Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 07/2017
Contents of Issue № 07/2017
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Ivanov E.M. - Mind-body problem in the context of the modified Everett-Mansky theory pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the study is the relation of consciousness and physical reality, which is considered in the context of the modification proposed by the author of the theory of quantum measurement of Everett-Mensky. In this connection, the conceptual basis of measurement theory in quantum mechanics is also explored, in particular, the possibility of modifying the Everett interpretation of the measurement process in such a way as to exclude the need for any "splitting" of both the universe and the observer entity is investigated. Further, it is investigated how from the received picture of measurement it is possible to receive conclusions concerning character of communication of consciousness and quantum reality. The research methodology is based on the principle of interdisciplinarity (related issues of philosophy of physics and philosophy of consciousness), comparativeness and system analysis. An original approach to the solution of the psychophysical problem based on the philosophically rethought "multi-world" interpretation of quantum mechanics by H. Everett is proposed, as well as Mensky's idea of the identity of awareness with the process of selection of the quantum alternative. An explanation is given of the apparent psychophysical interaction (when the principle of the causal closure of the physical universe is taken into account) and the process of reduction of the wave function in quantum mechanics.
History of ideas and teachings
Korotkikh V.I. - Elements of phenomenological method in Hegelian doctrine about subjective spirit pp. 11-20


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the method of Hegelian teaching about subjective spirit, substantiates by the presence of references to the author’s and reader’s point of view (“us”, “for us”) necessary for organization of narration and structuring the oeuvre’s storyline. Main attention is given to demonstration of the inevitability of suing the indicated elements of methods of the “Phenomenology of Spirit” in first chapter of the “Philosophy of Spirit”.  The author also turns attention towards the fact that the precedent of referring to phenomenological method in the process of studying the images of spirit took place in the early sketches of the philosopher. The scientific novelty consists in bringing to notice the presence in the text of “Philosophy of Spirit” of elements natural to the “Phenomenology of Spirit”, but disharmonious with the Hegelian concept of “Encyclopedia”, as well as in analyzing the most probable reasons of the indicated peculiarities of the method of “Philosophy of Spirit”. A conclusion is made that the use of “actual philosophy” of phenomenological method is associates with the fact that its thingness can be structured and describes only through correlation with consciousness, which sees not only the subject itself, but also its origin, and is able to determine the direction of its evolution.
Social philosophy
Melikov I.M., Khrapov S.A. - The phenomenon of "Russian religious socialism": N. Berdyaev about the specifics of socialism and the Soviet reality pp. 21-33


Abstract: The subject of the article is that socialism as a specific historical form of existence spiritual and social reality. The research urgency is caused by the significance of the socialist period of Russian history, as well as the 100th anniversary of the 1917 revolution. The aim of the study is a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of socialism, it really is historical manifestations and idealistic nature in the context of the religious philosophy of N.. Berdyaev, by means of social-philosophical and theological analysis. The subject of the research is concretized in the following sections of the article: "problem", "the transformation of the ideas of Marxism in "religious socialism", "a"Religious socialism" and the Soviet reality". The research methodology is based on the principles of comparativism, systematic and interdisciplinary. The authors used historical-philosophical, socio-philosophical, socio-cultural, socio-theological approaches to the analysis of socialism as a specific historical form of existence spiritual and social reality. The novelty of the research is reflected in the following conclusions: 1. The transformation of the ideas of Marxism in Russian "religious socialism", is one of the most important paradoxical social and cultural processes of the Russian history of the XX century, largely reflecting ambivalence of the Russian national character and contradictory nature of the "soul" of the Russian people. A theocratic form of socialism in our country was inevitable, because of her religious-transcendental civilizational grounds. That is why socialism is so quickly became the ideal and the real spheres of social life. 2. An extremely important feature of the theocratic nature of Russian socialism is its bearer - the Soviet people – a phenomenon quite unique in history. It characterized, in our view, three main feature.First, it's ideological. Not ideological, and ideology. It is not about political ideology, and psychological characteristics. Ideas for Soviet people was more important than life itself. Ideas for him was the ideal life, and therefore become a kind of idols. The Soviet people were looking for a lofty ideal, strive for it and your life necessarily correlated with it. Communism was presented to the Soviet man ideal, but only because he is set to ideal. Otherwise, any ideal becomes a mere phraseology.Secondly, romanticism. Without him, the Soviet people simply would not have survived the stresses of everyday life in socialist reality. Thirdly, morality, bordering on religiosity. Soviet morality, values which did not differ from the universal-religious, in fact was the basis, if I may say so, the Soviet religion.3. The Soviet system was a theocracy, because above all he proclaimed not only spiritual, but even of religious values, imbuing socialism with transcendental meanings. Socialism was based on the romance of the soul, he displaces the soul of man from material and social life in areas of significantly elevated, more spiritual, being in which she can find romanticism. Socialism does not allow the human soul to fall to the ground, because for him it means death. That is why in the years of socialism there have been many brilliant creations of culture. The Soviet system, in fact, ceased to exist, when this exalted qualities came down to earth realism and the basest pragmatism.
Political philosophy
Garshin N.A. - Phenomenon of ideology in the context of crisis of the symbolic pp. 34-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is the existence of classic ideologies (conservatism, liberalism, socialism, and nationalism) in modern world and their interaction with the coeval social movements and ideas in the context of crisis of the symbolic. The article raises the question about fate of the phenomenon of ideology, necessity of certain changes within the space of discourse of the ideologies and modern social movements. Special attention is given to the correspondence of modernized ideologies to its principles, factors of rise and decline under the current conditions. Relevance of this work consists in the fact that due to the indicated above properties of ideology, alongside the old, firmly established ideologies, emerge the new ones, the status of which has not yet been fully clarified, so is their role and impact upon the local and global sociopolitical processes. At the same time, due to the growing importance of mass media and Internet, similar phenomena and social movements deserve and demand particular attention, because in the current tense political situation, one or another actions in one part of the planet are able to provoke chain reaction around the globe.
Social dynamics
Rostovtseva M.V., Khokhrina Z.V. - Social adaptation and social contradiction pp. 46-53


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of social adaptation and the underlying social contradictions, which are resolved by an individual during interaction with the society. The authors describe the developmental stages of contradiction that correspond with the developmental stages of adaptation cycle. Interacting with social environment, an individual faced the differences and discrepancies of his own peculiarities with the specificities and demands of the social environment. Detection of the external differences conduces a person to immerse into his inner world and look for the answers aimed at searching harmony with social ambiance namely within it. In other words, the external contradiction encourages the inner struggle of personality with itself, motivates to self-analysis, self-reflection, mental and physical activity in search for resolution of a problem. The article determines the stages of adaptation process that correspond with the developmental stages of contradiction, as well as formulates classification of contradictions, which includes the following: contradictions of objective character, associated with the incompletion of an action; contradiction that necessitates the choice of a new action; contradiction associated with insufficient maturity or absence of necessary resources for adaptation; and contradiction associated with completion of an action. A definition is provided of social adaptation as a relationship between personality and environment, aimed at resolution of the emerging contradictions between them.
Characteristics of society
Leushkin R.V. - Virtual social space: conceptual framework of the research pp. 54-63


Abstract: This article deals with the concepts and terms necessary for understanding the virtual social space. It is considered as a new dimension for existence of social communication. The virtual social space is comprehended as an ontological horizon generated by the refraction of the anthropological structures in social communication systems. The structures of human existence with their natural impulses and "vectors" inevitably adapt to the tough conditions of virtual communication systems. As a result of this process, the work explicates such existential and notional form as a virtual social construct. This study is based on the theoretical foundation of structuralism, concept of social constructivism, and actively applies the concepts of poststructuralist philosophy. During the course of the research, the author developed a categorical apparatus, which allows a theoretical conceptualization of the virtual social space alongside the variety of phenomena associated with it. The author also describes the prospects and limits of the presented socio-ontological research, as well as determines the existential condition of its existence, such as the expression of communicative invariant structures in the virtual social construct.
Philosophy of history
Gizha A.V. - Ontology of subject of a historical action: paradigmatic exhaustiveness of the past and variations of the future pp. 64-74


Abstract: This article examines the formation of ontology of human world, which carries a historical-paradigmatic character. The structure of philosophical discourse that has a triadic form of realization was previously specified. The author indicates a noticeable discrepancy between the achieved concretion of a philosophical thought and its practical demand in society. This, in turn, leads to an inevitable one-sidedness and deficiency of the thought itself alongside the social practice, when development of societies is defined by the increscent dominant matrix-paradigmatic aggressiveness and general deception. This is namely the form of ontological obscurity, which intensifies prior to the historical liberation or dawn. The author asserts the semantic exhaustiveness of the existing paradigmatic foundation of historical-civilizational movement, which carries a natural character. Exit into the humanistically sensible future is possible by the virtue of shifting towards the paradigm of human  existence, which is intelligible in the context of rational practice. Outside the subject application of its theorizations, philosophy cannot consider its action accomplished, but currently it is not even on the agenda.  
Meaning and silence
Krasikov V.I. - "Great ice drift of the Russian thought": fusion of two traditions of the Russian philosophy pp. 75-87


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in examination of the dynamics of confrontation between two fractions of the Russian thought in the 1830’s – 1840’s: major “platforms” and most noticeable (focal) discussions, during the course of which have been discovered the publicly known leaders and their main ideas. The object of this article is the social and ideological clash that took place during this timeframe, while the subject is the intrigue and structure of this clash, which had formed the two opposing groups with the diametrically different theoretical platforms that have become the permanent characters of the Russian intellectual stage. The applied methodology leans on R. Collins' theory of "intellectual evolutions": the field of intellectual attention, focal discussions, and bloom of creativity through the opposition and rivalry. As the author believes, the examined theoretical collision for the first time has divided the intellectuals of two capitals into the groups, which formed their own stable consciousness, acquired historical genealogy, put forward the symbols of their group unity, dealt with succession, and supported the line of confrontation even up until now. The scientific novelty of the study lies in reviewing the dynamics of fraction genesis in the context of specificity of the three different discursive platforms of that time: secular saloons, university courses, and "journal wars”.
Chubatov A. - Battle for the experience: phenomenology vs. empiricism pp. 88-100


Abstract:  The ultimate source of knowledge is the experience. Habitualness of this reasoning disturbs to think it over to the end. Being faithful to the experience in form of ἀρχή means for the philosophy the inability to find reliance in one or another theory. This leads to debunking of a myth, according to which the philosophy based on experience is empiricism (particularly, is thematized the mythology of “eternal subjects” and “sensations”). At the baseline of empiricism lies a certain theory of experience, rather than experience. The only breakthrough towards life experience within the framework of empiricism was realized by George Berkeley, but at the end, he also drowned in its personalistic metaphysics. In turn, philosophy faithful to experience, which preceded all of its theories, manifests in form of phenomenology, not only rejecting the composition of theories, but meticulously exfoliating the intergrown into the experience theoretical constructs, disaffiliating from the authority innumerous unconscious theories that silently predetermine our knowledge before we start using it. Namely such step allows heading from an opinion towards vision, from the theory in a modern sense of word towards the Greek θεωρία – contemplation. This turn received the most capacious reflection in the famous slogan “Back, to the things themselves”. Give things the ability to talk for themselves – that is what the philosophy is outlived by. Particularly the faithfulness to experience as the contact point with the world allows the things themselves to manifest for narration. Again, namely the ultimate faithfulness to the experience represents the key feature of phenomenology. Thus, this article can be considered as introduction to phenomenology.  
Dasein of the human being
Kuchukov M.M., Kuchukova Z.M. - Ideal origins and existence of forms of planetarization of socio-historical subjectness pp. 101-113


Abstract: At the brink of the XX and XXI centuries, planetary community joins and makes self-realizing society the fear of current and expected tectonic shifts in the system of modern world order. There have emerged an immense field of panhuman tension; processes of chaotization of social life became usual; significant changes of lifestyle of a man took place. Conceptualization of the happening social transformation is realized in the context of the notion “globalization”. But the constructs of worldwide society, created within the paradigm of globalization, appeared to be so manifold and contradictory that led to the blurring of understanding of social nature and content of the events. The question of what takes place at present time, meaning of global changes, and contours of the possible future at the brink of centuries became the subject of acute interest. The goal of this research consists in determination of the key link that sets unity for the diversified links taking place within the world system transformations. The work is realized based on the following suppositions: in human sociality, as a trend of evolutionary processes, exists the phenomenon of planetarization of socio-historical subjectness; specificity of the transformation processes of globalization eta lies not in globalization, but rather changes or the already emerged practice of influencing the content and form of existence of the socio-historical subjectness at planetary level. The scientific novelty is defined by the following: logic and argumentation of introducing into the scientific discourse of the world system transformation of the notion of “planetarization of socio-historical subjectness”; conceptualization of social content and role of the indicated phenomenon, which is able to become the foundation for centering, systematization, and comprehension of the happening transformation process of the world system; determination of the forms of existence of phenomena at the level of functionality of psycho-physiological and mental structures of a man, consciousness, and self-consciousness, and social formations.
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