Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 03/2017
Contents of Issue 03/2017
Methodology of philosophical learning
Gizha A.V. - Axiomatic prerequisites of ostensibility of the discourse of socio-humanitarian studies pp. 1-11


Abstract: The object of this research is the relevant problems of methodology of cognition of the socio-humanitarian disciplines, substantiated primarily by the conceptual openness of historical processes and cultural systems.  Special attention is given to highlighting and typification of the main prerequisites of reasoning of this matter, which as a rule, differ by weak reflexivity, but carry an imperative status of preliminary axiomatics. The author determine the initial prerequisites that lead to disruption of the semantic conceptual coherence of the conducted discourse. Due to this fact, emerges the question about the corresponding terminological discursive language, referential to being complex (open) systems. Philosophical method of concretization of the introduced notions is applied in the context of realization of the axiomatic reduction. Its success is defines by the possibility of conduction an actual textual analysis based on the corresponding characteristic texts. The main conclusion of this work consist in the thesis that the crucial factor of the openness of sociocultural systems establishes the limit of applicability of the natural scientific research methodologies, which use a mandatory procedure of formalization of an object in terms of the experimental scheme and mathematical modelling. Attempts of the direct formalization in social works lead to ineradicable abstractness, and thus, dogmatism of interpretations. The author analyses the two main types of ostensible axiomatics, which result in the lack of accurateness of the humanitarian research. The first derives from the deformation of conceptual description of the system, while the second emerges due to the nonvanishing practice of neo-scholastic theorization.
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Nilogov A.S. - Michael Polanyis concept of tacit knowledge as a foreknowledge of the philosophy of anti-language pp. 12-35


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the concepts of personal knowledge of the British methodologist Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), according to which any knowledge handled by a scholar always carries an individual imprint. A private example of this concept is the hypothesis about the existence of tacit (implicit) knowledge, which is suggested in gnoseological experience by the virtue of using the language. The anti-language interpretation of the hypothesis of tacit knowledge comprises the problematic part of the work, during the course of which was possible to plan the heuristic decisions based on the non-standard semiotic and meta-semiotic material. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the following: the concept of tacit knowledge is of Polanyi is interpreted through the concrete base of anti-language data, by means of which this concept becomes methodologically accurate. In turn, the consideration of the linguistic intuitions of Polanyi allowed confirming a number of anti-language hypothesis that illustrate the sphere of the inexpressible in both, language and meta-language of science.
History of ideas and teachings
Markhinin V. - Walter Burkert. Plato or Pythagoras? On the origins of the word "philosophy" (Translated from the German by Vasily V. Markhinin.Translation abridged notes) pp. 36-51


Abstract: Walter Burkert (1931 - 2015) - was an outstanding German classicist with a worldwide reputation. His studies are notable for their broad cultural outlook, deep erudition, and the utilization of an extensive range of sources on ancient history and culture; including his strong knowledge of the intricacies of ancient Greek and Latin languages. For the development of national antiquity studies, it is important that the largest possible number of interested Russian readers have the opportunity to become acquainted with the works of such an outstanding expert. The translation of his works, in this case from the German, is intended to serve this goal. The article Plato or Pythagoras? On the Origins of the Word Philosophy" is still influential when it comes to academic literature on this issue, and, of course, will not lose its value in the foreseeable future. The subject of the study, referred to in the title - is the origins of the Greek word "philosophy" - and it reveals the entire array of available resources by using data on the etymology of typologically close (according to the author) ancient Greek words. The process of origin of the word "philosophy" is considered within the context of socio-cultural history of the classical period of Greek antiquity. His arsenal of research methods includes the historical-comparative, historical and genetic analysis, the typology method, the hermeneutic approach, and methods of classical philology. For the first time, this article substantiates the conclusion that the word "philosophy", with its well-known meaning, which stands in opposition to "love of wisdom" and strictly speaking "wisdom" as well as "lover of wisdom" and "sage", arose only as a result of Plato's intellectual creativity. The author pursues a thought that even if Pythagoras or another thinker among the Presocratics had used the word "philosophy" (philosopher), it was not in the sense of the aforementioned opposition, but rather in the sense in which the word "philosophy" appears as a synonym for the word "wisdom". This interpretation of origin and meaning of the word "philosophy" creates a new perspective of the history of ancient philosophy, which differs from the one adopted by the majority of experts, and thus, results in the need for its deeper comprehension.
Social philosophy
Lagunova I.S. - The evolution of perception of personality and modern transformation of consciousness pp. 52-60


Abstract: This article indicates the problem of the impact of scientific technical progress upon the modern development of personality and transformation of its values. For formation of the more extensive perception of the depth of human self-consciousness and strive for development, the author refers to the key stages of evolution of the notion of “personality”. The differences in approaches towards definition of personality in the Western, Eastern, and Russian civilizations are highlighted. The author determines the modern directions in understanding of personality, highlighting the most drastic and most acceptable, which contribute into mutual understanding between the people of diverse cultures. The author identifies the essence of negative influence of the modern technologies upon personality, as well as indicates the need for comprehension of the assigned problem by society. The current changes in mass consciousness and “forgetting” of the richness of human personality define the relevance and importance of the problem. In conclusion, the author suggest the possible ways and prospect for resolution of this problem.
The history of humanitarian science
Leontyev G.D. - Retrospective of the utopic discourse pp. 61-76


Abstract:  This article reviews a number of utopic socio-philosophical constructs within the historical retrospective. Using the example of Thomas More’s “Utopia”, an attempt is made to differentiate the perception of the ideal structures during various historical eras, as well as explain the objective reason of ambiguity of their purposeful impact. Based on analysis of the political and economic substantiation of the acceptance or rejection by society of the philosophical utopic ideas for improving the government structure alongside the differences in conceptual interpretation of utopic as the ideal, the author reveals the theoretical ambiguity of fundamental notion of the “utopic”. The historical insight has demonstrated the social determinedness of dual understanding of the “utopic”’: as a positive “utopic”, strategically relevant project, as well as negative “utopist”, inapplicable for realization of the social thought process. Thus, it can be claimed that not every ideal is “utopic”, while the “utopic” is always understood as he ideal model emerged for the criticism of actual reality. The conclusion is made that utopia as the ideal or alternative to the existing project of the future, is able to develop the actual social being, introducing the meaningful ideas of the world structure, as well as manifests a drastic factor of its destruction in search of the transcendental ideal.  
Religions and religious renaissance
Zhirtueva N. - Muslim Sufism in the context of comparative analysis of philosophical and mystical traditions of the world pp. 77-91


Abstract: The object of the research in this article is Sufism as Muslim mystical tradition. The Research is carried out in the context of comparative analysis of the philosophical and religious traditions of the world according to the three essential attitudes: 1) the substance of the Absolute; 2) the intersubordination of ideal and phenomenal beings; 3) the methods of mystic phychopractice. Sufism is complicated and contradictory philosophical and religious world view. Antinomical mystics of Islam is characterized as balancing between the immanent and transcendent poles in the perception of Absolute reality, a mixed solution of the issue of intersubordination of ideal and phenomenal beings, variety of mystical phychopractices.Methodology of the study: comparative philosophical religious analysis. The main method of the study: comparative analytical. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, individualization, historical narrative.The most influential mystical tradition of Islam is transcendental immanent (antinomical) Sufism aimed at “union” with the Absolute (tawhid). “The Doctrine of Love" contributed to the formation of the integrative mystical tradition. The methods of Sufism phychopractice are love-trust to the Absolute (dhikr, tawakkul), meditative contemplation of the Absolute (fikr), disciplinary asceticism (halva), psychosomatic exercise (sama). The result of mystical practice is transfiguration of the person, who is endowed with moral qualities of the Absolute.
Philosophical anthropology
Bushueva T.I., Korkunova O.V. - The problem of consciousness in the light of K. Jungs concept pp. 92-104


Abstract: This article examines the problem of consciousness, as well as demonstrates the evolution in interpretation of the phenomenon of consciousness over the past century. In historical aspect, is illustrated the path of interpretation of the phenomena of consciousness and the unconscious. The authors analyze the contribution of S. Freud and K. Jung into solution of the problem consciousness in psychoanalysis. The accent is also made on examination of new impact of the achievements of K. Jung in revelation of the nature of the unconscious upon the process of perceiving the phenomenon of consciousness. The research of this process correlates with the process of development of personality. The article applies the methods of comparison and analysis, classification and generalization, unity of the historical and the logical in revelation of nature and interaction between consciousness and the unconscious. In conclusion, the authors identify the existence of the internal determinant of human consciousness, which plays a significant role in formation of its content and development of personality.
Dasein of the human being
Borisov S.V. - Practicing philosophy in daily life pp. 105-118


Abstract: This article is intended for those who would like to learn practicing philosophy in everyday life for improving its quality, making efficient decisions, establishing communication skills,  as well as ability to find a peaceful solution to the conflicts. Philosophical practice can be integrated into the ordinary lifestyle of a human, while philosophizing can be of practical value. Philosophizing can carry a therapeutic (psychological component) alongside developing (intellectual component) functions, which mutually complement each other. Practicing philosophy, philosophizing can be realized differently. However, an effective guidance can consist not in the “scholastic” academic tradition, but rather such worldview questions and issues that are present in the ordinary life. The goal lies in the ability to raise these issues to the level of philosophical reflection. The scientific novelty of this wok substantiates that philosophy can be presented as combination of the principles and practical skills, which a person have at their disposal or put at disposal of other to manifest care for the self and others (in existential perception). In addition to this, philosophical practice can influence the dominant academic philosophy in a sense that can provide a necessary advantage for the critical examination of philosophizing from the perspective of its importance in the daily life.  
Philosophy of science and education
Iashin B.L. - Ethnomathematics and ethnologic pp. 119-130


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of universality (singularity) and uniqueness (plurality) of the “first” or “experienced” mathematics and ordinary logic of reasoning. The article discusses the possibility of application of the sociocultural approach that efficiently functions in ethnomathematics, studying of the logical reasoning within the historical context. The author demonstrates that in modern history and philosophy of mathematics, there are two opposing points of view: supporters of the first one substantiate the singularity, universality of the “first” or “experienced” mathematics, while supporters of the second uphold the idea of plurality of mathematics, explained by the impact of sociocultural factors upon its development. It is underlined, that at present time, a similar situation can be noticed with regards to the problem of universality of the logic of reasoning. The scientific novelty consists on presentation of comparative analysis of the two opposing points of view pertaining to the universality/plurality of the logic of reasoning if compared with the analogous circumstances in mathematics. The following conclusions are made: 1) the question of universality, i.e. singularity for the entire population of the Earth, or uniqueness, plurality, close interconnection of the logic of ordinary reasoning (as the “first mathematics” with the culture that it emerges within and produces significant impact, remains relevant for the modern science and philosophy; 2) such question in many way correlates with the problem of occurrence of the abstract reasoning, as well as reasoning in general; 3) it would be appropriate at present stage to introduce the notion of “ethnologic” for assigning the area of research that examine the role of sociocultural factors in establishment of the ordinary logic in historical development.
Controversy and debate
Dul'zon A.A. - Sustainable development and resource efficiency: problems and contradiction pp. 131-148


Abstract: The subject of this research is the increasing disruption in sustainability of the Earth biosphere, associated with the fact that the system of direct and opposite connections of natural processes is not able to manage the conditions for the existence of living creatures. The central problem, upon which depends the sustainable development and even existence of human population, consists in the restoration of balance between the volume of the extracted natural resources alongside the volume of waste products and the ability of nature to reestablish equilibrium. Namely such equilibrium ensures the ability of biome to preserve the conditions necessary for the existence of living creatures on Earth. The article considers the published over the recent years works of the Russian and foreign authors pertaining to the problem of sustainable development. The main conclusion lies in the fact that the expansion of human activity beyond the biological capacity of Earth inevitably leads to the point of bifurcation, as a result of which, the nature will most likely rid itself of human population. There are yet no ways for resolution of this issue, but the need for the change of paradigm of socioeconomic development is rather evident. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that unlike the trends within the Western scientific literature and politics, namely the presented approach is an intrinsic condition of survival for the earth dwellers.
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