Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Space and time
Spektor D.M. - Otherness and Time (Contours of Trascendental Aesthetics) pp. 1-46


Abstract: Ideas of time are rather contradictory.Time isn't limited to time (eternally), doesn't depend on the person, his reason, perception, representations – opposite, them causes. And on the contrary.Time is caused by the person, his perception (thinking). The natural place of such position is presented by a form of perception, a sintezama of separate feelings (Kant). Also it is not the last dichotomy connected with time nature. Time allows subjects, including the person, to open the contents (the so-called principle of historicism); the history is the most valuable instrument of obstetric aid of truth. In time frame the seed will be transformed to the sprout, a trunk, escapes blossoming on spring and so forth. But shipped in a formation stream not truly (Platon). The person of subjects is also other than other living beings that can leave the temporary course, renounce boiling of passions and join invariable and eternal truth. As its bosom primary small piece of ice of eternity, an invariable divine eidos acts. Comparison enough obvious abstractions of a temporal row (time condition of discharge, social, physical and so forth abstractions) with its genesis (history) give a reason to judge orders which it is possible to call primary, and their subsequent changes, and created the occurring idea of time nature. The carried-out reconstruction shows that time in sources an essence first of all inobyty, before - standing.At the same time this abstraction of time doesn't act as time yet, showing pure game - with - death, a transcendental figure of transformation - revival-regeneration (initiation).Coming (eternity) finds temporary fullness in updating, in the relation with other (life), in a test event real (real test), moving apart borders in here and now stiffness presence of force (spirit of game improvisation).
National character and mentality
Koptseva N.P. - Some Concepts of Social Ideals of Russian Philosophy During the Silver Age pp. 47-59


Abstract: Object of research - possibilities of the Russian philosophy of the Silver age for designing of the modern Russian metaphysical project. Categories and terms in which social ideals of the Russian philosophy are shown are analyzed. For the analysis concepts of solidarity, the substantive figure are chosen. The concept "solidarity" is connected in Russian of philosophy with ideas of socialism, it is developed in that branch of the Russian philosophy which goes from A.I. Herzen, M. A. Bakunin. At the end of the XIX century the western philosophical terms underwent big change in the Russian intellectual environment. They were filled with the contents connected with moral values which in the Russian religious philosophy have absolute character. It is represented that such new concepts were developed by S. N. Bulgakov and N. O. Lossky. In the context of the metaphysical project of Russia N. O. Lossky's concept "the substantive figure" attracts attention. As the main method of research the categorial and conceptual analysis of philosophical texts Russian of thinkers of XIX - the first third of the XX centuries acts. The method of allocation of concepts, the conceptual analysis is used. Elements of the methodological strategy connected with allocation of ideal types are applied (according to M. Weber). It is represented that the term "substantive figure" can be used for modeling "we - identity" the Russian nation. On the one hand, this term doesn't bear the impress of any old ideology (neither class, nor chauvinistic). On the other hand, the community of substantive figures who have special general aspirations and special forms of creative activity, is the concept building positive Russian collective identity. Various forms of communication among themselves of substantive figures are various interethnic and interfaith communications which form the uniform Russian nation. By means of a concept "the substantive figure" it is possible to speak about unity of the subject and object of knowledge as the knowledge in that case is each process of communication the substatsnialnykh of figures. All uniform Space is included in processes of knowledge and self-knowledge through creative cooperation of the substantive figures (from atom to the Universe, from the person as difficult organism to planetary mankind).Thus, the metaphysical project of Russia, set of its ideals it has to be shown in language and by means of the concepts developed in the Russian philosophy of the Silver age. Not up to the end opened potential of the Russian philosophy will allow to show various conceptual installations. Its rich conceptual framework promotes system registration of our metaphysical project and its presentation outside.
Philosophical anthropology
Belyaev V.A. - Constructing Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant as the 'Philosophical Reformation' and 'Critics of Cultural Mind' pp. 60-99


Abstract: What is "philosophical reformation"? And what such "criticism of cultural reason"? "Philosophical reformation" I will call that integrated action which Kant makes the critical philosophy. "Criticism of cultural reason" I will call that integrated action which is made by the new European culture, a modernist style. I will consider a modernist style as the sociocultural project. I will call this project "criticism of cultural reason". (I will hold "Criticism of cultural reason" as already ready conceptual design which essence was developed by me in a number of monographs.) The content of the concepts "philosophical reformation" and "criticism of cultural reason" will reveal on the course of conversation on critical philosophy of Kant. I will conditionally divide its philosophy into criticism theoretical and to critic of practical reason. I will begin with the analysis of criticism of practical reason, assuming that it has to play the central role for all Kant criticism. Through this analysis I will leave to opportunity to express Kant criticism in general through "criticism of cultural reason", I will show restrictions which arise here. Then I will show how the Kant criticism is expressed through "philosophical reformation". I will consider "Philosophical reformation" as option of the Christian Reformation. I will finish with demonstration of that Kant "philosophical reformation", being paradigmalny expression of strategy of Education, is at the same time and one of limit options of a set of "reformations" of which the modernist style consists. I will show that, on the other hand, Kant "reformation" and other "reformations" of a modernist style, are special cases of "criticism of cultural reason" which begins with the answer to an era of religious wars after the Reformation and is way of creation of peaceful co-existence of subjects cultures in isn't removable the pluralistic world.
Picture of the world in natural science
Apartsev O.R. - Ambivalent Generalization in Biodynamics pp. 100-148


Abstract: Article continues the consideration of the Theory of Ambivalent Generalization in the annex to biological populations begun in article: Apartsev O. R. Information approach in biodynamics//NB: Philosophical researches. 2014. No. 2.Reduction of external properties of any live object to the description abstract attributive information allowed to receive rather easy interpretation of the basic intra population processes operating in quasi-continuous and quasi-uniform population that led to creation of the Theory of Ambivalent Generalization. The offered theory provides new tools for research of any objects of the population nature, however in article only biological populations are exposed to consideration.Thus the purpose of article isn't consideration of questions of biology which are only the base for use of tools. The main direction of research is directed on application of the creative analysis based on the Theory of Generalization for revision of the philosophical and world outlook problems connected with gnoseological kontradiktion of existence of live objects and their developments. The methodology of research is under construction on research of quite certain and complete model of ambipolyarny generalization in the annex to concrete interpretations of real biological systems.All considered information carriers are considered only as material objects in any manifestations that is meant also when carrying out the abstract analysis of the arising tasks. In work simplicity of attributive model representation for many and population biological systems is approved. The elementary theory of a virusobrazovaniye which is based on the theory of a creditization – one of fundamental parts of the theory of generalization develops. The analysis of attributive functions of virus populations leads to a conclusion about their full compliance of the Darvinian theory of natural selection, moreover – the highest point of development for any possible populations movable according to the Darvinian theory.As a world outlook problem emergence of an essential contradiction of dialectic character between the principle of maximizing a resources consumption populations following from the theory of generalization and a cornerstone of modern natural sciences – the principle of the smallest action moves forward. More detailed consideration of mechanisms of generalization for separate population, led to establishment of abstract equivalence of models of generalizatsionny modification of population and the optical quantum generator (laser) that allowed to offer the materialistic theory of development of a passionarity in populations. Development of population in space of resources, when imposing casual processes of dissipation of attributes, passing under control of generalization process, leads to unique attributive fixing of history of population. It is the cause for introduction to a concept turn: "an unikalization of attributes of population" which means emergence and fixing of uniqueness of any population eventually as the law inherent in all populations.Research of mechanisms of an unikalization for any population, leads to conclusions about basic impossibility of extrapolation of coordinates of population in time. However interpolation, on condition of continuous submission of objects of the theory of generalization, is quite feasible.  Consideration of intra population information processes through a generalization prism, allows to break all space of data carriers, rather certain population, into three subspaces: meta-biotic, attributive and sub-biotic. Thus axiomatically is accepted that development of new information carriers happens through their inclusion in attributive processes in the beginning, and then there is them "a secondary development", as intra population alarm processes. The offered information model, actually, is knowledge model world around populations with assimilation of new information carriers. The theory of generalization with extraordinary ease consider "trade of the Creator" whoever he was. Thus the model is absolutely indifferent rather moral estimates of actions of "Creator".To unexpected conclusions I provided the comparative analysis of the term "destiny", in application to a certain subject, and consideration of one-object impact of ambivalent generalization. Trigger functions of ascertaining of coincidence of functional requirements and external conditions, for the above concepts, were identical that, apparently, allows to speak about the theory of generalization, as about local abstract expression of the law "destinies" for any object in any population.
The history of humanitarian science
Shchuplenkov N.O. - Traditional Values and Russian Liberailsm in G. Fedotov's Creative Work pp. 149-199


Abstract: In article creativity of the famous Russian scientist G. P. Fedotov is analyzed. Religious vision of history by G. P. Fedotov was defined by the wide horizon of comprehensive culture as which part the real church acted, and the Christianity clothed in cultural style of an era. Therefore its formula said: "From the world — in Church, from Church — to the world". The church was understood by it, first of all, as the Christ's mystical Body in which everyone has to act as a sorabotnik Bozhiim. Thereby the personality allocated with a free will was put in the forefront. History as process lost the purpose because the last isn't given, and is set to everyone. But the unity of a task for all gave it universal character and was a basis for "common cause", so and for generality. G. P. Fedotov's view of history was tragic. According to laws of a genre of the tragedy the death of the hero caused by the inevitable conflict, fight against the evil in itself or in world around led to clarification. A form of such clarification was the repentance. Thereby the tragic element of history opened in its knowledge acted as a courage educational tool because without it it is impossible to look fool in the face to death.Relying on set of historical and cultural methods and receptions, the author of article put emphasis on identification and disclosure of historical and cultural aspects of publications of the scientist. In particular, in article use of interdisciplinary methods of research in methodological system of Fedotov is analyzed, the concept of historical and cultural dynamics of the Russian society and prospects of its democratic transformation are considered.At difficult synthetic character of its doctrine, G. P. Fedotov as the political thinker on set of his ideas treats rather the conservative direction of political thought as rejects any manifestations of the radicalism and daydreaming based on the abstract principles, and in creation of the political and philosophical concept relies on the principles of realistic policy, traditional Christian ideals and deep respect for historical experience. Its conservatism thus can be defined as "liberal" as in its concept, along with values of Christian traditions and public solidarity, protection of the rights and personal freedoms has the extreme importance.
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