Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 09/2015
Contents of Issue 09/2015
Connection of times
Demin I.V. - The relationship between the past and the present in Heideggers fundamental ontology and in Karsavins historiosophy pp. 1-21


Abstract: In the article the problem of the relation between past and present is viewed, the parallels between Karsavins metaphysics of all-unity and Heideggers existential analytics are drawn. The similarity of interpretations of the past and present in Heideggers theory and Karsavins theory is manifested in the following main points: temporal moments of the past and present are viewed and analyzed in the context of human existence; the past and the present are seen as intercorrelated structural moments of human existence; in both concepts the distinction between two modes of existence and reality of the past is made the authentic and inauthentic one. The differences in the interpretations of the past and present are related to the fact that the idea of Absolute existence (perfect all-unity), which is characterized as overtemporary and overspatial, is primary in Karsavins metaphysics. Heidegger proceeds from existential temporality, which is essentially finite. Heidegger is limited by the fact of rajneeshees and correlation of time points (ekstasis), Karsavin shows and clarifies the interindirect nature of past, present and future.
History of ideas and teachings
Yudin A.I., Stalkovskii A.A. - Critical rationalism of P. L. Lavrov pp. 22-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role and importance of the critical reasoning and critical rationalism within the system of philosophical views of Lavrov, as well as the significance of critical rationalism for the development of Russian civil society in the second half of the XIX century. The authors examine Lavrov’s solution to the issue of historical emergence and development of the critical thought. The emphasis is made on the importance of critical thought in the historical process. The article also analyzes the anthropological substantiation of critical reasoning; the critical thought of Lavrov is the result of the highest need – a demand for development, which is being interpreted as the ethic need for self-improvement, the need to create new social forms. In the course of this research, the authors reveal the significance of critical thought as a factor which makes crucial changes in personality, society, and public relations. The scientific novelty consists in the interpretation of Lavrov’s position within the framework of the Russian public thought of the second half of the XIX century, not as a revolutionist-democrat, but as an “enlightener”-liberal. Lavrov believed that the social system could be established basing on the enlightenment, on the development of critical thinking via converting the majority of members of the society into the critically thinking people. In the conclusion, the authors note that Lavrov was historically correct.
Social philosophy
Spirova E.M. - Conservatism VS Liberalism pp. 40-60


Abstract: The past decades in Russia have seen a sharp confrontation between liberal and conservative values and attitudes. Liberally orientated politicians that came to power in 1991 in many respects determined the social course as well. But the conservative attitudes gradually came to the foreground in the society. The article discusses causes of the change of the previous course, analyses specific conservative values in Russia. The globalist aspect of this phenomenon is pointed out. The novelty of the article is related to an attempt at showing political and sociocultural shifts in the public consciousness of Russia and comparing them with analogous cultural orientations in other large countries, first of all, China and USA. The author demonstrates that despite the similarity of common conservative strivings in modern politics, they have differing aspects associated with the real political and economic situation.
Political philosophy
Mishurin A.N. - Esoteric doctrine pp. 61-80


Abstract: This research by the renowned American political philosopher Leo Strauss is dedicated to the preservation of tradition of the division of philosophical texts into esoteric (public) and esoteric (hidden) within the work of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. This work continues the cycle of articles on the questions of exo- and esoteric, introducing new criteria of distinction between them, and therefore – renewing and enriching the “rules of careful reading” advanced by Strauss in the “Persecution and the Art of Writing” and the “On a Forgotten Kind of Writing”, as well as in some of his other works. Strauss attempts to comprehend the cause that forced the researches of XIX century, including such prominent researcher of antiquity as Friedrich Schleiermacher, to refuse the traditional division of philosophical teachings into exo- and esoteric. He finds it in the liberalization of the “modern” views – in the thought on almightiness of reason that has infiltrated the ranks of historians of philosophy, and the resulting equality between the cognitive abilities of all people. The division into exo- and esoteric initially proposes division of audience of the philosophical text into readers capable to comprehend its meaning and capable of such effort. The antique philosophy, followed by Lessing, supports this division; the modern philosophy rejects it.  
Philosophy of history
Korolev S.A. - On the Issue of mongolization of Rus pp. 81-106


Abstract: The author examines the issue of the Mongol supremacy and its influence upon the development of Russia. The article presents various points of view on this issue that exist within the philosophical and historical literature, including the concepts of the ideologist of Eurasianism. The aspects of derivation of the Mongol models of government are being reviewed; we should note the presence of certain lag, which is substantiated by the fact that Moscovian rulers could understand the Mongol technologies in its entirety only after the liberation from the Mongol yoke. The author critically analyzes the version about the dominant influence of Byzantine Empire on the development of post-Mongol Rus’. The differentiation of the notions “state”, “authority”, and “governing techniques” lies in the foundation of this research. This allows showing a real derivation of the Mongol governing techniques by the Moscovian rulers. The author comes to a conclusion about the evidence of mongolomorphic pseudomorph – overlapping of the Horde-era matrixes of governance with the Russian society and institutions. This process had an extremely negative and long-lasting effect upon the development of Rus’. The Byzantine ideology was primarily used to legitimize the mongolomorphic system of governing techniques.
Philosophical anthropology
Shazhinbatyn A. - Ethnos in the context of philosophical-anthropological knowledge pp. 107-124


Abstract: In this article the author attempts to examine the phenomenon of ethnos from the perspective of the philosophical comprehension of a human. Ethnos represent the form of social union of people. In this regard, it is relevant to study historical paths of ethnos within the framework of social philosophy. However, it is quite difficult to understand the inner strength and “resilience” of this phenomenon without the use of philosophical-anthropological knowledge. Despite of the multiple forecasts concerning the near end of ethnic formations and their dissolve in the global flow, the experts face the “stubborn” preservation of “call of the blood”. Finding themselves in the new historical realm, ethnoses attain an unexpected identity, but it certainly does not end up zeroed out. The core of this article is the general philosophical comprehension of human nature. This work represents the first attempt within the post-Kantian philosophy to examine the basic characteristics of ethnos through the prism of philosophical anthropology; it allowed expanding the horizon of philosophical reflection regarding the ethnic issues, and re-analyzing a number of topics on ethnic knowledge.
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