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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 09/2017
Contents of Issue № 09/2017
Social philosophy
Kachulin A.G. - Network mass media and information society: socio-philosophical analysis of the process of formation of new hierarchies pp. 1-12


Abstract: This article analyzes the data of the economic rating of the largest world companies Financial Times Global 500 for the II quarter of 2017. It is demonstrated that seven out of the ten largest world companies deal with the technologies of mass communication. Based on the data from the financial reports of the corporation and public information about their activity, the article introduces a socio-philosophical interpretation of the process of a rapid increase capitalization of these companies. It is shown that these companies held the key positions in the rating under the influence of the global trend established after the world crisis of 2008. Leaning on the interdisciplinary approach that combines the methods of philosophy and sociology of mass communications alongside mediaecology and mediatheory, the article explores the nature of the aforementioned trend.  It is underlined that it relates to the distribution of the network technology of mass communication. The author researches the impact of network technology upon the social structure, and reveals that the network mass media simultaneously produce the two opposite effects. As the means of communication, it has a decentralized effect upon the society, which deconstructs the strict hierarchies and creates the networks of coordination as the new organizational structures. However, the very process of decentralization in the context of network interaction serves the goals aimed at establishing of the new hierarchical system, within which the network mass media become the new centers of world influence as the organizers of functionality of the social processes.
Methodology of philosophical learning
Rostovtseva M.V. - Methodological aspects of socio-philosophical study of adaptation of individuals pp. 13-22


Abstract: This article examines the key methodological approaches towards the research of social adaptation of individuals, as well as determines grounds for their classification. The author demonstrates the multiple theories of social adaptation are associated with the description of its static-theoretical or dynamic aspect that manifests as the characteristics of human activity. Study of the process of social adaptation suggests the motion towards examination of its dynamic features substantiated by the mental specificities of the subject of adaptation, as well as separate components and determinants that typify the distinction of adaptation phases and its stages. The article explains the pragmatist nature of social adaptation as a process in the course of which takes place the establishment and development of a human, his consciousness, self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem; this results in the adjustment to external effects and inner condition, as well as various behavioral forms. The article applies the dialectic approach towards researching of social phenomena, method of analysis, classification, generalization, systemic and structural approaches. The author provides classification to the research on social adaptation: the first group concerns the examination of its static-theoretical aspect, while the second explores the dynamic aspect. It is defined that social adaptation is mediated by the process of establishment of a subject, level of development of consciousness and self-awareness of an individual, level of development of self-regulation processes, self-control, and self-esteem that leads to striking the balance between external and inner state alongside the various behavioral forms of a human.
Ontology: being and nihility
Zhul'kov M.V. - Noospheric energitism: fundamental ontology pp. 23-45


Abstract: This article is devoted to the ontological aspects of the noospheric energitism – an integral part of the doctrine about noosphere. Modern philosophical energitism is based on the specific understanding of energy in the discourse of post-nonclassical science, which includes consideration of not only objective, but also subjective components of energy: physical, mental, information, semantic, spiritual. Energy has universality, unites material and information worlds into one whole, pervades into all spheres of the universe. At the intersection of energitism and noospherology, takes place the formation of a complex scientific philosophical discipline – noospheric energitism, which examines the energetic aspect of the evolution the intelligent life of space, planet, humanity, establishment of the noospheric society and the planetary noosphere. The foundation of noospheric studies consists in V. I. Vernadsky's teachings on biogeochemical and cultural biogeochemical energies, transformation of biosphere into the noosphere under the influence of labor and scientific thought of organized humanity, as well as the doctrine about the autotrophic nature of mankind. In connection with the emerging sections of science, the following general scientific approaches are used in the ontology of the noosphere: systemic, synergetic, universal, spherical (used by Vernadsky), ecological, historical, energy-information. The energy approach must take its place, especially because Vernadsky’s doctrine is fused with the energetic concepts. The author concludes that the noospheric energitism studies energy and energy-information nature of the noosphere, processes of the biosphere's transformation into the noosphere, applies the energy factor in systemic modeling of the noosphere and noospheric society. The key direction of research is the noospheric-energy approach in cognizing the nature and evolution of the consciousness, which will allow studying, modeling, and anticipating the processes of formation of the global consciousness. Noospheric energitism has its own field of research, methodological approaches, as well as possesses a significant potential for its own development.
Philosophy of knowledge
Kulikov D.K. - Evolution of the problem of reasoning in the teachings of Xenophanes of Colophon and Heraclitus of Ephesus pp. 46-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of philosophical problematic of reasoning in the teachings of Xenophanes and Heraclitus. The main goal consists in establishment of substantial content in the nature of reasoning that was revealed and understood by these philosophers. The work is structured based on the famous survived fragments by Xenophanes and Heraclitus, their translation into the Russian language published by present time, and analytical literature on the topic at hand. The author implements the approach, according to which the central for the early Greek philosophy was the gnoseological problematic, associated with the rethinking of mythopoetic tradition and search for the new criteria of knowledge. The scientific novelty lies in revelation of specificity of the comprehension of reasoning by Xenophanes and Heraclitus. The research claims to contribute in overcoming the limited attention of Russian science to the gnoseological issues of the early Greek philosophy. The fundamental content unveiled in reasoning by Xenophanes and Heraclitus consists in the universal as the goal of cognition and criteria of the truth. They views reasoning as the conceptual relationship between the order of nature, perceptions and actions of people. Xenophanes establishes skeptical argumentation, opposing the universality as characteristic of the divine knowledge to limitedness of the cognition efforts of a human. Heraclitus, on the contrary, searches in the reasonable ability of the cognitive convergence of the human mind and global logos. Heraclitus’ teaching is related to Xenophanes’ teaching same as the dialectical method relates to skepticism. Their ideas generate such aspects of comprehension, as the universal and individual in reasoning, differentiation of cognitive processes, primacy of the objective content over the form of thought.
Natural philosophy
Boldin P.N. - Atomism and semiotic analogy in the ontology of natural history pp. 59-74


Abstract: The problem of correlation between the discrete and continuous is reflected in the atomistic approach towards the model concepts in the natural history. Atomism, besides the special scientific measurement, has deep philosophical roots, which over the recent time attract meticulous attention. The article talks about the relationship of atomism with the semiotic analogy, claiming the similarity of the role of atoms in existence with the role of alphabetic letters in the language. Modern natural history does not reduce atomism only to the physical atomism, but rather considers it in broader context – as a universal model applicable in other areas of science, particularly biology. Notably in biology, with achieving the molecular level of research, semiotic views acquired the necessary and natural character. Thus, relevant becomes the question of interrelation between atomism and semiotic analogy in the context of all subject fields of natural history, associated with the possibility for developing the universal ontological models, which would allow indicating any physical organization within the shared sense. The ways for resolving this question constitute the main subject of this study. Based on the set goal and the fundamental Interdisiplinarity of the research, the methods of comparison and analogy are applied, which allows not only identifying the invariants by comparing the existing actual data, but also carrying out the reconstruction in the cases with insufficiency of such data. The main results of the study imply the semiotic construction of ontological models of the chemical and biological organizations alongside the reconstruction of semiotic ontology of the post-biological models of organizations based on the actual material of modern natural history. The obtained results claim that the atomism and semiotic analogy manifest as the foundation for the development of ontological models in modern natural history.
Philosophy of language and communication
Leushkin R.V. - Transhumanism dimension of social communication pp. 75-87


Abstract: This article presents the results of examination of the transgressive mode of existence of social communication. Socio-ontological properties of the virtual forms of social communication, which are not characteristic for its traditional forms are subject to analysis. The author poses a problem of explication and study of the conditions for realization of the virtual social communication. Consecutive text manifests as a continuation of previous works and is dedicated to the development of the following questions: does the virtual social communication represent an ordinary form of social communication;  is there is a possibility for semantic communication in the context of social and ontological incompleteness of the existence of communicants; and whether or not is possible the existence of transhumanistic forms of semantic communication? The work applies the socio-constructivist approach, principles of systematicity, evolutionism, and polyontism (multiplicity of ontological horizons). The study is based on the theory of social-communicative systems of N. Luhmann and periodization of the development of communicative forms of M. McLuhan. The author formulates a theoretical foundation for further introduction of the development of social and communication systems outside the framework of evolution of the human species. The article depicts the impae of social and communication systems as not dependent on the human will, but self-developing formations. A corresponding definition is given to the communication subject along with the characteristic of its key features that also spread onto an artificial actor.
The dialogue of cultures
Urbanaeva I.S. - Experience and prospects of philosophical interpretation of Buddhism in comparison with the ideas of L. Wittgenstein pp. 88-100


Abstract: The subject of this article is associated with the fact that the philosophical comparativistics, rapidly developing in the late XX century, due to the countermotion of the philosophers of both world traditions – East and West – demonstrates higher interest towards Buddhism. After the pioneering works of F. I. Shcherbatskoy, multiple publications oriented towards the search for possible parallelisms between the West and Buddhist philosophical teaching have appeared in the West. The article is dedicated to the critical analysis of experience of the comparative examination of L. Wittgenstein’s ideas, who had a revolutionary impact upon the modern philosophical thought, with the philosophy of Buddhism, particularly Madhyamaka that represented the explication of Prajñāpāramitā by the Ancient Indian philosopher Nagarjuna and his successors (Buddhapālita, Bhāviveka, Chandrakirti, and others), as well as the turned to be the philosophical foundation Indo-Tibetan Mahāyāna. The goal of the work consists in the critical consideration of the key moments of K. Gudmunsen’s comparative approach towards interpretation of the Madhyamaka philosophy, substantiated from the perspective of analytical philosophy within the platitude of comparison betwee the Nagarjuna’s doctrine of the late Wittgenstein. Conclusion is made that there are opening the heuristic abilities for development of the new approaches towards the problematic of “reality, consciousness, language” , using the ideas of Wittgenstein as a hermeneutic “key” to interpreting Madhyamaka and its comprehension in the context of modern world philosophy.
Koptelova T.I. - Aesthetics of music of the XXI century in paradigm of organic philosophy pp. 101-114


Abstract: This article examines the various aesthetic paradigms of music, as well as analyzes the possible directions in development of the aesthetics of music of the XXI century. Music is viewed from the perspective of paradigm of the social philosophy. The impact of aesthetic ideals of avant-garde music of the XX century upon the contemporary art of music. The author studies the aesthetics of song form, as well as considers the possibility of “neoclassical synthesis” – the creation in modern aesthetics of music of the idea of new classics, which continues its traditions throughout the period of XVII-XIX centuries, preserving the song form as an expression of national character and the original integrity of arts (music, poetry, dance). The work also reviews the problems of spiritual crisis of modernity reflected in the aesthetic ideals of music. Analyzing the modern aesthetics of music, the article applies the methodology of organic philosophy (its peculiar form of phenomenology and hermeneutics), as well as the typological and comparative analysis, method of synthesis and historical-philosophical reconstruction. The latter allows posing a question about the aesthetics of music as a phenomenon through referring to the historical evolution of its interpretations as cultural phenomena. Comparative analysis helps correlating the various aesthetic-music paradigms. Hermeneutic methodology reveals the individual interpretations of music introduce by separate composers, philosophers, and culturologists. The scientific novelty is defined by viewing the aesthetics of music of the XXI century through the prism of organic philosophy, which paradigm allows manifestly realize the need for creativity as an intrinsic part of human existence and astonishing phenomenon, without which the life of future generations is impossible. Due to this, organic philosophy reveals the determination of the future, and allows viewing the fourth dimension of the aesthetics of music, connected with the entire palette of human feelings, inherent property of spiritual demands along with their individual realization.
Philosophy and culture
Sultanov-Barsov M.O. - Dagestan in the context of Russian culture pp. 115-131


Abstract: The subject of this article is the retrospective picture of the post-Soviet Dagestan, characterized by the departure of the Russian and Russian-speaking population that caused decline in social culture and expected negative consequences in the republic. As a problematic source is viewed the factor of cultural relativism used by the European-American humanitarian scholars and politicians for implementation of their geopolitical projects. In addition, the author demonstrated the natural source of cultural relativism, rightfully occurring under the conditions of ignorance, paralogical self-esteems, and religious fanaticism. The goal of the article consists in increasing the social culture of residents of the Republic of Dagestan, as well as strengthening of the country’s state unity. The scientific novelty lies in the principle that requires the coordinated application of apodictic and dialectic methods of thinking as the optimally correlating instruments of theoretic cognition and practical work. The author provides a brief classification of Dagestani peoples, Russians and Russian-speaking, as well as formulate a number of heuristic propositions on improving the government authorities and increasing the intellectual level of the Dagestan residents. In conclusions, the author indicates the conditions and principles for returning of the Russian and Russian-speaking people to Dagestan as a permanent place of residence.
On top of the wire
Stoletov A. - The question of morality in modern technogenic society pp. 132-141


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of scientific-technological progress upon morality: quality, orientation, and ways of influence. The author raises a question about the crisis of morality and ethical systems in modern society, as well as determines the key aspects of understanding the fact that society is experiencing the spiritual and moral crises. An attempt is made to detect the following aspects: whether or not the concerns of the scholars pertaining to the moral decadence in technogenic society are substantial; what are the directions in further transformation of the moral-ethical sphere due to the active influence of science upon all spheres of life and implementation of high tech; and which are the main peculiarities of ethnics, adequate technogeneity and riskogenics of the forming type of society. Methodological foundation of this work is the sociocultural and structural-functional approaches necessary for identification of peculiarities of functioning and interaction of ethics, science, and technosphere within the social system. The author applies the elements of comparative-historical analysis for contrasting the processes taking place in the course of establishment of industrialism with the occurring during the fourth scientific-technological revolution. As a result, it is determined that similar situation of the transformation of morality appeared to be during the industrial revolution, which led to the anti-normative turn in ethnics of the XIX-XX centuries. Progress of science and technologies generates the problematic points in the area of ethics by putting a person into the new, previously inexistent circumstances that require the new comprehension and normativization. The reasons of ethical shift in technogenic society, on one hand, is the dominance of the extensive type of creativity (common to the scientific and technical creativity), which is characterized by the reduction of moral and humanitarian aspects. While on the other hand, technoshpere changes the society too rapidly, not allowing the moral norms to establish firmly; their dynamics lags from the dynamics of society, because the understanding and acknowledgement of the norm that comprise morality needs time. The spread of technologies can results in inconsistency of the previous ethical approaches and systems, but creates the prerequisites for formation of the new ethics, which must combine: the principle of “high tech – high touch” proposed by John Naisbitt, who rejects the neutrality of technologies; humanitarization of science and formation of the new type of consciousness in analogy with the mythological consciousness; risk-conditionality that consists in the global responsibility for the adopted decisions and actions.
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