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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 08/2017
Contents of Issue № 08/2017
Cycles and tides in the global world
Rvalov P.N. - Global media industry: nature and consequences of the globalization of media pp. 1-7


Abstract: The object of this research is the globalization processes in modern world that expand not only upon the political and economic system, but also the new spheres of social life, an important place among which belongs to mediasphere. The subject of this research is the potential of mediasphere as an instrument for influencing the modern audience. Special attention is given to the specific characteristics of information in mediasphere – moment, rapid change, intertextuality, etc. that transform it into a popular consumer product, the output and distribution of which is served by a separate branch of creative economy – media industry. Methodological landmarks of the study imply the structural-functional and systemic approaches towards research of the globalization process in economic segment of mediasphere; contradictions in interpretation of the globalization process in media industry, on one hand, as means of the global progress, and on the other – a threat to the national cultures. Media industry has high potential to globalization, because its goal lies in meeting the demands of maximally broad audience of all countries of the world. Blurring of the national and sociocultural borders, which is a result of globalization of mediasphere, causes the emergence of the clear anti-globalist trends. The main conclusion consists in determining the effect “substitution” of real communication and activity of virtual presence in the situations suggested in the media information space into a separate subject of study. Such effect occurs as a result of the increasing amount of time spent by a modern individual in media space, as well as improving of quality and visual attractiveness of media production. Of special importance is the substantiation of directions that affect the realization of compensation of the negative consequences in activity of the global media industry: financial support of the social and cultural programs aimed at preservation of the national and cultural identity; improvement of the programs on media literacy of the rising generation; development and implementation of the programs of media education and media culture for all social groups.
Philosophy of knowledge
Pris F. - Gettier problems as cases of “explanatory gap” pp. 8-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the existence of supposed connection between the anti-luck epistemology of cognitive abilities of Duncan Pritchard and epistemology of Sanford Goldberg. The latter one appeals to the notion of epistemically admissible suggestions and sympathizes with the beginning-knowledge-epistemology, while the firs one offers a dual-component analysis of the term of knowledge. The common of these two approaches lies in the introduction of a condition of explicability of the veritical explanandum – the fact that an opinion is true. At the same time, the nature of explanation to which resort the philosophers, is different. Within the framework of Pritchard’s approach, explanation is given using the terms of epistemology of epistemic abilities, and in the context of Goldberg’s approach – in terms of epistemically admissible suggestions. The work compares the functionality of both approaches leaning on one of the proposed by Pritchard examples, when the true opinion is secured and received as a result of application by a subject of this epistemic abilities, but is not the knowledge. The author believes that the approaches of Pritchard and Goldberg are joint, as well as manifest as a rational reconstruction of the more fundamental approach that is referred as the beginning-knowledge-epistemology. The article also interprets the Gettier problems as cases of the “gap” in implicit assumptions in the process of implementation of the concept of knowledge.  
Tradition and innovation
Rostovtseva M.V. - Theoretical aspects of the phenomena of tolerance and sociocultural adaptation pp. 24-36


Abstract: This article examines the problems of intolerance, nationalism, xenophobia, disadaptation, which require the development of special mechanism aimed at struggle against them. Tolerant relations alongside the process of sociocultural adaptation are presented as mutually conditioned phenomena, each of which determines the other, but has its own specificity. It is underlines that tolerance, comprehended in majority of scientific sources as an acceptance of otherness – is the adjustment to that other and its peculiarities, including the sociocultural norms, values, traditions, etc. Sociocultural adaptation suggests not just the passive acceptance and adjustment, but also the reciprocal activeness of the adaptable subject. Tolerance, in turn, defines the right of each individual to an equally full-fledged member of the cultural society to which he belongs to. The article proposes a mechanism for formation of tolerance and successful adaptation. The author determines the deep psychological causes of intolerance associated with the imperfections of cognizing by an individual of his distinctness as a person with certain flaws in upbringing, conservativeness of cultural norms, lack of understanding and miscommunication due to underdevelopment of intellect, and distorted perception of patriotism. The article also introduces the definition of tolerance and sociocultural adaptation, which implies the relation of two or more diverse cultures and their representatives, aimed at resolution of contradictions that emerged as a result of the clash of various cultural norms, and led to establishment of a new one – common to the conflicting parties. Tolerance is and adaptive attitude, associated with acknowledgement of the rights of other people despite their physical, physiological, and social differences.  
Political philosophy
Voropaev D. - Civilizational process in the West and East pp. 37-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the civilizational process in the West and East (China). Attention is given to the sociocultural phenomena that aligns West and East, particularly: the substitution of anthropocentric discourse with cosmocentrism in the sphere of ethics, religion, and ideology; flattering of cognitive landscape of the consumer society; techniques of total control and mental manipulation; post-liberal dismantlement of personal life, private property, and welfare state in absence of the referent USSR. The article underlines the proximity of the Western technological innovation system to the matrix of a specific symbolic mentality. The research is conducted from the perspective of civilizational approach, principle of linguistic determinism, with help of the methodology of structuralism, as well as method of aesthetic verification of K. Lenontyev’s ideological doctrines. The author introduced into the discourse of humanitarian disciplines the term of co-involution of the two dominant civilizations: in the long view of coexistence based on the relative symbolic reality – in cognitive terms for China as primary, and secondary for the West. The risks of “student” to China strategy are substantiated, which associate with the expanding layer of bilinguals and possible scenario of civilizational “gift” to the world in case of the language reform analogous to Japan.
Social dynamics
Semenov V.A. - Specific features of existence conditions of the open dynamic systems at the social level of integrational superorganization: a problem of extrapolation of universal synergetic regularities within the framework of sociobiological paradigm pp. 52-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is the influence of specific features of the conditions for existence of the open dynamic systems that refer to the type of “society”. Such issue is considered from the perspective of extrapolation of the universal systemic functions of an open dynamic system upon the forms of socio-political organization, which possess sufficient size, structural complexity, and relative autonomy. The article reviews the three main aspects of this problem: first, the current trends in the social sciences that create a number of obstacles, including of subjective character, for free use of extrapolation of the universal systemic functions at the social level of the integrational superorganization within the framework of sociobiological paradigm; second, it is the functional analysis of the mechanisms of adjustment and development of the open dynamic systems; and third, it is a consideration of influence of the specific features of conditions at the social level of the integrational superorganization of open dynamic systems. Methodology of the research is constructed within the sociobiological paradigm based on the principles of the system analysis, abstract functionalism, and extrapolation of general synergetic functions upon the development of the open dynamic systems at the social level of integrational superorganization. The scientific novelty consists in identification and analysis of the factors that cause deviations in formation of the adaptable mechanisms at the social level of integrational superorganization if compared with the adaptable mechanisms of the open dynamic systems of lower level. While concerning earlier and simpler forms of social organization extrapolation there can be noticed a rather high similarity with the adaptable mechanisms of lower levels, then in the course of evolution, complication, and growth of the "area of habitability" of social organisms has reduced, which led to modification of the adaptable mechanisms of modern societies. Taking into account the mutating factors will allow avoiding errors of the «blind» extrapolation of experience accumulated in the course of studying of the open dynamic systems of lower levels.
Philosophy of liberty
Rakhmanovskaya E. - Two images of authority pp. 62-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the hunger for power, its origins, and ways of manifestation. Lust for power is viewed as a universal, inseparable quality of human nature. It is stated that each individual initially possesses the autocratic potential, but its fulfillment depends on the path selected for self-realization: actual growth of strength, creative activity, formation of authority, or creation of simulacrum, phantom nature of power expressed in authoritarianism, use of seizure of power, compulsion and oppression as an instrument of acquisition of power. The main method of this study lies in comparing the authoritative and authoritarian types of power and determination of the essential differences. The author applies the principles and approaches of philosophical anthropology, social philosophy, and psychoanalysis. The conclusion is made that the insurmountable lust for power evolves due to the blocked realization of the initial autocratic potential. Authority from the power is not passion, but represents a task, horizon for the development of personal qualities. It enters the field of constant struggle for self-determination due to the inevitable burden of authoritarianism.
Value and truth
Fedorov S., Smirnov M., Trofimov M. - Problem of truth in the context of dialectical expansion of the universal in mythological and philosophical cognition of the world pp. 73-85


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of truth in the context of expansion of the universal in the history of philosophy. In first part, the authors reviews the mythological cognition of truth that leans on the cultural mechanisms, thanks to which a human becomes familiar with the movement of the global universal. Through familiarization with the truth, takes place the salvation of a human that the authors call a metaphysical birth. Second part of the article examines the philosophical comprehension of truth that is based on the graded and assigned functions of the mythological cognition, due to which generated a stricter demarcation of the abstract-universal and specific-universal. The scientific novelty consists in consideration of the problem of truth at various stages of the history of mythological and philosophical cognition through the prism of the categories of abstract-universal and specific-universal, transcendence and transgression. The history of philosophy reveals the trends, on one hand, the movement from ontological understanding of truth to gnoseological, associated with the transcendence reference to the abstract-universal; and on the other hand, the movement of return to the ontological apprehension of truth connected with the transgressive reference to the specific-universal.
Philosophy of religion
Skorodumov D.A. - Radical theology and deconstruction: between finiteness and ineffable. pp. 86-92


Abstract: The subject of the study is the way of assimilation by the radical theological thought of traditional religion. Various theological concepts, born with the help of deconstructionist methodology, are considered. The question is whether religious ideas can be adequately expressed in the language of deconstruction. The study is based on the materials of the works of J. Derrida, J. Caputo, M. C. Taylor. The methodology of the research is phenomenology, which allows us to talk about theological abstractions, refraining from the question of the existence of their subjects. The main conclusion of the study is the incompatibility of traditional religion and the language of deconstruction, as it is used by J. Caputo and M. Taylor, for deconstruction itself is a myth, it becomes a religion that displaces the religion that they want to express in language. Deconstruction proves to be incapable of expressing the definiteness of religion, its concrete historical form, since it sees in this the reaction and conservatism from which it tries to escape; but functioning in such way, it risks to obtain the features of reactionism and repressiveness, whit it argues against.
Religions and religious renaissance
Aleinik R.M. - Anniversary of the Reformation as a motive for discussing the nature of faith pp. 93-101


Abstract: On the 500th anniversary of the Reformation, the question of God and the essence of faith is not removed from the agenda. Luther, who initiated a debate with the Roman Church on indulgence and repentance, was not going to enter into battle with her, but it happened and has lasted all these centuries. The current celebration of this anniversary takes place in the context of a search for dialogue between churches. This is a new ecumenism, the ecumenism of personalities, ready to borrow each other's experience. The Russian Orthodox Church remained aloof from this confrontation, but traveled along its twisty path in the twentieth century from being subject to persecution to entering a time of a pro-Orthodox consensus: the majority of the population consider Orthodoxy an important element of Russian identity. But this consensus exists in the conditions of pluralism of ideologies and creeds. There is complexity in relation to confessional norms within the ROC. We still do not have a single Old Believer identity. Different understandings mutually deny the Orthodox for each other. The ideal of normality is treated differently by representatives of theology, philosophy and religious studies. Also, the question of the possibility of synthesizing science and faith, which is especially acute in the era of the "knowledge society", is also ambiguously interpreted. How is the problem of this kind being discussed by the Europeans? As the main source, the author uses the discussion between the Protestant theologian R. Bultman and the existential philosopher K. Jaspers who caused public resonance.R. Bultmann proposed to update the approach to the interpretation of Christian dogma, calling it the concept of demythologization based on the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger. It received an ambiguous evaluation from contemporaries and prompted discussion from K. Jaspers. These materials have been published. They represent the main source of this article. The author relies on the methodological principles of historical and philosophical research, the methodology of sociology of religion and philosophical religious studies, hermeneutic analysis. The discussion touches on questions of faith and Revelation, faith and language, faith and truth, scientific and existential understanding of history. Attention is drawn to the qualitative level of this polemic, demonstrating the profound meaningfulness of the discussion and the very dialogic truth that M. Bakhtin, M. Buber, N. Lossky, E. Levinas, and K. Levi-Strauss proclaimed and the will to communicate.
Philosophical anthropology
Chugunova I. - The experience of terminological explanation of the notion “hatred” and its synonyms pp. 102-122


Abstract:   This article is dedicated to the experience of categorical comparison of hatred and its most used synonyms, such as animosity, anger, contempt, disgust, and some others. Leaning on the semantic closeness of these notions alongside the phenomenological similarities of the standing behind them occurrences, the author leads them to the fundamental, essential differentiation, turning attention to the philosophical-anthropological methodology that views a human in unity of his characteristics – natural, social, and existential. Here becomes important the nuances of demarcation of the notions generic to hatred and its synonyms, such as: emotion, feeling, affect, passion, excitement, and value. The author also applies the phenomenological method, elements of hermeneutic approach, and linguistic analysis. The main result of the conducted comparative research, first and foremost, lies in the volume, enriched comprehension of hatred: it is cognized as a multifarious, complex anthropological phenomenon that addresses to the emotional, cognitive, axiological, social-relationship, and other essential aspects of human nature.  
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