Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 02/2017
Contents of Issue 02/2017
Question at hand
Volkov D. - Resolution of the question of mental causation in biological naturalism of John Searle pp. 1-12


Abstract:  The object of this research is the modern analytical philosophy, while the subject is the resolution of question of mental causation in biological naturalism of the analytical philosopher John Searle. The author examines the key aspects of the theory of biological naturalism and analyzes their internal compatibility. Special attention is given to the main arguments and analogies, provided by J. Searle as the substantiation of possibility of mental causation. During the course of this work, the author determines the strongest and weakest aspects in the position of American philosopher, as well as suggests the ways to resolve the question of mental causation. The article presents a research in the area of history of the modern analytical philosophy, thus the key method of research is the historical-philosophical. The author uses textological analysis of the philosophical works, particularly of J. Searle, as well as conducts reconstruction of his views. The problem of mental causation is one of the key subjects of the research in modern analytical philosophy, it consists in the attempt to explain the possibility of causal efficiency of metal properties within the framework of naturalistic perception of the world. The biological naturalism of John Searle serves as one of the resolutions of this issue. This solution combines the theses on the ontological non-reduction of mental states, mental causation, and causation of closeness of the physical world. Searle attempts to naturalize consciousness, demonstrating that the mental causation is similar to the causation of high-level characteristics. The author pursues correlation between this analogy and the main theses of Searle. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the internal controversies in resolution of the issues of mental causation of J. Searle. The author believes that the more promising resolution of the problem of mental causation is particularly the teleological functionalism of Daniel Dennett.   
Philosophy of knowledge
Volkov D. - Psychological approach as a solution for the problem of sameness of identity pp. 13-25


Abstract: The problem of sameness of identity within the modern analytical philosophy consists of two aspects: question about identification, and question about re-identification. However, such approach faces the problem of reduplication, which is determined by the modern philosophers B. Williams and D. Parfit in conceptual experiments “Guy Fawkes” and “Teleportation”. In the author’s opinion, there are three main ways of overcoming the problem of reduplication: criticism of conceptual experiments; additional criterion of the absence of duplicates; and four-dimensional model of identity. It is demonstrated that the first two ways lead to substantial difficulties for the psychological theory of the sameness of identity. The conclusion is made that namely the third ways is the most promising for the psychological theories. The object of this work is the problem of sameness of identity within the modern analytical philosophy, particularly the question of re-identification of personality in various moments of time. The subject of this work consists in psychological approach towards the aforementioned issue. According to this approach, one personality is identical to personality in different time, if there is a psychological succession between them. The scientific novelty consists in the author’s proposition on the introduction of the four-dimensional concept of personality. Despite the fact that the psychological approach is the most widespread in modern analytical philosophy, at the present stage there are very few works dedicated to the analysis of this theory. Moreover, there are no special research regarding the ways of overcoming the problem of reduplication from the perspective of the supporters of psychological approach.
The new paradigm of science
Ursul A.D., Ursul T.A. - Global cosmic revolution in science pp. 26-45


Abstract: Basing on the evolutionary concept of anthropogeocosmism and cosmo-globalistics, the authors argue the point of view about the beginning of spread of the more extensive process – the global cosmic scientific revolution. This process begins to evolve on the basis of integration of the global and cosmic research, gradually capturing the broader scientific space. It is also demonstrated that over the recent time, under the influence of global factors and processes, the science faces a completely new global revolution, which substantially differ from the previously determined, even because the term “global” is applied in qualitative-conceptual, as well as spatial-geographic and spatial-cosmological meanings. The authors examine two opposing vectors of movement in cognizing the phenomenon of globality: one from the cosmos towards the vision of global characteristics and integrity of the mankind and planet; and the other – from the planet itself, local places of people’s places of residencies towards the global boundaries, and further – to outer space. For substantiation of universality of the global-cosmic revolution, science as a whole is divided into the two new groups (cluster): earthly and cosmic sciences, which in their number are inequitable. This dichotomic division, pointed by V. I. Vernadsky, can complement the existing classification of sciences. The authors believe that since the end of the previous century and beginning of the current century, the temporal-linear “revolutionary movement” of science does not end in general, but rather yields to the “multi-revolutionary approach” of general integrative nature. This is not just the interdisciplinary unification n of the global and cosmic revolutions into one whole, but also other manifestations of poly- and interdisciplinary in composition and content of the scientific revolutions. The essence of such complex-integrative scientific phenomenon consists in emergence of an entire complex of revolutions, rather than just “another” scientific revolution. The global cosmic revolution is joined by information cybernetic revolution, ecological revolution, temporal revolution (primarily the process of futurization), as well as a number of other universally global revolutions in science that create a cognitive foundation for the establishment of noosphere, the idea of which in our country was proposed by V. I. Vernadsky.
History of ideas and teachings
Korotkikh V.I. - A. D. Vlasovs Table of Speculative Elements pp. 46-54


Abstract: The subject of this article is the original interpretation of Hegelian philosophy, which was suggested by A. D. Vlasov two decades ago, but remains non-demanded within the Russian historical-philosophical science. The author gives characteristic to the peculiarities of the forms and content of A. D. Vlasov’s work, as well as highlights certain aspects that can activate the research of Hegelian heritage by the Russian historians of philosophy. The article particularly examines A. D. Vlasov’s ideas on the boundaries of Hegel’s philosophical system, its composition, specificities of the structure of thingness of the “Phenomenology Of Spirit” and its method. This work is first to analyze the Hegelian-studies concept that significantly differs from Marxist approach towards examination of Hegel’s philosophy dominant during the Soviet time, as well as the “scientific Hegelian studies” of the latest decades, within the framework of which is rejected the possibility of raising a question about the “synchronic” connections in Hegelian system of philosophy. The author attempts to prove that the application of suggested by A. D. Vlasov ideas can contribute into rethinking of the theoretical content of Hegelian philosophy and its place within the history of philosophy and culture.
Political philosophy
Balakleets N.A. - War, Politics and Subject: Carl von Clausewitz philosophy of war activity pp. 55-70


Abstract: The subject of this article is the war concept of Carl von Clausewitz, presented in his work "On War" ("Vom Kriege"). The article explains the importance of the theoretical heritage of the German General for philosophical discourse. The article contains detailed review of such elements of Clausewitz's theory, as the relationship of war and politics, structure and characteristics of war activity. Particular attention is paid to the temporal aspects of war activity, as well as the analysis of its subject. Based on the numerous, including non-translated into Russian theoretical sources (R. Aron, H. Münkler, U. Kleemeier, W. Palaver, R. Girard, M. Foucault, J. Law et al.), the author explicates heuristic potential and methodological significance of Clausewitz's ideas with regard to the current state of society.Along with the general theoretical research methods the author uses poststructuralist and hermeneutical methodology as well as the method of comparative analysis of philosophical doctrines.The novelty of the study lies in the detection of the variety of philosophical issues (including methodological) implicitly represented in Clausewitz war theory. The author comes to the conclusion that the relationship between war and politics analyzed in "Vom Kriege" is complex and controversial. The special contribution of the author consists in the explication of biopolitical ideas in the teaching of the German theorist, as well as in the explanation of the relevance of the category of subject in Clausewitz interpretation to modern management philosophy.
Self-consciousness and identity
Sharova V. - Russia as Europe: the European foundations of civilizational identity of Russia pp. 71-83


Abstract: The subject of this article is the reasoning on the correlation between the objective-spatial (geographic) and symbolic (political-philosophical and cultural) foundations of the Russian identity. The object of critical understanding is the thesis “Russia is not Europe”: being relatively new to the Russian sociopolitical language, in our opinion, throughout many decades and even centuries, it remains in philosophical discussion “what is Russia” per se, what its civilizational specificity consists of, as well as how sustainable or variable this specificity is. The positions of the article are revealed from the perspective of constructivist approach in humanitarian science, which suggests that, the categories of identity (ethnic, national, civilizational, etc.) do not exists as the objective constants, but originate within the certain sociocultural context and transform within it. The main conclusion lies in the following supposition: consideration of Russia as the objective “Other” of Europe causes doubts, as well as the existence of certain unvaried cultural-civilizational code that is principally non-European or even anti-European in its essence. The article reveals correlation between the number of notions: “individual freedom – Russian Europeanism – reform and revolution”, which allows taking another look upon the certain aspects of Russian identity.
Value and truth
Suvorova O.S. - Is a health perceived as a personal value? pp. 84-98


Abstract: The subject of research is the anthropological foundation and features of personal health’s evaluation. The object of research is epistemological characteristics of formation of representations about health as well as socio-cultural and personal determinants of its evaluation. The author examines in detail those aspects of the topic, as the relationship of the cognitive and axiological in the formation of the health’s image, its place in the system of personal knowledge, importance of communication with the Other to understand and assess the state of own health. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of contemporary culture’s influence on the attitude to health. The research is based on philosophical-anthropological, epistemological, axiological, cultural-philosophical methodological orientations, using the ideas of phenomenology, existentialism, post-classical psychoanalysis, post-structuralism.The novelty of research is connected with systematic philosophical analysis of phenomenon of a health. It was found that «the image of own health» is formed in the individual consciousness; this image can be incorporated into the personal implicit knowledge or into the spotlight. The personal image of health is related to the patterns of culture, first of all, to the image of health typical for culture of everyday life. The personal image is also connected partly with scientific concepts of health. It is proved that the axiological attitude to health has socio-cultural, ontological, epistemological and existential foundations. Accordingly, the perception of oneself as a healthy man is presented (1) as a condition for a full life and productive activities, (2) as the basis of human confidence in their existence, (3) as a factor of the weakening of the metaphysical fear of death. There are identified main types of situations connected with perception of health or illness (from the state of confidence in own health to severe disease). It is proved that new interpretation and re-evaluation of personal «image of own health» take place in such situations.
The history of humanitarian science
Krasikov V.I. - World and human in the concepts of ontological personalism: Wilhelm Leibniz and Max Scheler pp. 99-108


Abstract: The goal of this work consists in the comparative analysis of the world-building schemes of ontological personalism of Wilhelm Leibniz and Max Scheler. The author thoroughly examines the conceptual scheme of world structure of Leibinz, underlining certain modifications that later were introduced by his successors. Particular attention is given to the analysis of Scheler’s original teaching, in which there character of interaction between the main ontological factors is changed. Thus, the author pursues correlation between the models of human behavior in the world of Leibniz and Scheler that differ, although their ontological models are similar. This difference is explained by the change in sociocultural continuum, in which takes place the search of the meaning of life. Personalistic understanding of the reality and corresponding forms of human self-determination in it, perhaps most appropriately reflect the necessary-universal essence of metaphysics. The author compares the ontological schemes of personalism of Leibinz and Scheler by reviewing the modification options of their key components. The connection is established between the ontological suggestions and deriving from them forms of human self-determination. It is demonstrated that the similar world-building schemes can lead to different worldview conclusions due to the radical sociocultural changes.
Fetisova E.E. - Neo-Acmeism of Joseph Brodsky: composition of the mystery The Procession pp. 109-117


Abstract: This article reveals the romantic aesthetic of neo-Acmeism as one of the key directions in literature of the XX century, its concept and specific mythology, which in turn, establishes the poetic world model. The author analyzes the worldview and poetic world of generation of the “Sixtiers”, as well as views its spatial-timely continuum, coordinates, artistic space and time as a peculiar aesthetic and verbal phenomenon. The work introduces the notion of synchronic-reminiscent chronotope, shifted towards the boundaries of the real space and time, by the virtue of which the “monologue on the polyphonic basis” is created in mythology. The author examines the works of Brodsky – poetics, chronotope, and composition of the insignificantly studied poem-mystery “The Procession” with reference to the neo-Acmeist paradigm. In the center of comparativist approach is the resemblance of expressive means of the author’s stylistic, from literary approaches, general phrases, quotes, and allusion to the wholeness of the author’s concept of lyrical plot, artistic space and time – the synchronic-reminiscent chronotope that in a similar way is presented in the mystery “The Procession”, “Poem Without A Hero” by A. Akhmatova, “Divine Comedy” by Dante, antique tragedies and plays of H. Ibsen and A. Strindberg. Comparative analysis and the method of semiotic reconstruction, complementing each other contribute into the detailed decoding of e poetic text. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time the work of Brodsky is subjected to comprehensive interpretation, viewed in light of action of the cultural memory mechanism, and author’s mythology – as the synthesis of form and content. The article analyzes the peculiarities of functionality of neo-Acmeism in external communication with the traditional Acmeism, differentiates the literary groupings and chronological frameworks of the “new Acmeism”, as well as determine the ontological dominants in the works of an “esoteric circle” of the neo-Acmeist “Sixtiers”. This method allows reconstructing the phenomenon of the “Sixtiers”, which comprises the ontological core of neo-Acmeism as a continuous line of post-symbolic and traditionalistic creative work. The author defines the genre innovations and traces the specificity of intercultural communication between the traditional and “Renaissance” Acmeism.
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