Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 01/2016
Contents of Issue 01/2016
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Zhernosenko I.A. - Altai cultural landscape as the noosphere resource pp. 1-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17648

Abstract: This article examines the problem of choosing the optimal civilized strategy in the conditions of postmodernism – the noosphere model.  Altai is belongs to the basic (model) territories that possess the noosphere resource. This research is based on the idea of development of the cultural philosophical binary opposition “culture-civilization” in the context of post-neoclassical mentality pertaining to the values of traditional and ethnic cultures. The subject of this work is the fundamental for the Altai traditional culture concept – sacral center – a specific type of cultural landscape, which includes a number of qualities that allow characterizing Altai as the noosphere resource. The author’s special contribution consists into this topic consists in the determination of phenomenology of the meaningful concept for the Altai people traditional culture – the “sacral center” and its place in the originated within the region model of noosphere civilized development. This work also presents certain practical solutions aimed at the establishment of noosphere model, executed on the territory of the Altai region.
Ontology: being and nihility
Kulieshov A.V. - Natural Information and Metaphysics pp. 25-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17713

Abstract: The problem of information existence in the nature, as well as the extent of natural information distribution is examined in the paper. At the same time information is understood as the subject of metaphysics, it is described as a reality, which is distinct by its mode of being. The description of information is accomplished by using metaphysical categories of matter and form, as well as their derivatives. In this context natural information is determined as the non-local form of one material object within another. To find grounds for natural existence of such form is the aim of the paper.The stated aim is being achieved exceptionally by means of metaphysics as extremely abstract knowledge about reality as such without bringing in the conceptual apparatus of natural sciences. Starting from basic terms with defined meaning and some initial statements using these terms, the grounding of the natural information phenomenon is realized.The novelty of the offered solution consists in that it is based on the specific set of initial metaphysical terms. The conclusion is made about sufficiency of the chosen conceptual base for the metaphysical grounding of natural information existence, and also about validity within the limits of the chosen metaphysical terms of Leibnitz’s idea as for the reflection of the whole world in every of its integral fragments.
Philosophy of language and communication
Pris F. - Wittgensteins problem of following the rule: McDowell vs Robert Brandom pp. 42-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17533

Abstract: The article narrates the approach of John McDowell towards the Wittgenstein’s problem of rule-following and proposes comments on the McDowell’s criticism of Robert Brandom’s approach towards this problem. The author compares points of view of the two philosophers upon the Wittgenstein’s notion of interpretation, concept of the implicit normalization, and the problem of regulism and regularism. Focus is made on the fact that the rule is followed in practice, in action, that is primal and where is no “gap” between the rule and its use from the very beginning. The approaches of McDowell and Brandom are compared with each other, as well as with the position of Wittgenstein within his “second philosophy”. It is stated that the theoretical approach of Brandom in its major features is compatible with the therapeutic approach of Wittgenstein and the therapeutic interpretation of the problem of rule-following proposed by McDowell. At the same time, Brandom’s approach gives grounds for criticism, including the facts related to the existence of two levels of normalization.
The torment of communication
Nilogov A.S. - Criticism of the linguistic reason: from cryptophilology to anti-language philosophy (discussion of A. S. Nilogov with V. N. Bazylev) pp. 54-95

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17728

Abstract: The conversation of A. S. Nilogov with V. N. Bazylev is recorded within the framework of publishing projects “Who makes the Russian philosophy today” and is dedicated to the modern problems of the Russian linguistics and language philosophy. It discusses the works of V. N, Bazylev in such linguistic directions as cryptolinguistics (cryptophilology) and sublogic analysis of language. A separate attention is given to the interrelation between the Russian linguistic and philosophical knowledge in the early XXI century. This research clarifies the Russian tradition of language philosophy, the continuation of which can become a developed by A. S. Nilogov philosophy of the anti-language. V. N. Bazylev is one of the first scholars within the Russian philology who suggests an important sphere of research that can collect, describe, analyze, and interpret the ethnogenetic narratives that are created within the framework of the spiritual-practical knowledge.     
Political philosophy
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Ted Fleming Recognition in the work of Axel Honneth: Importance of the theory of transformative learning. (Translation) pp. 96-110

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17371

Abstract: The highly rational and abstract reasoning of Habermas related to the formation of democratic will along with the rules on involvement into such reasoning, affected the theory of transformative learning. Communicative activity, as well as critical self-reflection requires energy. Conditions that allow to reason are the abilities towards the adult education, for example the development of critical self-reflection on the same level as the ability to take part in the “critical dialectic reasoning, which includes the assessment of assumptions and expectations and supports faith, values, and feelings” [1, p. 60]. These difficulties, at least partially, lead to a different understanding of the transformative learning, as in the works of Boyd and Meyer [2], as well as of Taylor [3]. From the very beginning, Mezirow [4] closely united the transformative learning with the project of critical theory and formation of democratic will described by Habermas. Jefferson, Marks and others noted that democratic participation is an important mean for self-improvement and produces individuals who are most tolerant to changes, sensitive to reciprocity, mora capable of moral reasoning and more adjusted to self-reflection [1, p. 60]. The theory of transformative learning is being criticized based on the absence of the fundamental proper understanding of social dimension in education [6]; thus it encourages further explanation and advancement of this theory [1].
Religions and religious renaissance
Golovushkin D.A. - Orthodox Fundamentalism: An Attempt of Understanding pp. 111-155

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.1.17759

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of Orthodox fundamentalism. Despite the importance of this topic, it was not given due consideration within Russian sociology. That brings to life numerous myths, stereotypes and media clichés. For this reason the article is primarily focused on the issues of theory and methods. It raises the issue of defining and modifying of religious fundamentalism discusses the relation between religious fundamentalism and orthodoxy, the correlation between religious fundamentalism and religious renovation, shows the sources and ideological basis of the Orthodox pseudo-fundamentalism.In order to meet these challenges it was necessary to address modern scientific concepts of fundamentalism and the spiritual heritage of Russian religious and philosophical thought of the 20th century. Work was conducted in parallel with this on the conceptualization of religious fundamentalism as an ambivalent phenomenon that does not exclude religious modernism and other opposite religious ideologies and world-views. On the basis of this the following conclusions were made:1) Orthodox fundamentalism is a complex multilevel and multifaceted phenomenon. Its phenomenology, structural and functional features and manifestations depend not only on the specific character of Orthodoxy as an original trend in Christianity but also on the social and cultural context in which fundamentalism appeared, on the nature of values and aims which are characteristic for the given period. 2) The domination of social and political agenda in the Orthodox fundamentalism in combination with under-development or ignoring of theological issues gave rise to the emergence of such a phenomenon as Orthodox pseudo-fundamentalism which makes religion an instrument of social and political activity with unchristian aims and means. 3) Orthodox fundamentalism is ambivalent and oriented not only towards archaization and conservation but also to a creative renovation of religion and society. It looks to the future, offers new guidelines, social and political models, which will have an objective impact on searching further ways of development.
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