest to view “episteme” not as a post-metaphysical positivity, but a path to cognition of social institutions, language and history in their overall development. Using the methods of historical-philosophical and linguo-philosophical analysis, an attempt is made to penetrate the essence of episteme as a concept that is foremost understood as the bases of the “unwritten” by Foucault ontology of the socio-humanitarian knowledge. Among the main results of research are the following: 1) analysis of evolution of the definition of episteme in Foucault’s works from the standpoint of socio-philosophical heuristics; 2) historical-philosophical determination of specificity of the notion of “episteme” in its epistemological and socio-philosophical meaning; 3) applicability of this notion for the philosophical-historical and socio-philosophical analysis. The article also demonstrated that it would be inappropriate to associate Foucault’s “archeology” exceptionally with the theory of discourses, while putting the “episteme” alongside the attempts to understand the scientific rationality leaning on the data of the history of sciences. A hypothesis is made that episteme can be considered a heuristic concept for the establishment of socio-philosophical ontology.
Philosophy of liberty
Parkhomenko R.N. - Veritas non auctoritas facit legem* (on evolution of the concept of public sphere of J. Habermas pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of political public sphere considered in the works of J. Habermas. The article traces the emergence of the phenomenon of political publicity, which in Habermas’ opinion, initially appears as a requirement of the developing economy of Western countries. The political public sphere affected the formation of Anglo-Saxon model of the state that implied the primate of law and rational reasoning, as well as public discussion of the relevant economic and political questions. In accordance with the indicated paradigm of political thoughts, the appropriate in the state must coincide with the just. Methodology lies in examination of the works of Habermas, including the untranslated into the Russian language and relatively unknown in Russia. The main conclusion consists in the statement that Habermas believes that the legislation in democratic state must represent not a result of political will, but based on the rational agreement of all actors of the free market. Public sphere, therewith, is called to bring more transparency into the democratic process of decision-making in the state.
Self-consciousness and identity
Guryanova A.V., Makhovikov A. - To the question on specificity of Russian legal consciousness: civilizational-value aspect pp. 52-58


Abstract: This article examines the specificity of Russian legal consciousness in its comparison with the legal consciousness of Western European civilization. The author traces the origins and peculiarities of establishment of the value foundations and orientations of the Russian and Western traditions of legal consciousness. A conclusion is made that in terms of producing the own specific system of civilizational values, the Russian legal consciousness cannot evolve within the framework of formalization of law as the modern global civilization with the inherent to it expansion of Western values. For the Russian legal consciousness, its alienation from the moral and exclusion from the sphere of ethical values is fraught with the loss of civilizational identity. The specific feature of Russian legal consciousness is the emergence at civilizational level of close relation between the norms of legal and ethical character, in analogy with the principle of gradation of values of the relative or absolute order. Based on such demarcation, the assemblage of lawmaking principles, such as freedom, equality and justice, acquire in Russian legal consciousness not the formal-legal as it is common to apprehension of law within the system of values of the Western technogenic civilization, but rather a religious-ethical meaning. The perception of law according to the Western example, associated with an attempt of its complete separation from the moral and exclusion of ethical values from it, can lead to the negative consequences, particularly the renunciation of own national identity.
Value and truth
Ivanova O., Gnatyshina E. - Socratic dialogue as a method of problem management pp. 59-65


Abstract: The subject of this study is the Socratic dialogue (polylogue) as a form of philosophical practice. The goal is to substantiate the instrumentality of Socratic dialogue in problem management. The author examines the Socratic dialogue as a universal method of problem management, based on clarification in questioning the essence of the problem, and applied in the issued of everyday life alongside the organizations in educational, political and economic spheres. Identifying sequential stages in development of the instrumentality of Socratic dialogue for solution of the problems, along with the original Socratic dialogue, organizational polylogue, and educational dialogue – particular attention is given to the Socratic dialogue as type of philosophical consulting. Author’s special contribution into the study lies in substantiation of reference to the philosophical inquiry of the pragmatically oriented business. The author determines the advantages of implementation of the Socratic dialogue for solving the organizational problems in comparison with other modern forms of philosophical practice (existential consulting, logical-philosophical therapy, philosophical partnership) as the organically synthesizing the logical-gnoseological and communicative-axiological components. The article underlines the communicative nature of the Socratic dialogue, its relevance as an adaptive method for solution of the problems in the conditions of postindustrial society, ad hoc organizations with a tendency to constant growth of the number of problems.
Reverence for life
Pupysheva N.V. - Interpretation of the principles of pulsation in terms of Tibetan medicine pp. 66-78


Abstract: The subject of this research is the fundamental theoretical regulations of Tibetan medicine, which being a part of Buddhist teaching, has a clearly determined scientific foundation. The object is the philosophical and methodological grounds of diagnostics and treatment of diseases in Tibetan medicine. The basic terms that describe the functionality of human physic and physiology is the system of five great elements, represented on psychophysiological level as the system of three bases. The disturbance of balance of these three bases leads to health disorders. A hypothesis is put forward on functionality of the vector model of subject-object response on the psychic level (emotional expressions) and its extensive interpretation on the physiological level; at the same time it is describes as the foundation of physiological pulsation. The article provides an overview of the Dhatu system (places of manifestation of great elements in the body), as well as mutual effect of the great elements of external and internal environment. Mutual functioning of three bases of the body underlies the pulse diagnostics, as well as pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatment of diseases. The article analyzes the basic body functionality and principles physiological pulsation. A conclusion is made that the system of great elements has become a methodological foundation for the perception of the knowledge in Buddhism, which allows reconstructing the process of physiological pulsation in its relation with the phenomena of psychic sphere and more in-depth comprehension of such connections.
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