Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 04/2012
Contents of Issue № 04/2012
Political philosophy
Zaitsev A.V. - Pilosophy of Dialogue and Dialogics of Civil Society: Origins and Nature pp. 1-53
Abstract: The present article discusses the ancient origins of dialogics of civil society  as a form of discursive search for truth  by socially active citizens of the Greek polis. Along with the tradition of Socratic dialogue, the article also considers discursive practices of the sophistic and agonistic dialogue. The author of the article also describes  "dialogical turn" and retreat into philosophical reflection from the analysis of the subject - object relation to understanding the subject - object interaction, from monologue to dialogue in the form of intersubjective communication. These philosophical grounds create the theory and methods for rethinking the democratic practices of interaction between the state institution and civil society. This provides the basis for formation of a new branch of philosophical and political knowledge which the author called "dialogics of civil society". 
Axiology: values and relics
Sidorova G.P. - Soviet Economic Culture in Forms of Spiritual Objectivity and Images of Popular Art in the 1960-1980's: Value of Labour pp. 54-79
Abstract: The research is devoted to the images of Soviet economic culture of the 1960 - 1980's represented in art of that period. Economic culture is viewed as a form of human activity aimed at acquiring material wealth. The purpose of the present research is to reconstruct the process of interconnection and interdependence of material, spiritual and art elements of Soviet culture based on the analysis of peculiarities, main trends and cultural dynamics of images of Soviet economic culture in popular art. Research methods included system approach, method of historical typology, cultural (diachronic), semiotic and hermeneutic analysis of art work. The results of the research showed that: art images of labour contained typical features of Soviet economic culture of the 1960 - 1980's, in particular, contradictory combination of the dominating administrative-command economy and black market economy as well as combination of the industrial culture and traditional culture. Soviet society was depicted in art images of labour, too and it was the mixed type of industrial and pre-industrial, traditional and innovative, open and closed, popular and consumer society.  Art images of labour also showed a Soviet man of different axiological types,  from 'the builder of communism' to the 'everyman'. Changes in art images of labour since the period 'of thaw' to the 'seventieth' also reflected transformation of values from socialistic values to traditional values and values of the consumer society. Conclusions and research materials can be used for teaching cultural studies, philosophy of culture, history of Russian culture, economy and art history. Some aspects of the research can help to solve particular issues in the field of modern economic culture. Research results can also help to form the system of values of the younger generation.
The rational and the irrational
Shadur I. - On the Empirical Interpretation of Rationality of Thinking pp. 80-128
Abstract: The author of the article raises a question about the evidence of actual proximity between creativity of a philosopher and rationalism. To answer this question, it is suggested that we should be guided by the same gnoseological and methodological values that were followed by the founders of the classical philosophical rationalism. The author keeps to the idea that the object of thought is the experience as understood in the broad sense of the word , therefore it is the empirical projection of thought that undertakes an effort to find the criteria of correspondence of thought to these values. Based on that, the author offers a definition of experience and describes the main values of rationalism. The results of the research establish the relationship between the structure of thought and the structure of experience. These provisions are the criteria of rationalistic thought we have been searching for.
Religions and religious renaissance
Afanasenko Y.A. - Guilt: Between Punishment and Forgiveness pp. 129-178
Abstract: The topic of the research is the guiltiness (or personal guilt) as a cultural phenomenon. The subject is the relation between guilt and punishment/forgiveness. The purpose of the research is to define the opposite notions covered by the guilt concept, how these notions are conditioned by cultural environment and in what way they are related to forgiveness and punishment. Theoretical grounds for this study include Ernst Cassirer's symbolic interpretation of culture, Jung's and Horney's psychoanalysis and A. Dugin's syntagma. For us, guilt is often the problem of self-understanding and existential self-identity, therefore overcoming the feeling of guilt involves either being responsible and taking the blame upon oneself or being repressive and transfering the guilt on someone else. The authors of the article suggest their own definition of guilt and ambivalency where guilt, first of all, is a life vital phenomenon, an existential addressed directly to human existence while ambivalency is a category describing the essence of human existence in culture, especially in Art Nouveau. From the existential point of view, the feeling of guilt means self-accusation, self-condemnation or conscience. This idea of guilt is expressed only in symbolic context and this is why we can speak of a special role of the religious, philosophical and psychoanalytical vocabulary in modern culture. These are the concepts which allow human to keep the connection with the transcendental and life vital questioning and aiming at a higher moral principle, on one hand, and a constructive feeling of the 'dark' side of our own self, on the other hand. Neorotic guilt is opposed to the existential definition of guilt. Its main feature is a projective and vengeful nature, in other words, it is often transferred to other people. Neurotic guilt is typical for a person who hasn't experienced the feeling of guilt in a symbolic environment. Modern cultural environment represents the situation that contributes to the semiotic interpretation of culture, so self-accusation becomes quite an issue. 
Philosophy of liberty
Parkhomenko R.N. - Genesis of the Idea of Freedom in Western European Philosophy pp. 179-210
Abstract: The author of the article traces back the formation and development of the idea of freedom in Antique, Medieval and New European Philosophies up to Descartes' ideas. The analysis shows that modern definition of the ide of freedom as well as the ideas of law, justice and civil society are based on Antique and Medieval philosophies. Following philosophies and political studies only develop theoretical categories and application of these categories in formation of modern democratic states. 
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