Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 09/2016
Contents of Issue 09/2016
Philosophy of religion
Urbanaeva I.S. - Buddhist approach towards the problem of a man in comparative coverage pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20457

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Buddhist way of conceptualization of the human problem that is being revealed in the context of comparison with the fact, which place a “man” held within the rationalistic philosophical tradition of the West. The author examines the philosophical foundation of the Buddhist model of evolution of identity in the wheel of being (Bhavacakra) according to the formula of the twelve links of dependent origination – the most important doctrine in the Buddhist ontology of dependent origination (Pratītyasamutpāda, rten’brel) and its distinct features, as well as its connection with the other essential philosophical theory of Buddhism – theory of emptiness in interpretation of Prasaṅgika –  the subschool of Madhyamaka. The methodology of this research is based on the principles of comparative philosophical study of Buddhism, formulated by one of the founders of the philosophical Buddhology Russian philosopher and orientalist O. O. Rozenberg, as well as the hermeneutic ideas of M. Heidegger on the dialogue with the Other and the need for understanding the “sacredness of being” and the connection between the man and reality. The scientific novelty consists in the comparison of the Buddhist way of conceptualization of the problem of a man with the Western rationalistic tradition of studying a man, as well as determination of a number of specific characteristics of the Buddhist anthropology. The author concludes that unlike the Western philosophy, the anthropomorphism is not typical for the Buddhist philosophy; a man is not the criterion of all the things, and is not considered self-evident, but rather something relative in the circle of unfree being; but at the same time, it has the complete potential for achieving the freedom and realization of the limitless resources of consciousness, the possibility of which finds the substantiation in the doctrine of dependent origination, theory of emptiness, and theory of tathāgatagarbha. In understanding of the Buddhist philosophers, a human does not have its own internal nature; a human is a dependently emerged phenomenon, and thus, he can transform or rid, and the suffering comprising the content of the unfree being can be irrevocably eliminated.
Ontology: being and nihility
Tsendrovskiy O. - The notion of being (Seyn) in M. Heideggers philosophy and its methodological peculiarities pp. 18-36

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.19068

Abstract: This article conducts a thorough analysis of the fundamental for M. Heidegger’s doctrine notion of being (das Sein/Seyn), as well as resulting from it interpretations of the methodological peculiarities of the thinker. In a paradoxical way, within the scientific tradition of the study of Heidegger’s heritage, the question about the specific content of the notion of being is revealed briefly and unsatisfactory, even despite its paramount importance. The author makes an attempt to eliminate this flaw carefully examining all of the existing conceptual layers of Heidegger’s Seyn. The work present a detailed review of the peculiar features of the philosophical thought of Heidegger, which directly originate from the understanding of its main subject – the being. The described analysis is conducted in accordance with the text written after a so-called “turn” that took place in the philosophy of Heidegger in the 1930’s. It allows avoiding the spread methodological mistake of exaggerating the importance of the “Being of time”; as well as the attempt to interpret a semicentennial development of his though through the prism of a certain book, which in the philosopher’s opinion was unsuccessful. The author’s main contribution lies in the unique for the commentator’s tradition scheme, which suggest the gradual and systemic clarification of the essence of being in the doctrine of Heidegger through the 10 of his fundamental attributes.
Spectrum of consciousness
Dimitrova S. - About the role of cognition within the conscious action pp. 37-43

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20387

Abstract: The object of this research became the situations, under which the efficient technological activity imposes the goals for development and strategies to man and society. The subject of this research is the search and determination of the “regimes of consciousness” aimed at establishment of the personal being. The author formulates the limits of the intentional acts of cognition and self-consciousness that represent the objective meanings on the world and human. Consciousness manifests not within the formulated meanings, but within the possibility of understanding, allowing to include into the content of consciousness everything that has been cognized. During the course of this research, the author conducted the analysis and interpretation of the philosophical work of the Pope Paul John II “Human Personality and Action”. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that consciousness is defined not by the objective criteria, established in the process of the intentionally targeted cognitive activity, but rather the way of existence of personality. In the “regime of conscious action”, personality manifests itself, as well as carries responsibility for its own actions.
Space and time
Gizha A.V. - The social time: constructive definition, exhaustive conceptualization, or categorical fiction? pp. 44-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.18251

Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of methodological correctness of introduction of the notion of social time. The categories of time and space are determine in classical physics as the main theoretical elements of science. Considering the rich experience in formulation of the conceptual images of time in natural sciences, the author pursues comparison of the stages of development of the scientific methodology, as well as methodology of the socio-humanitarian research. Currently there has established a fairly stable variable practice of conceptualization of the main categorical meanings of social development, which allows conducting its substantiated and contextual classification simultaneously with the critical understanding of its content and the conceptual-logical correctness of the implemented abstract terminological tools. The requirement of the philosophical concretization of a though in this case is carried out by the obligatory reference to the axiomatic prerequisites of certain interpretations. At the same time, the highlighted axiomaticity itself is subject to the rational-critical examination in the context of determination of their heuristical potential. The main conclusion consists in the statements that the necessary condition for constructiveness of the introduced notion of social time is the realization of the principle of logical expansion, according to which the initial content must be the logical continuation of the corresponding conceptualizations in the theories of natural sciences.
History of ideas and teachings
Korotkikh V.I. - Where lives only: notes on the method and language in Hegels Phenomenology of Spirit pp. 54-65

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20288

Abstract: This article substantiates the opinion that the end of “Introduction” to the “Phenomenology of Spirit” by Hegel contains a mistype, which by the philosopher nor by the researchers of his works. During the process of solution of this task, the author analyzes the structure of the phenomenological thingness and the dynamics of the “experience of consciousness”; specificities of language and style of the “Phenomenology of Spirit”; historical and biographical facts of the philosopher’s creative path that important for the proper understanding of the composition’s concept; as well as the conjecture suggested in the examined piece in the end of the previous century by Georg Lasson. The study of the detected in Hegel’s text difficulty is based on the author’s original understanding of the specificity of the phenomenological narration, in which he gradually distinguish the point of view of the observing consciousness (of the author and the reader) from the point of view of the consciousness-object. This article presents the solution for one of the most significant difficulties in the text of the “Phenomenology of Spirit”, which is yet to be analyzed within the Russian and foreign historical-philosophical literature. The acquired result demonstrates the methodological efficiency of the developed over the years author’s interpretation of Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit”.
Philosophy of science
Brandenburg V.Y. - To the problem of formation of scientific knowledge: from classical science to modern stage pp. 66-73

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20281

Abstract: The subject of research is the widespread in the Russian philosophical-methodological literature, the concept of the historical types of scientific rationality. According to the author, this concept is contradictory and it does not correctly reflect the dynamics of the development of modern scientific knowledge. The article gives a brief historical and philosophical analysis of the basic stages of development of natural science and socio-humanitarian disciplines of the second half of the nineteenth – twentieth centuries. The validity of the time frame of the formation of non-classical rationality and the selection of concepts post-non-classical rationality and post-non-classical science is called into question.The author of the article relies on the methodology of philosophical analysis and scientific methods of system analysis. In particular, general logical, dialectical, critical methods, analysis and synthesis are used.On the basis of the accomplished historical and philosophical analysis, it is proposed to determine the formation of a new (modern) type of rationality and a new image of science the timeframe of the end of 19th – the last third of the 20th centuries. The name «non-classical rationality» and «non-classical science» is offered to retain (by analogy with the notion of non-classical philosophy).
Meaning and silence
Faritov V.T. - "Century of G. Deleuze": ontology of sense and transgression pp. 74-85

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20272

Abstract: This article explores the ontological aspects of the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Main attention is paid to the problems of overcoming of Platonism, transgressive nature of meaning and events. Ontological development G. Deleuze considered in the context of Kant's doctrine of freedom, dialectic G.V.F. Hegel and Nietzsche doctrine of the eternal return. A new version of the reading of the philosophy of freedom Kant. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the specifics of interpretation of the idea of the eternal return, and the explication of the ontological aspect of the present teachings. The article used the methodological guidelines and the installation of post-structuralism. Also used a technique of comparative analysis of philosophical doctrines. The main conclusion of the research is the thesis of the transgressive nature of ontology G. Deleuze. The author substantiates the position that the ontological views of the french thinker are neither metaphysical nor dialectics. Ontology Deleuze prelstavlyaet an ontology transgression. The study shows that being conceived by Deleuze as the eternal return. Thus, the eternal return refers to the philosopher not as a repetition of the same, but as a statement of differences and transgression.
The history of humanitarian science
Goncharov V.V. - The place of man in the system of ontological principles of global constitutionalism pp. 86-100

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20014

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of man's place in the system of philosophical principles of social concept of global constitutionalism. The author substantiates the position that the main goal of the social concept of global constitutionalism is the preservation and development of the world capitalist system (financial-economic basis and the socio-political superstructure).The role of man in this concept, interests and needs, great as in any other power of the social concept.However, this social concept is ultimately inhumane, and directed against the progressive sustainable development of mankind.The author used a number of methods: epistemological; ontology; formal logic; dialectic; statistical; comparative legal; abstract-idealistic; specifically historical. The entire logic of development of the world capitalist system is subjected to the satisfaction of the interests and needs of those social classes, groups and strata of the population, which belongs to power and property in a particular historical time period. Thus, on the one hand, global constitutionalism is aimed egocentrically - to meet the interests and needs of a person. But on the other hand, it protects the interests not only of society, but a narrow group of people who hold power and property. In this case, the interests of the majority are being ignored for the purpose of execution of the main goal of global constitutionalism.
Ethics
Iarkeev A.V. - The ethics between possibility and impossibility pp. 101-108

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20399

Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern being of ethics in the paradoxical-bordering situation of possibility/impossibility. It is demonstrated that the limit of Kant’s ethics, which is being structured from the position of the absolute subjectivity by the analog with the scientific principles of objectivity and universality. The author explains the abstract nature of the categorical imperative, the requirement of which is incompatible with life. The ultimate embodiment of failure of the ethics is the Nazi concentration camps that completely destroy the human dignity and negate any moral. The true ethics is confirmed as possible impossibility or impossible possibility. The methodological foundation of this research lies in the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger, which is based on the principle of the law of identity of the being and reason. The main conclusion consists in the fact that ethnics initially represents the residence of human existence (“ethos”) based on the law of identity between the being and reason, which requires to be in accord with yourself, as well as the entire world. The denial of reason and necessity is accompanied by the nihilation of being constituting in various manifestations of the social evil.  
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