Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 11/2018
Contents of Issue 11/2018
The issues of holistic world
Koptelova T.I. - Image of living world in the paradigm of organic philosophy pp. 1-15


Abstract: This article reviews the prospect of creation of the new worldview using the organic philosophy. Methodological capabilities of the various philosophical paradigms in formation of image of the living world are analyzed. At the same time, organic philosophy is considered as a system of knowledge, intellectual tradition that focuses attention on the functional wholeness of the real objects and laws of the living nature. It refers to the need for creative cognition of the world that suggests the unity of human reason, imagination and experience. The author reveals the scientific potential of organic philosophy that allows examining all the multiplicity of national cultural paradigms reflected in the various intellectual traditions. The study analyzes the contradictions in the mechanistic worldview and the methods of their solution in organic philosophy. The author substantiates the purposefulness of referring to organic philosophy in the area of formation of the new scientific methodology oriented towards the synthesis of natural scientific and humanitarian knowledge. The article demonstrates the integrating potential of organic philosophy, its ability to unite the diverse forms of world cognition trough the phenomenon of life. Within the image of living world, organic philosophy allows using the combination of dynamicity of cognitive activity with the static character of spiritual ideals. Herewith, the dynamicity of cognition is revealed through the individual experience of one or another fragment of reality. Image of the living world is formed on the basis of the principle of wholeness – concordance between the various forms of cognition, intellectual and cultural traditions, as realization of the broader view of the world.
The new paradigm of science
Prokhorov M.M. - Imitation of truth and nature of philosophy pp. 16-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the nature of philosophy. It is proved that in identifying the nature of philosophy, one must consider exceeding the boundaries of cognition; then, the truth, lie and delusion ad the forms of knowledge are opposed to stimulation and imitation of truth. The author analyzes the concepts of the national and Western thinkers interpreted in the context of the antipode of truth and its imitation, which clarifies the nature of philosophy in the context of ontology, gnoseology and ontognoseology. Such approach allows getting an extended idea on the history of philosophical thought. The significant historical-philosophical material for the research of the nature of philosophy are the concepts of G. Berkley, B. Russell, K. Jaspers, J. Ortega y Gasset, M. Heidegger, as well as substantial positions of Russian philosophers interpreted not only in the context of truth and lie, but also the antipodes of truth and its imitations. It is stated that viewing the knowledge only in dynamic of correlation between truth and lie/delusion is insufficient. In revealing the nature of philosophy, it is necessary to consider exceeding the boundaries of cognition. Then the forms of knowledge are contradistinguished to simulation, imitation of truth, and perception of the history of philosophy becomes fuller.
Philosophy of knowledge
Maslakov A.S. - David Hume: from criticism of cognition to new gnoseology and ethics pp. 31-46


Abstract: The object of this article is the philosophy of David Hume in its wholeness, unity and interrelation of all its sections, positions and fragments. The subject is the correlation of D. Hume’s theory of cognition with his concept of human and socio-historical cognition overall in the context of the problems of modern gnoseology, philosophy and history of science. The goal of the research lies in analyzing the basic positions of D. Hume’s theory of cognition within the framework of general doctrine on human and society and their relation to the issues of modern socio-humanitarian knowledge. Methodologically, the work leans on the comparative-historical approach, hermeneutic analysis of sources, as well as general scientific methods of analogy, generalization, abstracting, systematization, and others. The following conclusions were made: 1) the skeptical paradigm in theory of cognition is used by D. Hume’s exclusively from the methodological, rather than ontological standpoint; 2) D. Hume redeems confidence in the subject of cognition (with its customs), as well as in the object – in other words, nature that includes human in its context by default ; 3) human himself as the cognizing subject becomes not a substantial entity, but a construct of intersubjective act, derivative of “sympathy” that unites him with other people, first and foremost, through the affective nature; 4) revelation of the initial sociality and intersubjectivity of the human Self immeasurably simplifies the analysis of ethical problems, as well as the questions of socio-economic and political development, because the socio-institutional order is viewed as an organic part of human nature; 5) all of the aforesaid, allows D. Hume to quite drastically reconsider the capabilities and functionality of historical cognition. 
Philosophy of science
Zholkov S. - Philosophic issues of pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, II pp. 47-59


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics; in other words, the purposeful activity of social subjects (individuals, human associations). Real pragmatics as overall, in unity and interaction of the natural and human realms is the subject of pragmatic theories. From the practical perspective, the actual tasks of the analysis and large systems management, as well as their systemic analysis in cohesion with the natural scientific and socio-humanitarian components – is the actual necessity. The article determines the requirements to information base and architectonics of pragmatic theory essential for structuring the trustworthy scientific theory of real pragmatics. The author conducts a comparative analysis with the construct of “theoretical knowledge” proposed by V. S. Stepin; applies the interdisciplinary systemic approach: methods of theory of information, mathematical logic, systemic analysis, concept interpretation of conclusions and adequacy analysis. The author formulates the general laws and requirements to the architectonics of the components of accurate and substantial pragmatic theories. As a result, the article is first to demonstrate that the pattern of structuring the fundamental and argumentative pragmatic theory is fully compatible with the construct of (post-nonclassical) "theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. The necessary clarifications and inclusion are provided. It is illustrated that the pattern of theoretical knowledge proposed by V. S. Stepin leans not only on the physical theories that were meticulously examined by the scholar, but also the mathematical theories.
Kuzmin V. - Existence and relativity: Modus perception of predication of existence pp. 60-77


Abstract: Speaking of any object, it can be said that it exists, possible, does not exist, or its existence is unknown. Based on phenomenological approach, the author explicates the method of meting out existence of an object depending on its “internal” status (modus) and “external” (edged) factors. For each intentional object, matters only one meaning (modus) of its predicate of existence (function of objectification). Such function takes place at the moment of intention. It is determined in relativity towards cognizing subject. Depending on the character of such relativity, four types of modes of the object are distinguished: object at the moment of intention streamlines towards “Self”, Other (Others), “here and now” and/or “there and then”. The external (edged) factors of object’s existence are defined by the situation (context) of its study and cognition. For meting out existence of an object, its modus is imposed with limitations (natural paradigms) substantiated by the set goals, which help to constitute the object. Applicable to the scientific cognition, the four types of such limitations are differentiated: contemplation, discussion, observation and experiment. As to the object, viewed relatively to “Self” and potentially unlimited amount of Others, the strongest measure of existence belongs to an object constituted in the experiment. On the contrary, the objects that are determined with regards to “Self” with limitation of “contemplation” represent the cogitable, imaginable objects (for example, undiscussed hypotheses); and by limiting “discussion” represents the debated with someone Other objects (hypothesis, messages, etc.). Such approach to meting out the existence of object can be implemented in various fields of knowledge.
Political philosophy
Garshin N.A. - The problem of political marginality in the context of deformation of tolerance pp. 78-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of political marginality common to the contemporary history. The author meticulously examines the differences between social and political marginality, emphasizing the reasons why the political marginality must be viewed as a peculiar phenomenon of modern social reality. The key place in this study takes up the problem of establishment of the acceptable boundaries thermistor, tolerance with regards to new, nonclassical ideas and movements, as well as negative consequences of the excessive tolerance attitude and insufficient tolerant attitude towards the political subjects that can be recognized as marginal. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive analysis of such comparatively new phenomenon as the political marginality and its demarcation from the social marginality. In the course of this demarcation, the author underlines the distinct features and specificity of political marginality. The novelty consists in the establishment of strong correlation between marginality and tolerance. The main conclusion lies in the need for appropriate boundaries of tolerance pertinent to the new and nonclassical political movements, in order to use their potential for the benefit of entire society and hear out the majority of citizens, but at the same time withstand radicalism and violence.  
Chubatov A. - Philosophy in flight from rigorous science: two testimonies of one escape (M. Heidegger and E. Husserl) pp. 84-92


Abstract: This article traces the fate of the project formulated by Edmund Husserl in headline of the article “Philosophy as a Rigorous Science”. As demonstrated in the correspondence with Gustav Shpet, scientific rigor is understood as a synonym to rationality in a general sense. Following Husserl, Martin Heidegger in 1927 also speaks of the identity of philosophy and science in its original Greek sounding. It would seem that within such meaning of scientific rigor, this reasoning sounds like pleonasm. However, in fact, identification requires not only broadening of the concept of science, but also narrowing down the boundaries of mind to the limits of science. Thus becomes the question: whether or not the prerequisite of scientific rigor, regardless of the broad understanding of the latter, contradicts the underlying phenomenology principle of non-prerequisite. In such case, phenomenology, in order to remain faithful to the “things themselves”, must overcome the horizon of the rooted in classical rationalism project of structuring philosophy as a rigorous science. Heidegger makes this step back in 1929, claiming that transformation into the absolute science is not the capability of philosophy whatsoever. Husserl, in turn, if judging by the published during his lifetime works, remains faithful to his idea to the end. Nevertheless, some fragments out of the published postmortem, give cause for making a careful assumption that at the close of his days comes to realization of unfeasibility of his own aspirations. Hence, the downfall of the project of philosophy as a rigorous science not in the slightest degree means the crash of phenomenology as such, but rather is a decisive step that allows the latter gaining faithfulness to its fundamental principles.
Lipov A.N. - About the incommensurate entities in the philosophy of Pythagoreans. To the philosophical grounds of irrational proportions in science and culture pp. 93-110


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical grounds that predetermined the discovery of proof of the existence of incommensurate or irrational magnitudes in the philosophy of Pythagoreans at the time when the very notion of irrationality was an anathema for those suggesting that the numbers were the rational entities underlying the Universe. Therefore, it became possible to express both, physical and cultural-aesthetic consistencies, by the similar to each other mathematical rows and geometrical proportions that predetermines the calculation methods for harmonic structures, uninterrupted proportions and limiting values – the first premise to the structure of ancient teaching on formation. Based on the interdisciplinary analysis and comparative method of research, the article analyzes the history of discovery of the phenomenon of incommensurability and irrationality. A conclusion is made that back in Pythagoras’ times, this discovery led to the need for substantial transformation of the entire fabric of elementary geometry in anticipation of structuring the general theory of proportions, causing the first in history crisis of ancient philosophy and mathematics. The author also substantiates and traces the discovered by Pythagoreans correlation between the irrational proportions and irrational mathematical constant of “golden ratio” that underlies the architectural proportions in the history of culture, as well as reflected in various regularities and spheres of human existence – science, culture, architecture, and art. Among the main conclusion is also the author’s hypothesis that universality of the irrationality of magnitudes of “golden ration” and their prevalence in the diverse natural and cultural regularities up to the present encourages the pursuance of meanings, which would unite them into a certain common theory that generalizes and expresses the structure of global constants.
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