Электронный журнал Философская мысль - №1 за 2013 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-8728 - Издательство NotaBene
Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 01/2013
Contents of Issue № 01/2013
Ontology: being and nihility
Ryabushkina T. - Self-Reflection as a Method of Self-Knowledge: On the Question about the Crisis of Foundations of the Cartesian and Post-Cartesian Theories of Subjectivity pp. 1-59


Abstract: The article shows that the concept of reflection ( the basic concept of Cartesian theory of knowledge) determines fundamental difficulties not only for classical conceptions of self-knowledge but also for modern conceptions that deny the subject-object relation of self-knowledge. Not declarative but real refusal from self-reflection as a method of self-knowledge proves to be the key to finding a productive approach to understanding of subjectivity.
Space and time
Maydanov A.S. - The inverse image of the universe in the Indian Vedas pp. 60-89


Abstract: For the authors of the Vedas, the composite character of the universe was obvious. For them, the universe was an organized whole whose parts were in some way related, connected to each other, and well-ordered. Theirs was a five-layered world, which included heaven, earth, and air space. In addition, they assumed the existence of an expanse on the other side of the sky as well as a nether world. To the Aryans, heaven and earth, as the main parts of the universe, were sources of physical and moral strength and a reliable support to their lives. Their understanding of the universe was based on an ontological idea of a universal genesis. The sky, in turn, was set. It was seen as a medium for various activities. Aryan Rishi sages came to the conclusion that extended travel into the depths of the universe would help one find objects and phenomena of a qualitatively different kind. In air space, gods carried on their activities, and through this a connection was established with people. As the Aryans saw it, there was a continuously rotating wheel of days and nights around the earth, which gave rise to the different parts of the day. The Aryans did not see any problems in relation to how the heavens and the earth were held up as they had a range of solutions to this issue. In the Vedas, many of the images of space objects and phenomena are inverse in nature, i.e. they are contrasted with respect to their referents. The universe, in their view, was spherical, heliocentric, with borders. This image of the world was based on a geomorphological paradigm using the principle of dynamism. The Rishi also attracted ontological ideas of development and a genetic relationship of elements of the universe. The general nature of this worldview shows the lack of balance in ancient thinking and indicates a different level of development of some of its aspects. This type of intelligence was characteristic of other periods of mankind's spiritual history also.
The issues of holistic world
Shagiakhmetov M.R. - The nature of a crisis: a systematic analysis pp. 90-125


Abstract: This article uses the methodology of a systematic approach, according to which a crisis is exacerbation of the contradictions between disparate elements found in systemic unity. The crisis is one of the stages in the formation of cyclic systems in which humans are involved. The aggravation of the contradiction comes about as the result of inadequate conceptualisations which guide us, a gap between subjective and objective ability which we overcome with the help of our worldview. The gap between subjective and objective is overcome only by means of an adequate system of representation; that is, through a systemic weltanschauung.
Social philosophy
Sidorova G.P. - The Subject of Soviet Economic Culture in Popular Art in the 1960-1980's: Body Images pp. 126-140


Abstract: The research is devoted to the images of Soviet economic culture of the 1960 - 1980's represented in art of that period. Economic culture is viewed as a form of human activity aimed at acquiring material wealth. The purpose of the present research is to reconstruct the process of interconnection and interdependence of material, spiritual and art elements of Soviet culture based on the analysis of peculiarities, main trends and cultural dynamics of images of Soviet economic culture in popular art. Research methods included system approach, method of historical typology, cultural (diachronic), semiotic and hermeneutic analysis of art work. The results of the research showed that: body images of that period contained typical features of Soviet economic culture of the 1960 - 1980's, in particular, contradictory combination of the dominating administrative-command economy and black market economy as well as combination of the industrial culture and traditional culture. Soviet society was depicted in body images of a Soviet man, too and it was the mixed type of industrial and pre-industrial, traditional and innovative, open and closed, popular and consumer society.  Body images showed a Soviet man of different axiological types,  from 'the builder of communism' to the 'everyman'. Changes in art images of transport since the period 'of thaw' to the 'seventieth' also reflected transformation of values from socialistic values to traditional values and values of the consumer society. Conclusions and research materials can be used for teaching cultural studies, philosophy of culture, history of Russian culture, economy and art history. Some aspects of the research can help to solve particular issues in the field of modern economic culture. Research results can also help to form the system of values of the younger generation.
Natural philosophy
Goncharova S.Y. - Searle's Biological Naturalism as an Alternative to Materialism and Dualism for Solving the Hard Problem pp. 141-174


Abstract: The article deals with the criticism of Searle’s views on materialism and dualism and considers an alternative position of «biological naturalism» which adheres to his philosophy and justifies his solution of the «mind-and-body» problem. Contrary to the thesis of Searle that the mind is caused by the brain and at the same time a feature of the brain, we consider the arguments which undermine the logic of the philosopher from both a scientific point of view and a general philosophical sense.
The dialogue of cultures
Eselev E.A. - The Other in Philosophy of Difference pp. 175-194


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of the Other in modern philosophy as a variant of development of general ontological problem concerning the relationship between catigories of "the same" and "the other". The Other is the central term in philosophy of difference. Methods and approaches founded by Heidegger, Levinas, Deleuze lead to full reconstruction of ontology and ethics.
History of ideas and teachings
Shadur I. - On the Empirical Meaning of Basic Speculative Notions of Spinosa’s Philosophy pp. 195-231


Abstract: Spinoza is considered to be the most consistent representative of rationalism in philosophy, but this doesn’t mean that he always irreproachably followed the rationalistic ideal in his thinking. The article inquires into the relation of basic speculative notions of Spinosa’s philosophy to the empirically interpreted ideal of rationality of thought. With this aim in view empirical meaning of these concepts which Spinosa adopted from traditional speculative philosophy and partially reconsidered in accordance with his philosophical system has been analyzed. In course of this research we have shown, on the one hand, the ambiguity of the empirical meaning of these traditional concepts – and here one can see the essence of the flaw in the logics of Spinosa’s rationalism, the system based on these concepts, but, on the other hand, the idea that in the context of Spinosa’s philosophy these concepts can still be thought of in speculative empirical terms.
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