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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 06/2013
Contents of Issue № 06/2013
Ontology: being and nihility
Kutyrev V.A. - Cognitizatino of Reality as Destruction of Human Life World pp. 1-39


Abstract: Cognitology is the theory of informatisation, communication kind of thinking, devoid of consciousness, images and mind. Devoid of reflection, it turns into AI (artificial intelligence). This will unprecedented post-human universe of otherworld, in the ontological sense. The philosophy of science primary goal is the formation of spiritual elite as a sphere interaction qualitative being, on the one hand, cognitive forms, on the other hand. They are transmission in the society. For survival in a hi-tech world requires the creation and support geocentrically and anthropologically justified consciousness. After postmodernism – «gomodern».
Spectrum of consciousness
Aleinik R.M. - Cognition and World View: Naturalistic Position pp. 40-67


Abstract: The subject matter of the article is the epistemology from the point of view of the New Naturalism in comparison with the term 'world view'. The author of the article views the main approaches to epistemology in classical and non-classical philosophy and describes their pluses and minuses. The author also discusses the concepts of naturalization of epistemology (in particular, the concept offered by Jean-Marie Schaeffer) and the developmet of the naturalistic tradition in philosophical anthropology and socio-humanitarian sciences. The naturalistic approach offers a new view on ideology and allows to harmonize the relations of human with the world and himself. The purpose of the present article is to evaluate the advantages of this approach to epistemology. The set of methods used in the research includes the comparative method and the historical approach that is based on the concept of global evolutionism. This approach allows to eliminate the dichotomy between nature and culture. The present research can be used in a general philosophy course (the topics 'Subject matter of the philosophy' and 'the problem of human in the philosophy') as well as in the philosophy of science (researches of the most recent scientific paradigms). 
Space and time
Rozin V.M. - Metamorphoses and the Structure of the Concept of Space pp. 68-95


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the process of development of the concept of space. He traces back the background of this concept in Aristotle's teachings and shows that the concept of space in philosophy and natural science of the Early Modern Period included the three different meanings, i.e. realization of possibility of a non-contradictory concieving of movement, perception of movement in spatial schemes and mathematical (spatial) constructions and the ability to perceive space as one of the conditions for cognitive or practical actions. Success of natural science has resulted in trasfering the concepts of space and time into other disciplines such as biology, psychology, history and social sciences starting since XVIII - XIX centuries. In some cases such a transfer does not change the meaning of the concept (like in natural science) but in other cases the concept gets a completely different meaning and interpretation. In the latter case space is understood as a procedural, structural and even-driven phenomenon and interpreted as immanent to other phenomena studied by these disciplines and therefore acquiring features that are not typical for the concept of space in natural science. 
Matter and motion
Ursul A.D. - Forms of Dark Matter and Global Evolution pp. 96-170


Abstract: The article deals with the transformation in the natural view of the world in connection with the discovery of the dark sides of the Universe (dark energy and dark mass). It is believed that the problem of dark energy is one of the most mysterious puzzles of the Universe and the fundamental problems of modern science. This unusual mode of existence of matter, space yet fits in poorly established in the recent "substance -evolutionary" scientific picture of the Universe and still little explored in relation to the very urgent problem of global evolution of the Universe.It is proposed dark energy and dark mass considered two species, or forms of matter, in addition to a substance, which are of different nature and characteristics. In the dark energy, interpreted as the vacuum of space, nearly three-quarters of the Universe, by the cosmologists matter exists without any changes and movement. This is contrary to the philosophy of the relationship of matter and motion, and the author discusses the problem of how to resolve this contradiction, if we take the point of view of cosmology. It is shown that a clear answer to the question of the relationship of matter and motion have not been able to get to it and be able to answer a science and it is based on the philosophy of the future. Also looks at the impact of dark matter in the form of a global (universal) evolution, the presence or absence of information in the form of dark matter, and especially the study of these forms.
Political philosophy
Borisenkov A.A. - Peculiarities of Political Development pp. 171-198


Abstract: The article is devoted to the concept of political development. The author of the article describes the contents, stages, means, grounds and forms of political development and shows the close connection between political development and political life. The author also establishes the provision that poltical life is one of the means of political development that appears in the form of political evolution. Based on the analysis of the structure of political development, the author describes the grounds and forms of political life as well as factors of its destruction. 
Westerners and Slavophiles today
Granin R.S. - Symbolism of Semiramis by A.S. Homyakov pp. 199-228


Abstract: The work "Semiramis" was regarded by the Slavophile A.S. Homyakov as a study of global history from anti-Eurocentrist position. Its first part, which was actually entitled "Semiramis" was devoted to the prehistoric ancient times, and it was meant as a volumnous preface to the second part, which was devoted to the history of Slavicism. Due to the lack of empiric data the myphical history has always been a fruitful field for the historical and philosophical speculations and conspiracy theories.  For example, Homyakov divides the entire humanity into two "races", which are the agents of spiritual principles acting through them: Iranian (Aryan) and Cushitic ones. By this dichotomy Homyakov continues the tradition of German romanticism, which was once expressed by distinction between the Apollo and Dionysos forces made by      Nietzsche. Before that F.Schlegel has divided the humanity into the two races - Cainites reflecting the will of the flesh, and Sephites representing divine will. Hegel introduced the antinomy of Iranian principle of light and the Egyptian principle of secret.  Later there appeared occult and esoteric concepts of E. Blavatskaya on the 7 root races of the world; the Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre on synarchy and anarchy; Claude-Sosthene Grasset d'Orse made a division into quart and quint. These typologies may be considered more than just occult theories, they were the predecessors of systems of various psychological types. While for a historical scholar, politician or a journalist the wish to find out the hidden nature of the processes may lead to extremities of conspiracy theories, which forms new myths instead of having explanatory and prognostic functions,  for a philosopher of history and culture this is a creative advantages. The principles of Iranism and Cushism introduced by Homyakov serve as an axis for the global history, allowing to cast light upon the local cultures within the global context, which makes compression of the volumnous materials of "Semiramis" easier.
Shchuplenkov O.V. - Russian Personality pp. 229-292


Abstract: The author of the article emphasizes the need for rational forms of researching the integration of Russian personality, his existence among others and social communication and introduction of spatial, temporal, historical and socio-cultural parameters into epistemology of social and humanitarian sciences. Russian personality is viewed as the developing system consisting of many levels. Such diversity of Russian personality shows itself in diverse forms of activities. The theme of the phenomenon of Russian personality in terms of its development, historical dynamics, presentation of all his essential qualities is wide, profound and nearly ever-ending especially taking into account the vast territory of Russia and peculiarities of Russian geography, climate and their influence on Russian personality, personal qualities of Russian leaders, dominating ethnic features, ethnic identity, ethnic psychology and many other factors. Russian personality can be also viewed from the point of view of different philosophical approaches such as philosophical anthropology, synergetic antropology, comparative philosophy, religious philosophy and others. Special attention is now paid to the relation between philosophical anthropology and social philosophy and design of their new configuration in modern humanities. Special emphasis will be made on forms of expression of human nature in cultural anthropology and human ecology in terms of the anthropological shift of modern times, socio-cultural problems and sociology of history. 
Social philosophy
Prokhorov M.M. - Truth and Reality pp. 293-387


Abstract: Article is a heel in a cycle begun by article «Being and history: interrelation and definition». In introduction the essence and background of a question on true reveals. Chapter 1 is devoted research of true and the concept of a modality of I.Kant subjected the critic by Hegel, communication of understanding of true with a classical, nonclassical and postnonclassical science, and also the problem of borders of applicability of true is analyzed. In the second chapter the knowledge and true are investigated in the conditions of a modern postnonclassical epoch and an ideal of a postnonclassical science. In the third chapter two main prejudices concerning true in the modern literature reveal, the method of their overcoming by an establishment of borders of action of categories of true, lie and error is offered. In the fourth chapter of article it is analyzed «real concerning being» and true that enters true into a context correlation «being and essence» to which there corresponds the philosophy and science union. In the fifth chapter of article the true is investigated as property of knowledge over which concepts of true and its criteria are built on; their unity and variety reveals. Article comes to the end with the general conclusions.
National character and mentality
Sizemskaya I.N. - Ideas of Russian Messianism: Pitfalls and Positive Foundation of Historiosophical Reflection pp. 388-421


Abstract: The article discusses the history and philosophical content of the messianic myth of "Moscow – the Third Rome" in connection with the formation of national identity, analyzing the situation in which the idea of messianism, religious providential give rise to the phenomenon of false national consciousness, become the argument of imperial ideology, provoke confrontation between the authorities and society. Study of the problem is included in the context of the history of Russian social thought. Turning to the analysis of national messianism metaphysics, the author reveals the vectors of influence idea of Moscow as the Third Rome, the problematic field of native philosophy at those intersections with myths Historiosophical problems that become points of growth or, conversely, "traps" in the development of Russian philosophy of history and philosophy in whole. Special attention is paid to the process of transformation of Russian messianism in missianstvo what happened to mythologeme "Moscow – the Third Rome" in the middle of the XIX century, when the leading motives philosophical research was to find the cultural relations between Russia and Europe under the sign of ideas «XIX century belongs to Russia!".
The rational and the irrational
Balagushkin E.G. - Scientific and analytical evaluation of mysticism. pp. 422-474


Abstract: Putting aside semantic analysis of mystic ideas and connections, the author analyzes structural and functional element of mysticism, considering its criterion to be the direct connection between the subject and the sacral priorities. The author refutes ten popular misconceptions towards the nature of mysticism: equaling it with ecstatic state, with irrational matters, etc.  The authors shows the limitations of descriptive religious studies and the benefits of analytical approach towards understanding mysticism.  It allows to establish that the mysticism belongs to a specific modus (type) of sacral belief, together with magic, mantics, religion and man other phenomena of spiritual and practical activities serving as cultural mechanisms for the regulation of human life. The thesis on the homogenous nature of mysticism ignores its manifestations typical of paganism, its polymorphism in developed religions. While being united in its nature, the mysticism has many forms of manifestation and structural types.  Two key elements of the phenomenon of mysticism - its morphology and discourse are related like basis and superstructure, that is as a carrying construction of spiritual and practical activity and its conceptual interpretation.   The author follow the three-level structure of morphology of sacral phenomena: material resource, meaning formed based on the phenomenon of faith, and the role value of the system as a whole.  Any object may serve as a resource of faith, but it should have a significant nature, it should have certain properties, which could be regarded from magical, mystical, or religious standpoints.  While joining a religion equals change of identity of a person, mysticism means its radical change, that is the true rebirth of a personality.  The mystic way presupposes formation of a new personality, new spirituality, new life of feelings and conscience.  Today many think (and with some basis at that) that some mysticism tendencies are justified by the current social and cultural situation, the search for the spiritual renewal.
The torment of communication
Belyaev V.A. - Interculture by Advantage pp. 475-513


Abstract: This article is another step to introducing the theory of interculture developed by the author. At this point the author focuses on the term ' interculture by advantage'. Based on the author, the United States of America is such interculture by advantage. There are certain grounds for making  USA the core of interculture. USA have come a unique path to what it is now and the founders of America already set the intercultural core of a new European culture, purified from the old traditions. Introducing USA as the interculture by advantage, the author also tries to describe the basic terms of the theory of interculture that are necessary for the readers to better understand  the article. For instance, the term 'interculture by advantange' can be viewed both as the draft ideal interculture and the real culture implementing ideal forms as much as possible. The author tries to reveal this term from both sides and to show how the real culture can be far from the ideal. As the starting point of discussion, the author quotes N. V. Zlobin's book 'America - What a Life!". The article will be of interest for all those who concern with philosophical anthropology.
Philosophy of science and education
Gryaznova E.V. - The Subject of Philosophy of Science pp. 514-529


Abstract: The article presents materials for giving a lecture 'The Subject of Philosophy of Science' as a part of the course 'History and Philosophy of Science' for post-graduate students. It is suggested that the lecture should be started with discussing the status of science in modern Russia. The article contains statistical data and graphs for carrying out such a discussion. Such approach would allow post-graduate students to understand the purpose of the course and what the course may give to the future generation of scientists. The lecture is a part of the following range of topics:1. Philosophy of science and its status. 1.1. The Subject of philosophy of science1.2. Scientific method of philosophy of science. 1.3. Categories of philosophy of science. 1. 4. Patterns of philosophy of science. 1. 5. Basic modern concepts of philosophy of science. The article contains basic information and can be adjusted for any major or speciality.
Smirnova G.E. - Socio-Cultural Area Studies: Concerning the Problem of Method pp. 530-544


Abstract: A typical tendency in science of XX century was the integration of scientific knowledge which was particularly reflected in interaction between sciences, exchange of methods and development of an  interdisciplinary approach to scientific research. As a consequence, different branches and majors have been generalized within one scientific discipline. A good example is socio-cultural area studies which has been formed as a natural result of developing area studies. One of the most important goals related to implementation of socio-cultural area studies into the system of scientific knowledge is to develop the theory of this branch of science, including research methods and tecnniques. The given article is particularly devoted to developing and implementing the method of comparative analysis in socio-cultura area studies. Based on a concrete example , i.e. analysis of the term 'motherland' in Russia and Great Britain, because this term plays an important role in mentality of any nation and serves as one of the most important self-identification tools, the author shows opportunities and prospects of using comparative studies as a research method. 
Philosophy of history
Alekhina E.V. - Cosmological Aspect of the Meaning of Life in Russian Religious Philosophy (End of XIX - First Half of XX Century) pp. 545-589


Abstract: The author of the article studies a religious approach to the problem of the meaning of world and human existence. Religious approach values spiritual bases of the Universe, unique and absolute value of life, divine origin of life and ultimate destiny of human. The meaning of life has much to do with the question about the world origins, the main principles of the Universe and hierarchy of the visible world. Creationism created the grounds for the Russian philosophers to understand the meaning and purpose of the Universe. Creationism was opposed to evolutionism, in other words, it was a  transcendental but not immanent principle (approach) to the Universe. This or that scenario of world and human origins contains (or does not contain) the purpose, meaning of the world and human existence. Having faced the fact that human civilization can eventually come to the end, post-classical philosophy in XX century turned to 'new ontology', i.e. understanding of life as a spiritual phenomenon and a 'life world'. Russian philosophy during the first half of XX century developed in the same direction, too. Based on the principles of cosmic consciousness and christocentrism, Russian philosophers showed the unity of the world and human existence, natural philosophy and philosophical anthropology, philosophy and science. 
Philosophy of technology
Samarskaya E.A. - Technocratic Power and Fortunes of Democracy pp. 590-624


Abstract: This article is a response to Critique of Technocratic Reason by Marcos Garcia de la Guerta published in Paris in 1996. Marcos Garcia de la Guerta discusses the idea that democracy is needed for overcoming technocratic tendencies. The author makes an assumption that in order to fight technocratic tendencies, it is enough to understand that technology is what makes politics and ideology. As a result, his work does not reflect all the influence of technology on democracy and social life in general. Agreeing with some ideas of Guerta and disagreeing with the others, the author of the given article describes different forms of technocratic reason (that view technology as a neutral device, political and ideological phenomena or an expression of the state institution structure). In this article the author expresses an idea that technocratic reason creates a threat for democracy because it substitutes political demands dictated by human interests with scientific targets. In the end, the author discusses particular ways of confrontation to technocratic reason and technocratic power suggested by Herbert Marcuse, Jacques Ellul, Cornelius Castoriadis and Jürgen Habermas.
Myths and modern mythologies
Pershin Y.Y. - Labour and Rationality in the Genesis of the Archaic Conscience pp. 625-633


Abstract: In the article the author states that researchers pay insufficient attention to the role of labour while studying the genesis of the archaic conscience. It is labour that forms the rationality of the primitive conscience, usually called mythological. There is a contradiction: on the one hand, the mythological conscience doesn’t help to adequately perceive and interpret the surrounding world by the primitive man. On the other hand, an inadequate behaviour of the archaic man wouldn’t favour his survival. Therefore, the archaic conscience of the archaic man is paradoxically both rational and mythological/religious. Such a contradiction in the process of becoming of the archaic conscience is being studied with the help of the methodological apparatus of the psychoanalytical theory, traditionally dealing with the deep unconscious and archaic layers of man’s psyche. In the course of investigation the author also states, that under the repressing circumstances of survival and lack of the right cerebral hemisphere activity, contributing into the appearance of mystical and religious speculations, the primitive people in the process of the productive labour invented magic and religion as the means of survival, means of the closer and more adequate cooperation and communication with the world.
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