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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 12/2016
Contents of Issue № 12/2016
Westerners and Slavophiles today
Burenkov A. - The concept of N. Y. Danilevsky on the cultural-historical types as an option of Russia’s development pp. 1-10


Abstract: The object of this research is the artistic heritage of N. Y. Danilevsky; the subject is his concept on the cultural-historical types and its impact upon the development of Russian in the modern conditions of global crisis. The author thoroughly examines the status of human society at the present stage of development, as well as provides the views of the Western researchers A. Toffler and F. Fukuyama, Russian thinkers M. A. Bakunin, A. A. Zinoviev, V. V. Ilyin, and A. G. Dugin, who confirm the major conclusion of the author about the crisis state of our civilization. The article presents the causes of crisis: principle of universalism that substantiates the main path of mankind; ideas of liberalism inculcated by the Western leaders; consequences of the Scientific Revolutions, which were not considered by the ruling elites. The author demonstrates of the role of such phenomenon as “Europeanization” named by Danilevsky as social disease, which forces our country to hold the position of Rearguard, permanently pursuing the advanced countries. In resolution of the question of attaining its own state ideology by Russia, which reflects the country’s national interests, the paradigm of N. Y. Danilevsky can play a big role. The concept of the cultural-historical types is based on the historical experience of Russia-Europe relations, as well as gives opportunity for establishment of the new relations between not only Slavic people, but also nations of other continents. The aforementioned concept, representing the alternative to universalism, gives a new impulse towards the search of other options of world structure and world order.
Characteristics of society
Loktionov M. - Empiriocriticism of A. A. Bogdanov and its importance in modern science pp. 11-22


Abstract: The subject of this research is the biography and creative work of A. A. Bogdanov – the brightest representative of the early XX century, prominent participant of the revolutionary movement in Russia, interesting philosopher-empiriocriticist, creator of the universal organization science Tektology, famous interpreter and speculative fiction writer, and founder of the idea of proletarian culture. The article demonstrates his role in formation of the modern scientific ideas about the natural and humanitarian sciences, as well as his importance as a forerunner of the existing understanding of the ideas of dynamical equilibrium and self-development. The main conclusion of the conduced research consists in undeservingly forgotten contribution of this scholar into the development of Russian science and culture, as well as establishment of such scientific disciplines, as cybernetics, general theory of systems, synergetics, equilibrium theory, theory of autopoiesis, and dynamical systems theory.
Methodology of philosophical learning
Mekhed G.N. - Fiction as a method of philosophy pp. 23-35


Abstract: This article reviews and critically analyzes the popular among some contemporary scholars and philosophers point of view, according to which fiction lacks any knowledgeable function, and thus, only “the serious” scientific and scientific-popular literature is able to answer the “eternal questions”. Polemicizing with the similar scientist approach, the author refers to the rational critical metaphilosophy, within the framework of which the “eternal questions” pertain to pursuit of philosophy rather than science. The work substantial the problem-dynamic understanding of philosophy as the core of critical rationality, and therefore – metatheoretical core of the science itself. From such metaphilosophical perspective, the author examines the works of F. M. Klinger and F. M. Dostoyevsky, proving the possibility of existence of a specific literary-philosophical method, which is the most relevant for the analysis of ethical issues. Based on the C. McGinn’s opinion, the author justifies the point of view, according to which, fiction is able to perform the role of mental laboratory in philosophy. In reference to the certain most complicated for the philosophical analysis problems, fiction possesses even richer and more suitable range of methods for understanding of these issues.
Meaning and silence
Egorov A.G. - The ontology of meaning pp. 36-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is the notion of meaning. The goal of the work consists in detection of the content and structure of meaning, its types, as well as main moving moments and accompanying circumstances of its creation and determination. In realization of the set tasks, the author reviews a number of definitions of the meaning, and provided his original understanding, Based on these definition and developed by the author binary concept, the article reveals the ontology of the notion of meaning: its key moments, structure, actors, properties, and characteristic features. The author attempted to realize the multi-aspect approach in description and cognition of meaning, as well as demonstrated the systemic, hierarchical character of the structure of meaning. The leading actors of meaning and crucial circumstances, under which the meaning can be created and presented, are being defined. The acquired results will be useful in solution of the ontological and gnoseological problems of the modern philosophy and science. For the first time in history of the Russian philosophy, the author applied the binary concept towards the cognition of the content and structure of the notion of meaning. The main conclusion lies in the following statement: before the attempt to resolve any theoretical and practical issues, it is necessary to determine the meaning of notions, which express these issues. For detection of the meaning of any notion, first and foremost, it is requires to sufficiently understand the essence and structure of meaning as such. The presented article serves as one of the blocks that can be helpful in structuring this notion.
History of ideas and teachings
Chizhkov S. - Boris Chicherin's doctrine on human unions. pp. 44-67


Abstract: The subject of research is the concept of "human unions" by Chicherin. Hegel, as we know, also developed the concept of unions in his philosophical and legal doctrine. But the concept of Chicherin is radically different. Chicherin considers human unions as universal forms of earthly coexistence of people who are connected with the ontology of human existence. Therefore, according to Chicherin, the state as a union of men, even though it is the highest union, but does not eliminate other unions. All four human unions - family, civil society, church and state - constitute the single balanced whole. Comparative analysis of the views and approaches of Chicherin towards the analysis of nature of human unions at different stages of his creative evolution, demonstrates that the concept of the state as human union has undergone significant changes. The scientific novelty of this study is related to the in-depth study of the nature of human association, their relation with the ontology of human existence in the first place with the idea of freedom. The work illustrates the role of each union from the perspective of realization of the freedom of men within it, as well as correlation between the law and morals.
Philosophy of science
Zadorin V.V. - Substantive controversy and dialectics pp. 68-74


Abstract: The subject field of this work refers to logic, which is examined as a sector of philosophy along with physics (philosophy of nature) and ethics (philosophy of spirit). Such an extensive interpretation of logic, which includes various forms of controversy and dialectics, is not universal in the history of philosophy: for example, Kant and Popper, unlike the Stoics and Hegel, review dialectics outside the limits of the logic, and consider it separately. In methodological aspect, the author supports the results formulated in structuring of the formal systems and mathematics of Kleene, namely the finite methods in mathematical reasoning on the properties of controversy of the formal systems – deduction and return induction on the finite set. The adjustment of methodology developed in the course of the intensive progression of logic in the context of mathematics, to the subject field of logic understood in Hegel’s, dialectical-materialistic, and Stoic sense, will contribute into the expansion of methodological potential of a scholar regardless the subject field of his conceptual theory, because hopefully it will suggest the more efficient ways of expansion of the preceding theoretical tasks and set the new goals.
Reverence for life
Koptelova T.I. - From virtual to real – the phenomenon of life in organic logic of Eurasianism pp. 75-86


Abstract: This article examines the alternative to dominant in modern science understanding of life in organic logic of Eurasianism of the 1920’s – 1930’s, continued by L. N. Gumilyov. The author analyzes the problem of the loss of adequate perception of corporeality and harmony of life within the “virtual formation” paradigm. Thus, the question of the possible worldview transition from mechanicalism towards organic understanding  of the reality is being examined. The article provides the crucial aspects of the phenomenon of life, which are revealed in the organic logic of Eurasianism: always corresponding with the specific space and time, rhythm and field, wholeness, variety, multidimensionality of the connections and relations. The author illustrates the prospects for further scientific research of the organic logic of Eurasianism as the foundation for establishment of the adequate environmental consciousness of upcoming generations, as well as the key principle of scientific methodology. The proposed by Eurasianism of this period and complemented by Gumilyov methodology of examination of social development, until the present moment was not considered one of the lines of development of the organic philosophy – the intellectual tradition opposite to mechanicalism. At the same time. The organic logic of Eurasianosm characterizes a distinct way of reasoning that exists in various cultural traditions (hylozoism, vitalism, “integral knowledge”, “organicism”, organic type of philosophy of history, etc.). The alternative to mechanistic way of reasoning suggested by Eurasianism is based upon the organic logic that reflects the peculiarities and rhythm of life of the nature biogeocenosis, ethnoses, and separate individual, without which any development is impossible.  
Political philosophy
Davydov O.B. - Liberal multiculturalism and communitarian multiculturalism: dispute regarding the community pp. 87-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical multiculturalism in its liberal and communitarian versions. The object is the distinction in ontological foundations of the two philosophical discourses – between the individual and the community. The author describes and analyzes the key moments of theoretical discussion between the representatives of liberal and communitarian multiculturalism, which took place in the Western academic environment of the late XX century. For liberals, the essential goal consists in protection of the individual rights and liberties, while for communitarians it is the protection of society as the basic component of cultural diversity. The applied comparativist methodology allows determining the strong and weak sides of each of the parties of philosophical discussion pertaining to the nature of sociocultural diversity. The result of the conducted research lies in establishment of the relevance and prospects of further development of the communitarian multicultural strategy. The communitarian approach towards examination and transformation of the sociocultural diversity of modern societies can become the foundation for formulation of the conditions of harmonious coexistence of the various cultural communities within the framework of the single social space.
Cycles and tides in the global world
Bagrova E.V. - Crisis phenomena in social development and their management. New philosophical approach pp. 93-104


Abstract: The subject of this article is the philosophical analysis of cyclic development of society, particularly crisis phenomena in sociological and economic context. It is demonstrated that with the development of philosophical, economic, and sociological thought the definition of crises, as well as the very attitude towards them undergone certain changes. The author pursues correlation between the cyclic devilment and the crises phenomena. The goal of this work consists in specification of the main approaches towards anthropogenic crises and impact upon them. The works of Spengler, Toynbee, Jaspers, Marx, Keynes, Toffler, and others, dedicated to the topic of crises are being analyzed. During the course of this research the author highlights the three existing paradigms in the area of social crises:  formalization of crises and their primary causes; formation of the concept regarding overcoming of the crises; formulation of concepts on leveling the cyclic fluctuations. The article demonstrates the evolution of fundamental philosophical paradigm that lies in the conceptual determination of crises. In the result, the new philosophical approach is being proposed – management of the crises phenomena, the main goal of which consists in desynchronization of the cyclic process that will lead to the decrease in social importance of each of the separately examined crisis.  
Connection of times
Faritov V.T. - Transgression in the ancient philosophy: Nietzsche and pre-Socratics pp. 105-114


Abstract: This article examines the specificity of the proposed by F. Nietzsche interpretation of pre-Socratic period of the ancient philosophy. The published during the philosopher’s lifetime work “Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks” (1872) comprises the main material for this research. The goal of this article consists in explication of the ontological aspects of the realized by F. Nietzsche reevaluation of the essence and contents of the philosophical herniate of Ancient Greece. The distinct characteristics of Nietzsche’s position from the traditional approaches towards interpretation and assessment of the early period on ancient philosophy are being determined. The main conclusion lies in substantiation of the opinion, according to which the source of establishment of the ancient philosophy is the experience of transgression and orientation towards the search of the ways of understanding the transgressive phenomena of existence. The author demonstrates that the two opposite trends can be highlighted within the ancient philosophy: orientation towards the rejection of transgression, and orientation towards the recognition of independent ontological status of the transgressive phenomena.
Social dynamics
Mukin V.A., Efremov O.Y. - Probabilistic-statistical method of forecasting social phenomena pp. 115-124


Abstract: The subject of this research is the method of forecasting, methodology of assessment of the level of risk on management decisions. For examination of social objects, which have scales that are difficult to compare on the level of macroprocesses with large number of parameters, the authors use various models. Particularly, it is sociocultural and econometric models for the description of social phenomena. In this case, the necessity of combination of various model for the comprehensive research becomes relevant. Thus, the subject of this study is the optimization of probabilistic forecasting with the use of mathematical apparatus. The object of this study is the social phenomena that represent accumulation of the established interactions of people in the group or society. The authors review the possibility and philosophical grounds of application of the probabilistic-statistical method for the description of changes in social phenomena. The ways of determination and structuring of the driving forces of social changes using the scenarios of changes, as well as formulation of the model of transformation of sociocultural foundations, are being described.  The main conclusions are associated with examination of the question of social forecasting within the framework of possibility of implementation of the mathematical models and methods. The authors demonstrate the possibility of objective highlighting and determination of the factors influencing the social phenomenon in question, as well as analysis of their role regarding the impact upon the social phenomenon. These factors can be objectively arranged based on their importance towards the examined social phenomenon.
Artemieva O. - The problem of imperativeness in the virtue ethics pp. 125-138


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the problem of imperativeness in modern ethics. The author highlights the two aspects: 1) discussion of imperativeness as one of the manifestations of morality; 2) criticism of the imperative in ethics. In the second case, the theoretical perception of morality as a mostly compulsory power is subjected to criticism. The article reconstructs the foundations of criticism of the imperative ethics, as well as analyzed the critical argumentation. Due to the fact that the majority of supporters of the virtue ethics do not deny the importance of moral imperative, the article clarifies the question of what is the role and place of this phenomenon within the virtue ethics. It is demonstrated that the aretaic criticism of ethical imperative was caused by the understanding of unsatisfactory attempts within the framework of the imperativistic concepts of clarification of the normative content of morality, its substantiation and systematization. The supporters of the virtue ethics solve these tasks through inclusion into the area of their study of the goals and values associated with the human existence. They believe that the imperatives can be explained only through the correlation with these goals and values. In the foundation of criticism in the virtue ethics of imperative lies the understanding of the fact that the phenomenon of morality cannot be reduced to one of its manifestations, in this case – the imperative. Morality is complicated and divergent in its composition. Particularly, it manifests not only through the imperatives, but also through the virtues. Insisting on the opinion that morality is not reduced to the imperative, the supporters of the virtue ethics attempt to establish the concept of morality, which will reflect the diversity of the moral experience of a human.
Social philosophy
Liksunova A.S., Taradanov A.A. - On value, dignity, and honor: logics of the notions pp. 139-146


Abstract:   Values are the extremely important components of human culture; they define the past, present, and future of the entire humanity. The existing system of values determine and regulate all human activity. The analysis of any system of values demonstrates that human dignity prioritizes over the other values, because human attempts to cognize and manifest his individual value, his personal dignity. The notion of dignity virtually always is views in connection with the notion of honor. At times, dignity is replaced by honor, or vice versa.  The opinions exists that honor is dignity. However, in all activeness of the use of the notion of value within the socio-humanitarian discourse, the categorical definition of the value in literature is yet to be formulated. Namely the uncertainty, tension, ambiguity, and correlation between the social and personal aspects of the notion of “honor” make its role socially so inconsistent. In the result, honor always has a specific historical content, which varies due to the changes in the corporate norm and “sovereign”. The scientific novelty is associated with the fact that the area of values is defined within the boundaries of the virtue and vice; at the same time, the virtue is defines as harmony – measure between the good and evil, while the vice is disharmony (the extreme of one or another).
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