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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 05/2016
Contents of Issue № 05/2016
Philosophy of knowledge
Mikhailov I.A. - The idea of hermeneutic phenomenology pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18562

Abstract: The subject of this research is the causes of “convergence” of the modern methods of philosophical analysis, which in classical phenomenology (Husserl) were considered incompatible, but turned into a stable program in the works of Husserl’s followers (Heidegger, Ricœur). In the first part of the article the author distinguishes the major milestones in the development of the theory of explanation and interpretation that led hermeneutics from texts to interpretation of human being. By clarifying the ontological meaning in Heidegger's philosophy, the author, basing on the general orientations of phenomenology, demonstrates what caused the necessity to combine the phenomenological and hermeneutic methods. The following conclusions are made:In the works of Heidegger and Ricœur the definition of “hermeneutic phenomenology” has two clearly distinct meanings: a) method used for formation of the foundations of scientific knowledge; this method radicalizes the notion of prerequisitness of science by turning to human existence which already contains an explanation, “clarity” of the world (Heidegger); b) method that our cognition of the world has its prerequisites and historicity, as well as language substantiation (Ricœur).It is determined that these two methods also have several significant differences: precisely the “method” is the hermeneutic phenomenology of Heidegger; every step of philosophical study is simultaneously phenomenological and hermeneutical. Ricœur, under his hermeneutic phenomenology, means a rather general philosophical approach, which alternatively applies phenomenological and hermeneutical methodology, as well as allows structuralistic and psychoanalytical techniques, or analysis from the position of common language.
Social philosophy
Sizemskaya I.N. - Power and poet in Russia pp. 16-25

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18816

Abstract: In the center of author’s attention is the problem of “Poet and power”. Examining this issue in the historical retrospect, the author turns to the history of the Russian intelligentsia as the phenomenon of Russian culture, associating its background with the emergence of “military intelligentsia” of the era of Peter the Great. With the reforms of Peter the Great has appeared an educated social class, which combined spiritual work with government service, in other words the direct cooperation with authorities. The result of the joint efforts and the accomplishment of the reforms became the noble culture, the subject of which was Russian art intelligentsia. The article illustrates that on all stages of its history, art intelligentsia following the ideas of Enlightenment, was its carrier and founder, accumulating the ethical and humanistic values and protecting ideas of freedom and social justice. In a constant opposition to the conservative public powers, it protected the right to freedom of will and spiritual (intellectual and artistic) work. Within the framework of the chosen historical-philosophical analysis, the author focuses attention on the fact that the Russian intellectual in comparison with the European intellectual, felt as “outsider” within his own sociopolitical environment, which justified autocracy and general ignorance. The author concludes that the critical attitude towards reality was a constant of self-consciousness of intelligentsia. The author also examines the history of relationship between the art intelligentsia and the government after the October of 1917. The new political regime escalated the dictate of the government through Stalin upon the spiritual life of society. The new victims of new regime became N. Gumilev, O. Mandelshtam, and A. Akhmatova. Their creative path and opposition to the totalitarian regime became a separate subject of research.
Meaning and silence
Matveichev O.A. - Seven wonders of Abaris the Hyperborean pp. 26-34

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18701

Abstract: The article discusses the peculiarities of transformation of the image of Abaris the Hyperborean in connection with the more general question of the cult of newcomers from distant lands who brought into the Hellenic world wisdom that was before unknown. Analysis of historical sources about the life and work of Abaris demonstrates that while it is a quite rational and easy to understand figure in the work of the ancient writers (Pindar, Herodotus, Plato and others), during the Hellenism it had acquired absolutely fantastic features that can be attributed to the general state of public consciousness, characterized by interest in mysticism, irrationalism and exotic cults, and also to the departure in the historical memory of thought, traditions, and metaphysical invariants introduced to Greece in the pre-homeric culture by Indo-European tribes who invaded the Mediterranean-Balkan region. Therefore, the problem placed in front of the researcher is de-mythologization of Abaris' image, which would clear him from the later accretions and reveal his true sides. De-mythologization of image of Abaris not only provides the key to the explanation of the "dark places" of our knowledge of his personality and activity, but also leads us to a broader problem - reception by the ancient Greeks of the Indo-European mental matrix as the most important condition for formation of the modern Western civilization.
Mysteries of the human being
Borisov S.V. - Daseinanalysis as a philosophical practice: philosophical foundations and meditation exercises pp. 35-46

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18697

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ontological and epistemological foundations of Daseinanalysis. The author compares the contribution made by Kant, Kierkegaard, Husserl, Heidegger, and Jaspers into establishment of the theoretical foundation of Daseinanalysis. The main methods of application of Daseinanalysis within the philosophical practice and existential psychotherapy are being described. The article presents the meditation techniques, put together by the author on the methodologies of Binswanger and Yalom, which can be applied in philosophical practice. The article examines the human ability to design world and the main types of relationships between the human and the world. The main conclusion of the research conducted by the author is that Daseinanalysis as a philosophical practice does not recognize any preliminary systems as "privileged" in characteristic of a human, other than those existential structures which phenomenologically are being detected or reported by a human himself. Transcendental structure of the "existential a priori" is the key towards understanding of the world of any man, because it represents a semantic matrix in which all phenomena are in the proper place.
Dasein of the human being
Iakovleva E. - The modern existentials of being: absurd and glamour pp. 47-54

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18780

Abstract: This research is focused on the examination of absurd and glamour that became the key traits of modern man’s presence in being. The contemporary ideology of glamour, absurd in its nature, creates such spaces of the social, where individual assert themselves hypocritically and senselessly, displaying ontological, gnoseological, and axiological transformations. The author determines that absurd is being conceived in being and its gaps between Something and Nothing, which is given dialectically. The cause for of the origin of absurd as Nothing is individual, which consciously belittles Something. The glamorous format of the absurd simulates meanings and actions, covering them with glossy flare, which leads to disruptions in the work of consciousness and a routine situation that torments the individual. The exit from the glamorous absurd can become the involvement into being, associated with reflexivity, intentionality, creative approach, and ethical manifestation. This article is the first to combine absurd and glamour, interconnected in modernity. On one hand, they are created by social/personal and on the other – create grounds for their manifestation in being. Many aspects of absurd and glamour as existentials of being have a negative modus that requires immediate measures on their eradication. 
Myths and modern mythologies
Maydanov A.S. - Comparison of the mythological and scientific imaged of reality as a method of their mutual interpretation pp. 55-86

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.5.18971

Abstract: This article focuses on the development of such methodology, which on one hand will help to interpret the myths, and on the other – contribute into solution of the scientific problems related to the content of these myths. For the successful solution of the stated task, the work joins such spheres of intellectual activity as mythology and archeology. The remarkable oeuvre of the Persian thinkers and poets Avesta acts as a mythological object of this research. The subject is the timber-grave historical-cultural commonness related to Persians. Accent is made on one of the most famous Avestan myths – the myth of Yima. The initial orientation of the research is the idea about the epistemological character of the myth – its informative attitude towards reality. The other initial orientation – is a dual content of the myth, namely a syncretic union of the two opposing elements – factual knowledge and fiction. The developed in the article methodology first and foremost encompasses the procedure of comparing the content of the myths with scientific data from the corresponding area of knowledge. This procedure is being realized with the help of a certain complex of special methods and approaches, particularly the method of translating the content of the myth from allegorical language into the language of words with direct meaning. The author describes the specific methods of creating myths, which introduce a distinct way of reflecting the reality. Among such methods are: shrinking of the content of the mythical image, simplification of the actual course of events, and syncretism. Scientific novelty consists in the determination of the place and time of events described in the myth, their true character, in demonstration of the lifestyle of ancient people, as well as in establishment of the fact that the actual actors of the described in the myth events, are the carriers of the ancient timber-grave culture.
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