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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 05/2015
Contents of Issue № 05/2015
Philosophy of knowledge
Pris F. - Instinctive Knowledge Without Reflective Knowledge and Vice Versa pp. 1-31

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.5.15174

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the concept of knowledge and, in particular, the case described by Timothy Williams when a subject knows  p in spite of the fact that the available evidence states he doesn't know p. The author of the article interprets this case from the point of view of the difference between instinctive knowledge and reflexive/introspective (and, in particular, phenomenal) knowledge. The author uses a classical definition of knowledge as a justified true belief. The author assumes existence of special causal and standard process of formation of the reflexive knowledge establishing the relation of family similarity between more or less reflexive types knowledge. The main conclusion of the conducted research includes possibility of existence of deeply instinctive knowledge treats without the corresponding reflexive knowledge and vice versa. The author also believes that any knowledge finally has the phenomenal (in a broad sense) nature that allows to close epistemological "failure" between reasonable opinion and knowledge. The author interprets Gettier cases as the cases of true beliefs with incomplete justification.
Social philosophy
Levikova S.I. - Social Phenomenon of the Informal Youth Subculture (the Case Study of the Rastafari Subculture: History and Sociocultural Importance) pp. 32-123

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.5.15474

Abstract: The informal youth subculture as the social phenomenon which held a firm place in structure of the modern industrially developed societies passing to post-industrialism step represents the self-organizing social groups producing own subcultures. Without knowledge and understanding of this phenomenon (detection of its intrinsic characteristics, laws of functioning, dynamics of development, etc. that it is obviously possible to make only by consideration it from positions of the social philosophy displaying a phenomenon in its integrity), adequate display of modern social reality is impossible. In turn the phenomenon of informal youth subculture includes a set of various informal youth subcultures (by the principle: "whole" both "part" or "general" and "private"). There is a lot of similar "private" informal youth subcultures in structure of the modern developed societies, and one of them exist a long time, and others very short period; one of them have the name, and others – no; one of them exist locally in any district (the country, the city), and others extend over many countries of the world and have the international character. One of the international informal youth subcultures is the Rastafari, existing already some tens years and come to Russia in the 1990th where she managed strongly to locate. This subculture is considered in article from the point of view of its historical roots, genesis, dynamics, intrinsic characteristics, the reasons of emergence and distribution on the world, and also her outlooks. And the author carries out accurate distinction between religious sect of the Rastafarian and the informal youth subculture of the same name thanks to what eliminates often practiced to a mistake, connected with an identification of religious sect and informal youth subculture. The social and philosophical analysis of informal youth subculture of Rastafari allows to understand the reasons of why this subculture practically didn't gain distribution to the USA, and, on the contrary, strongly took roots in Russia. The methodological base of research are philosophical methods and the principles of knowledge – objectivity, general communication, integrity and systemacity, causality and a determinism. The solution of the studied problems is carried out also on the basis of general scientific research approaches, first of all – system and general scientific methods: synthesis, the analysis, methods of the logical and historical analysis, induction, deduction, idealization, etc. Besides, dialectic, phenomenological, germenevtichesky, logical, historical methods, and also social and philosophical and comparative analyses are applied. The novelty of research is caused by the fact that the author carried out the social and philosophical analysis of the international informal youth subculture of Rastafari which in the 1990th entered life of the Russian society and strongly took its the place in it. The main contribution of the author to research of a subject is that it considered origin of Rastafari as the national liberation movement and tracked further transformation it at first in religious sect, and then in informal youth subculture, having shown, as meanings, both symbolics and many intrinsic moments of the previous stages of the Rastafarian were included into modern informal youth subculture of the same name. Having carried out the comparative analysis of informal youth subcultures of the Rastafarian, hippie and a gothic style, the author came to the main conclusion that in fact these subcultures are identical, and they differ only with subcultural features. Also the author drew a conclusion that for the best understanding of modern social systems it is necessary to study carefully their structural elements inludig informal youth subcultures such as Rastafari. 
Political philosophy
Letnyakov D.E. - To Forget about the 'War of Cultures': Why We Need to Revise the Discourse on Migration pp. 124-148

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.5.15398

Abstract: In this article the problem of integration of the Central Asian migrants in Russia is considered. Investigating a religion role in societies of Post-Soviet Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan - the countries which are the main donors of labor for Russia), and also analyzing values and installations by which migrants are guided, being in our country, the author criticizes cultures-tsentrichnost of the migratory discourse in Russia preferring to operate with concepts like "war of cultures", "cultural extreneity of migrants" etc. It is possible to distinguish a number of comparative methods, including a method of the comparative-historical and comparative and politological analysis, a method of the analysis of the documents and other texts relating to a work perspective from the main methods applied when writing article. The main conclusions of research consist in the following: speaking about integration of migrants, it is necessary to consider, first of all, not cultural factors, but legal and social and economic. Only a conclusion of migrants from "shadow", creation of conditions for their legal security, simplification of procedure of legalization and other practical measures can promote real integration of migrants into the Russian society. Reasonings on other cultural and religious identity of the population coming for work only take us away from the real problems. 
Philosophy of history
Korobkova Y.E. - 'Eschatological' Nature of the Russian Religious Philosophy of History in the First Quarter of the XXth Century pp. 149-169

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.5.15252

Abstract: The object of the present research article is justification of the idea of history as the anthropomorphic process that was famous in Russian philosophy of the first quarter of the XXth century. The subject of the research is the Russian religious philosophy of history of the first quarter of the XX century. The problem of sense of history in the Russian religious philosophy of this period is considered within orthodox metaphysics. The sense of history consists in the movement of mankind to God. Development of human history is understood as the two-uniform process assuming the movement of God to the person and the person to God. The point of intersection of these two movements  is the Christ's Manifestation which is defined as the "basic fact" of history: the history goes to the fact of the Manifestation of Christ and from the fact of Christ's Manifestation. The Manifestation specifies the sense and appointment of the person and mankind in general - the Kingdom of Heaven. Implementation of sense of history within this world is denied since full "transformation" of the world can't be achieved. The research methods ued by the author of the article include analytical and comparative methods. The main conclusions of the author when conducting a comparative analysis of the concepts of history by N. Berdyaev, S. Frank, E. Trubetskoy and S. Bulgakov are that all of them argue within classical orthodox understanding of sense of history as the anthropomorphic movement of human towards the end of history, i.e. the Kingdom of Heaven. All specified philosophers of history represent this movement not as passive, and as the active movement by the end of history – "transformation" of the world. Oppositions between eschatological understanding, on the one hand, and active changing the world (as S. Frank positioned himself), with another, here not. The "End" of history is understood, how death of all angry and "absorption" in eternity of all "kind" in the world. The movement towards the Kingdom of Heaven assumes active opposition to the evil, transformation of the world into a hell. The evil can't be destroyed but only "it is changed and brightened up", "is forced out by power of good", from here - a world hristianization through "injection of powers of love and good fortune". The novelty of article is caused by the fact that the author offers the system analysis of the basic provisions of the idea of history as the movements towards the end, i.e. the Kingdom of Heaven, as a general idea for the Russian religious philosophy of history.
Philosophy and culture
Volkova E.G. - The phenomena of archaic culture in the concept of V. Propp (philosophical and cultural analysis) pp. 170-187

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.5.15688

Abstract: The research object in this article is the scientific heritage of Russian folklorist, philologist, ethnographer Vladimir Propp in the context of his epoch. As the subject of the research are the ideas of this scientist associated with the various phenomena of archaic culture. Special attention is paid to the analysis of his scientific ideas about phenomena such as the archaic myth, the accompanying ritual practice and ascending to him genetically of works of folklore (especially magical folk tale). As the main methods selected philosophical and cultural analysis, the method of historical-philosophical reconstruction techniques including primary (when considering the sources) and secondary (with the involvement of various literature on the topic of study) of the study, method of comparative analysis to detect intelligent intersections of the basic ideas of the scientist with the ideas of the representatives of Western and Russian Humanities. The novelty of this research is that it is not only considered and analyzed with philosophical and cultural positions of the basic concepts of the archaic folklore of Propp, but a variant of the reconstruction of the concept of archaic myth, including analysis of the ideas of the scientist associated with the ontological status of myth, its epistemological function, social value.
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