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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Los' V.A. - Dynamics of the Modern System of Environmental Knowledge: Between Biologism, Sociologism and Globalism pp. 1-36

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.2.9663

Abstract: The author makes an attempt of identification of evolution of social-and-ecological knowledge according to which "biologism" of traditional ecology for the XX century is steadily supplemented with its "sociologism". The ecology with which contacts not only detection of regularities of relationship of live organisms with Wednesday, but also the analysis of specifics and features of relationship of the person (and society) environment is a question of continuous expansion of a subject. In the 70-80th years the idea of ecological development (as an alternative to traditional economic growth) in a scientific form was structured in the form of social ecology as disciplines (or systems of scientific knowledge) about rather general regularities of relationship of the person, society and the biosphere. Since the beginning of the 90th years the ecological context becomes a component of the theory (strategy) of a sustainable development as the reply of the world scientific community to a sharpening of world biospheric intensity. Later the tendency of global integration of modern scientific knowledge (and efforts of society) for the analysis is distinctly shown and overcoming of contradictions of global scale the Ecological knowledge at the present stage of its development is a phenomenon of immanently integrated type which subject field unites subsystems of fundamental and applied knowledge; elements of the natural, technical and social sciences reduced in a whole of ideas of a survival of the person (and mankind) in historical prospect.
Picture of the world in natural science
Apartsev O.R. - Information Approach to Biodynamics pp. 37-70

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.2.10895

Abstract: In article the philosophical problem of existence of Life in the form of the live objects united in populations is investigated. The approach, allowing consideration of a problem of such complexity, is the datalogical description of population processes based on abstract representation of objects with an identification of concrete object and a set of its individual qualities, and also taking note of the dissipation expressed in a logical look. Basic refusal of consideration of the internal device of live objects allows to universalize the theory and to make far-reaching generalizations. The main research method is the sophistical studying of objects which is based on:- The Ekstravertny analysis, allowing creation of elements of abstract models, proceeding only from external manifestations of real objects;- The axiomatic declaration, i.e. use of hypothetical objects without proofs of existence of their real prototypes;- The mental experiment which is carrying out the deduktsionny analysis of model processes and their comparison with the real;- Logical analysis, as instrument of establishment of relationships of cause and effect and generation of conclusions.Materialistic justification of equivalence of the physical and chemical processes accompanying processes of Life, and the datalogical model describing exchange interactions in abstract population is presented. Efficiency of the description of intra population interaction by means of certain exchange particles is shown. The reasons of a low obnaruzhimost of real exchange particles in biological populations are discussed. Assumptions of the reasons of origin of these particles in wildlife are made.Research of interaction of biological objects among themselves and the environment, expressed in information representation, proves emergence of collective intra population mechanisms of extensive and intensive development of any population. Quite system explanation of the Phenomenon of emergence of floors became unexpected result heuristic, but.Perhaps, the main result of research was finding of the general regularity of development of any populations, the Theory which have received the name of Ambivalent Generalization. The analysis based on the Theory of Ambivalent Generalization, allows to explain many phenomena which are beyond (Darvinian) Theory of Natural Selection, besides, that the Theory of Natural Selection, actually, is part of the offered theory.To extraordinary consequences of application of the Theory of Generalization, it is necessary to carry the Law of Maximizing Resource Consumption for any population. Information approach allows to create basis for the analytical description of dynamics of population. In the elementary case this task is reduced to consideration of interaction of Two-level Information Processes. Results of work consist not only in creation of model of development of biological populations, but also transformations of the existing world outlook doctrines connected with existence and development of Life can promote.
Myths and modern mythologies
Maydanov A.S. - Small Organon of the Myth Making Process pp. 71-162

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.2.11070

Abstract: Object of research in article is the old question of that, exists or not logic of myths. Positive elements from the point of view of the author in views of many researchers of this problem come to light, since Levi-Bryulya and finishing Levi-Strosom. In structure of archaic consciousness various types of substantial units are isolated and classified, is shown, by means of what cogitative operations they are designed, correspond and unite. Is established that the contents of myths are formed under the influence of certain determinants which carry out a role of the principles of a formation of myths and by that his logicians make a basis. It is noted that leaders among these principles are the principles of realism, a pragmatism, esthetics, etc. Proceeding from understanding of logic as the means operating and organizing thought process, the author shows that such means is available and in consciousness of myth makers that it acts in the form of certain methods, receptions, rules and schemes of formation of the contents of myths and can be called an organon of mythological thinking. The methodology which has allowed the author to carry out the offered analysis of myths, evolutionary, cognitive and information, sociocultural, pragmatical, pluralistic approaches, and also such methods, as comparison, the analysis, differentiation, generalization, etc. were. As a result of the conducted research in article the conclusion about need to distinguish different types of thinking and, respectively, different types the logician is drawn, without seeking to reduce them to one type, namely to formal logic. The understanding of logic formulated by the author allows to find the whole class of specific means and the operations bringing quite certain logic in functioning of mythological thinking.
Philosophy of law
Parkhomenko R.N. - English Democracy Tradition of the XVIIth Century (B. Chicherin) pp. 163-186

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.2.11080

Abstract: In article democratic currents in English social thought of the XVII century in treatment of the brilliant domestic encyclopedic thinker B. N. Chicherin are shined. For today at us in the country it is rather low-studied area of the political philosophy, which studying as it is represented, can help development of own liberal concepts with modern Russia. B. Chicherin arguing on development of concepts of the state, the right and human freedom in intellectual history of mankind I believed that the state as institute of the public power, though connects society of individuals in a whole, but thus it shouldn't suppress freedom of his members. The person by the nature is a free being – about it English democrats of the XVII century wrote very much. Methodology of research was work with little-known texts, both domestic, and foreign. Work can be used when teaching a course of history of social philosophy or history of political doctrines. As a result of consideration of the main democratic ideas in England it is possible to notice XVII century that done English democrat publicists in the XVII century I was important and productive. As well as the first revolution in England, and works of Sydney, Garrington, Milton and Gaulle were that base, that initial stage in development of democratic theories of a state system, leaning on which already such known philosopher as, for example, John Locke, could create the integral and thought-over theory of the natural right and to become the founder of individual school in philosophy.
Philosophy of knowledge
Tsendrovskiy O. - Epistemiology of the Phenomenological Constructivism: Possibilities of Overcoming Gaps in the Classical Concepts of Truth pp. 187-211

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.2.11041

Abstract: In article two leading approaches to a problem of essence of truth and methods of its achievement are considered: realism and constructivism. During the short review their contents reveals and radical shortcomings, logical problems and argument deadlocks come to light. The author offers version of their decision within the concept called by it by phenomenological constructivism. And as a method and the more so as the term it is a little mastered, at the same time allowing to go beyond a vicious circle of a dichotomy realism – constructivism. On the one hand, phenomenological constructivism leans on proclaimed on different manners E. Gusserl and M. Heidegger need to clear experience of naplastovaniye of multiple interpretations, having reduced them to more initial structures. With another, the concept makes a start from need to recognize constructive, instead of objective nature of got experience: it is determined biologically, individually and socially (in discourse. Having taken for a reference point the term Dasein entered by Heidegger (presence, here - life) as initial, dointerpretatsionny empirical existence, the author suggests to remove from the agenda the correct relation of knowledge to a subject as criterion of truth and objectivity as an ideal, at the same time paying attention to deadlock nature of extreme constructivism. After I. Kant's intuitions locates that we deal not with things, and only with phenomena of own consciousness (reduced to Dasein), the only possible form of knowledge – hypothetical, and criterion of truth can be only practice that is skilled check.
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