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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 01/2015
Contents of Issue № 01/2015
Methodology of philosophical learning
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - On the Question of the Origins of Alfred Schutz' Social Cognition pp. 1-8


Abstract: The relevance of the proposed research is to impart a strictly necessary character to the conclusions of sociology. Claims of social sciences on scientific rigor will not be realized as long as the logical consistency requirement is unsatisfied, i.e., the requirement to establish a logical-conceptual apparatus, the methodological framework that would help overcome the one-sided empiricism of sociologists in their studies. According to the authors, Alfred Schutz's ideas should help to achieve this goal. The relevance of this study is also determined by the necessety to overcome the gap between general theoretical research and empirical level of knowledge, the latter is often being limited to the collection of individual data and conduction of surveys in social groups. The authors of this article associate the strengthening of the logical and methodological component in the sociological study with the name of Schutz. They believe that this is the methodology of Schutz that will facilitate objective consideration of phenomena of social reality. In terms of methodology this work is based on the idea of the fruitfulness of synthesis (the synthetic unity) of the objective and the intuitive and reflexive-empirical and formal logic methods in social cognition. Estimating Alfred Schutz' conclusions, the authors use the comparative historical approach, qualitative content analysis of sources (philosophical and sociological works of the researchers of the XIX-XX centuries including Tarde, Weber and Schutz himself). Additionally, the authors apply scientific methods of analogy, generalization, abstraction, deductive application recognized as the true position with reference to new scientific material, etc. The novelty of the proposed approach is caused by the fact that the authors apply Alfred Schutz's ideas to the determination of the degree of scientific rigor of findings in social sciences. The authors consider this social philosopher to be one of the few supporters of the creative synthesis of traditional positivist approach and phenomenological analysis of social reality. The authors of this article are based on the fact that the place of methodological and logical units in social cognition has been insufficiently studied. Application to fill such gaps, especially when it concerns the social and philosophical heritage of Alfred Schutz, is made in the present study. Noteworthy that the analysis of Schultz' ideas is presented in comparison to the problems raised by Tarde and Weber. Edmund Husserl is also used by the authors. Trying to uncover the meaning of the methodological innovations of a major Austro-American social philosophe is also a new approach in the study of his scientific legacy.
Cycles and tides in the global world
Ursul A.D., Ursul T.A. - Noospherogenesis as a Global Evolutionary Process pp. 9-92


Abstract: The article notes that the doctrine of the noosphere in the works of Vladimir Vernadsky developed on the conceptual and ideological basis in which globalism and the idea of the formation of noosphere were connected to form a coherent vision of the future. A characteristic feature of the future will noospherogenesis its worldwide character is determined not only by global processes and the biosphere-environmental considerations, and in fact all the major components of the system and the megatrends of human activity as a civilizational and cultural evolution. Noospherogenesis considered in this work as the basic means of survival of mankind and the shape and the main goal of all present and future development of civilization, including the transition to global sustainability, the creation of an information civilization, globalization and other positive processes of global development. It is also about a new stage - is non-classical, and not just in the doctrine of the noosphere, but wider - in noosphere studies and thereby turning the "exercises" in science or scientific field. Discloses a process for the global transition to sustainable development of mankind, info essence of the phenomenon of the noosphere and the formation of its main core - noosphere collective intelligence.We use an evolutionary (especially universal evolutionary) approach and methods of global research and information approach and criteria development. It is also shown that the study of the future futurological approach can radically change the traditional approaches and methods of research, focusing scientific research in the past and the present in the direction of understanding and predicting the future.The authors makes a single evolutionary concept formation and information of the noosphere, not only as a planetary phenomenon, but as a necessary step in the universal process of self-organization of matter. Scope of the mind seems like does not exist yet, and the hypothetical future state of society and its interaction with nature, in which priority will occupy the global common human intelligence, orienting the evolution of society and nature in a safe direction for civilization. Noospherogenesis considered in this work as the basic means of survival of mankind and the shape and the main goal of all present and future development of civilization, including the transition to global sustainability, the creation of an information civilization, globalization and other positive processes of global development.It is shown that mankind has transformed into a single, coherent civilization noosphere, accompanied by the formation of a fundamentally new way to secure socio-natural coevolutionary interactions. Hypotheses about the possibility of transformation of cultural and civilizational processes in the noosphere stage of their evolution beyond the planet. It has been argued the need to enhance conceptual understanding of the phenomenon of the noosphere to evolution-cosmic scale. We are talking about the fact that social evolution creates chances of becoming the sphere of reason, not only in the biosphere on a global scale, but also that the formation of the noosphere due to continuing global evolution of the Universe and is a necessary stage of its deployment, which will be implemented in the social and natural form first in the world, and then beyond.
The new paradigm of science
Iakovlev V.A. - Information Programs of Being pp. 93-147


Abstract: In his article Yakovlev considers the information programs of being. On the basis of philosophical traditions of interpretation of a category of being and its use in a modern science, the researcher offers  a new judgment of a category of being as an information reality with the three major information levels – consciousness, life and matter. The subject of research is also the understanding of consciousness in phenomenology of E. Husserl in connection with researches of a role of consciousness of the scientist in the modern quantum physics and astronomy.
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Gusev D.A. - Social background of the Origin of Ancient Scepticism and the Specifics of the Stoic Theory of Knowledge pp. 148-191


Abstract: The turn of ancient philosophy to the Hellenistic period put the issue of human rights and human thinking in a new way: there was the kind of reopening of the question about the relation of man and his knowledge on the real world and about the nature of truth; that is why the philosophy of that period, among other things, was a reflection of theoretical knowledge and in many ways anticipated today's epistemological and socio-philosophical concepts. Differences between skeptically oriented philosophical schools of the Hellenistic period, even though they were obvious and fundamental for their era, faded away in the historical perspective and today their similarities come to the fore and become important for consideration of a dialogue between epochs separated by approximately two thousand years. The article shows that the Hellenistic stoicism largely anticipated historical and postmodern trends in philosophy of science. Thomas Kuhn showed that only historical practice of science was the criterion of scientific truth and the priority motivation of scientific development was not just the pursuit of objective truth now coming within the competence of time and history. This priority motivation specifies the stoic theory of knowledge with its automaticity achieve truth, «the consent of thinking with oneself» and, consequently, the transfer of the importance of the truth to the procedure. The stoics in general formulated the idea that truth was not the main issue in cognition and the main issue was the transfer of cognition from the empirical level to theoretical level. 
History of ideas and teachings
Muzyakov S.I. - Axiology of Ancient Skepticism as the Eudemonistic Model pp. 192-226


Abstract: Largely being grounded by specific historical and ideological conditions of the Hellenistic period, Greek skepticism as well as Stoicism and Epicureanism was one of eudemonistic philosophical models. In order to justify the eudaimonia skeptics needed to overcome any positive orientation in the world and the very particular structure of the latter. Reasonable uncertainty of things, phenomena, events, actions could become a reliable and efficient philosophical basis for the theoretical postulation and practical achievements of eudemonistic goals. Therefore, extensive epistemological section of ancient skepticism represents a set of tropes (evidence) of unreliability sensual and rational knowledge which is expressed in the principle of isosthenia (equal truth) of opposite judgments and inevitably consequent requirements to abstain from them, i.e., nothing is really to say and not to deny it.However, this neutrality of thinking, quite acceptable as a theoretical model, is poorly compatible with the real, effective, or practical life. Therefore, the required addition and continuation of the skeptical isostheneia epistemology is a kind of ontological phenomenalism that is dedicated to the interpretation of real life philosopher and skeptic, and is characterized primarily by the fact that it is not available on the skeptic nature of things, and only accessible phenomena, or phenomena of these things, which though largely fragmentary and distorted, but still somehow reflect forever concealed essence of objects.Global uncertainty and radical epistemological doubt are the basis for important skeptical of the principle of isostheneia whereby between the reflective and logical and realistic-practical areas lies an insurmountable boundary, which need separating, in turn, actually-event field from the emotional evaluation. Unavoidable absence of certain assessments of the situation and any relationship to him, the apparent meaninglessness and, consequently, the elimination of both positive and negative emotions and forms required by the skepticism Ataraxia soul, which, therefore, is a continuation and addition of isostheneia emotional and psychological level, as well as phenomenalism is its complement ontological level.
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