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Philosophical Thought
Reference:

The Method of Activating Modern Career Guidance Approaches with the Theses of the Theology of Personality

Grevtsev Arsenii Vladimirovich

PhD student, Theology Department, Religious Organization Ч Higher Theological Educational Organization of the Russian Orthodox Church ЂSaints Cyril and Methodius Institute for Postgraduate Studiesї

115035, Russia, Moscow region, Moscow, Pyatnitskaya str., 4/2, office building 1

thabell@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8728.2023.3.39832

EDN:

AIYSOV

Received:

22-02-2023


Published:

21-03-2023


Abstract: The subject of the work is the theses of the theology of personality. The aim of the study is to develop practical methods of pedagogy of professional counseling based on the provisions of the theology of personality. The work presents a number of theses of the theology of personality, synthesized on the basis of the works of the theologian and historian Vladimir Nikolaevich Lossky; describes principles of career guidance approaches; theoretical positions are combined into practical conclusions; a training case template and a template for working with it are compiled. The main provisions of the developed method are as follows: there cannot be one exact way to determine the interests of a person; the circle of specialties should not be limited by social factors; vocational guidance should be carried out in accordance with the ultimate goal of human activity Ч the perception of perfection; care should be taken to interpret the results of diagnostic tests/tasks that are not able to take into account all aspects of the uniqueness of the individual; professional guidance consultations should be carried out with a deep immersion in the understanding of the individual; through development in an area unfamiliar to a person, he can learn a new competence and show interest in it; through the self-giving of the individual in complete immersion in a cause that brings good to people, one can see the perfection of the individual. The method can be used in teaching various disciplines at different levels of education.


Keywords:

theology of personality, career guidance, career guidance counseling, activity practices, theology, philosophy of religion, Vladimir Nikolaevich Lossky, pedagogy, pedagogical methods, career guidance methods

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction

Modern pedagogy is looking for new ways of interacting with students, and personality theology opens up new facets of understanding a person, his nature and existence, in this the scientific interests of these two fields of knowledge overlap, therefore it is necessary to separately state a number of theses of personality theology and pedagogical approaches that use similar principles of human research, and then combine this material into a single practical the manual. This article presents the result of studying the approaches of career guidance and the provisions of the theology of personality regarding such properties of a person's personality as uniqueness, integrity, freedom and kenoticism.

Personality traits. Uniqueness

The uniqueness of a person is the isolation of a person from the general nature. This property means exactly the personal manifestations, the attitude to God of each person, filled with the Holy Spirit and carried out by grace [1, p. 713].

Christian theology pays special attention to this property of personality, it presents the human individual as a unique being, "incomparable to anyone and irreducible to other individuals" [2, p. 150].

The human personality is free and open to any individual property. This expresses its potential completeness. Thus, the personality becomes the only being of its kind that does not have its own kind, the general human nature is reproduced in a variety of human hypostases [2, p. 302].

S. A. Chursanov notes precisely this connection of the uniqueness of the personality with its openness. It is thanks to openness that a person overcomes the genus-species structure of nature, repetitive individual characteristics, quantitative relativity and universal logical determinism [3, p. 70].

Personality traits. Integrity

The uniqueness of a person implies its integrity, identity. The integrity of a person is not destroyed by self-sacrifice, as well as at birth, growing up, learning, acquiring or losing various life skills, in death and resurrection, and in the course of other natural processes. This property has important consequences for epistemology, sociology, psychology and pedagogy [3, pp. 70-71].

The essence of the integrity of personality is explained by V. N. Lossky as follows: neither angels nor man, created by God as parts of the world, "are, in fact, parts, they are personal beings. Personality is not a part of any whole, it contains the whole in itself" [2, p. 192].

About the preservation of this identity by a person, he says that although in the Church people become members of the Body of Christ and are enclosed in His Hypostasis, are united in their renewed nature, nevertheless they are multiple in persons and human hypostases of a single nature are not destroyed by this. "They do not mix with the Divine Personality of Christ, they do not merge with It. For no hypostasis can merge with another hypostasis without thereby ceasing its personal existence" [2, p. 239]. The integrity of the individual in the Church is maintained by the fullness of the Holy Spirit. "Thus, man by nature is a part, one of the members of the Body of Christ, but, as a person, he is also a being containing the whole" [2, p. 246].

Personality traits. Freedom

The freedom of the human personality is conceived by V. N. Lossky both as freedom of personal relationships, and as freedom in relation to one's own nature [4, p. 54], and as freedom of love for God, and as freedom to acquire any individual character, and as freedom to be like or unsuitable to God.

By analogy with the principles of Divine hypostasis, our personality is called, freely possessing its nature, to possess it not for itself [4, p. 54].

About the freedom of personal love for God, V. N. Lossky says this: man is the greatest creation of God, precisely because God gave him the ability to love, as well as the right to refuse love. God has put His most perfect creation in danger of eternal destruction in order to make it the most perfect. This paradox is irremediable: in his very greatness Ч in the ability to become God Ч man is capable of falling; but without this ability to fall, there is no greatness. Therefore, according to the fathers, a person should go through a trial, in order to gain consciousness of his freedom, consciousness of the free love that God expects from him [5, p. 502], which presupposes freedom, the possibility of choice and rejection [5, p. 500].

About the freedom of the individual in relation to his actions, "similar" or "inappropriate", we find the following thoughts. Man is created in the image of God, therefore he freely owns his nature, therefore he can choose good or evil, become like God or not. Man is a personal being, and freedom belongs to the personality of man, so he can accept or reject the will of God. Since personality cannot be separated from nature, and the will by which a person acts is a property of nature, a person is free to commit "improper acts" that will limit his personality, obscure the "image of God" [2, pp. 206-207].

However, V. N. Lossky notes that personality is not limited by human nature, and in order to be confirmed in a righteous choice following the principles of asceticism, it is necessary to abandon the natural will in order to gain true freedom of the image of God [2, p. 204].

In the freedom of a person in relation to any personal property, as V.N. Lossky says, his entire potential is shown. This freedom makes a person a unique hypostasis, having no similar ones, but united with other people by a single nature [2, p. 302].

From freedom, as a property of a person's personality, the following consequence can be deduced. The free will of creatures, without which no personality can be fully realized, refutes the "Sophia determinism" of Fr. Sergiy Bulgakov, the cosmic unconscious process of deification of all created nature [6, p. 38].

S. A. Chursanov based on the works of Mitr. John (Zizioulas) complements the doctrine of personal freedom: freedom, as one of the most important characteristic features of the personal way of being, is derived, firstly, from the position of the ontological primacy of personality in relation to essence, assumed by the doctrine of the monarchy of God the Father, and, secondly, from the doctrine of God's creation of the world from nothing. Ultimately, a person's personality is not determined either by his nature or by the surrounding social or cultural environment. After all, it determines the very way nature exists. The world, and hence man, were created by God out of nothing, therefore, personality is not determined by divine nature either [3, p. 69].

Personality traits. Kenoticism (dedication)

The human hypostasis can realize itself only through the rejection of its natural will, which determines and enslaves man. In defending his own "I", a person's personality merges with his nature and loses true freedom. Therefore, it is necessary to voluntarily give up one's own will, from the fiction of freedom, for the sake of gaining true personal freedom, which is the image of God that exists in all people. This is one of the basic principles of asceticism [2, p. 204].

One of the main meanings of the gospel is that selfЧdenial is the self-realization of a person in its purest form. Therefore, the revelation of the Divine Personality was revealed to us in the circumstances of the fallen life on earth through the death of the God-Man Jesus Christ on the cross [7, pp. 509-510].

A person who individualizes and limits himself to the limits of his nature cannot fully realize himself Ч the personality in him becomes poorer as a result of such closure. A person is able to express himself only in the unified nature of all people, abandoning his own self, giving up private property that he has only for himself, ceasing to satisfy exclusively his own subjective interests. In this way, a person will not only be enriched with universal capital, but will also reveal himself and become a perfect image of God and receive His likeness, which is a natural perfection common to all people [2, p. 206].

The perfection of a person lies in self-giving. Since it is nature, it expresses itself in the rejection of existence for itself. V. N. Lossky compares this with the exhaustion and humiliation of God the Son, which is the mystery of salvation. At the same time, the Divine kenosis, the refusal of the Son from His Own will according to human nature, is not a desire or an action, but the very existence of the Persons of the Holy Trinity who have a single Divine will according to a single Divine essence [2, p. 222].

One should not work for the realization of limited personal aspirations, since the achievement of perfection is possible only in the complete rejection of oneself. It is necessary to waste individual interests in order to unite in the Church with many human hypostases, to become one Body with Christ in the Eucharist and to acquire and assimilate the grace that is given by the Holy Spirit [2, p. 253].

At the same time, the integrity of a person as a person is not destroyed in self-giving [3, p. 70]. A person who renounces his will, the desires of his nature, on the way to unity with God will never lose the personal. Freely renouncing everything that is in his nature, moving along the path of union with God, the person becomes more conscious and fully reveals himself in grace [2, p. 281].

Philosophy of pedagogy

Various researchers find the philosophical basis of pedagogy. Modern foreign authors often turn to the works of I. Kant and D. Dewey to study these issues, in whose works one can find reflections consonant with the topic under consideration, for example, that education with a teacher is necessary for a person to develop, realize his capabilities and potential, as well as for the formation of a progressive society [8, p. 317]. This thesis correlates with the considered provisions of the theology of personality.

Laura Muller's article "Education, Philosophy, and Morality Virtue Philosophy in Kant" examines the relationship between the philosophy of culture and education in the context of the formation of moral values. The author shows the special importance of the role of education, philosophy and culture in the upbringing of a person's personality and character [9, pp. 115-116].

The culture of consumption, which has entered, among other spheres of life, into education, distorts the attitude of students to learning. Education can be rethought from a philosophical perspective, inspired by Kant's views on pedagogy and personal development in education [9, pp. 116-118].

The ideal of human perfection, according to I. Kant, presupposes his moral development, as well as the fact that he is engaged in educating the good in other people with the help of teaching and example [10, p. 1047]. In his first Critique, Kant points to the ultimate goal of reason Ч morality. The system of metaphysics, according to Kant, is built in accordance with the basic goals of pure reason, which serve the ultimate purpose of reason. One aspect of the anthropology of Kant's works is education, which serves the ultimate purpose of reason. At the same time, there is a moral component in education when we teach not only knowledge, but also how to think, act and be free [9, p. 114]. Therefore, education, according to Kant, should be morally directed, teach discipline, self-management, overcome instincts, recognize moral commandments and good goals and follow them. Education should teach a person to think so that he can become enlightened and free [9, pp. 118-120]. The relationship between education, morality and philosophy, connected through the "philosophy of virtue", provides not only a more subtle understanding of Kant, but also a path for pedagogy [9, p. 114].

A number of works devoted to the moral aspects of education focus on the parallel between freedom and restriction. According to Schaeffer, freedom and restriction do not contradict each other, and restriction itself is part of moral education [9, pp. 125-127]. This topic is widely discussed in the article "Kantian moral education for the future of humanity: The climate change challenge" by Eva Vyrembska-Germanovich. She writes that I. Kant draws attention to the problem of the contradiction in moral education between coercion associated with certain restrictions and rules of behavior Ч and the freedom of action necessary for morality. He suggests as a solution the following task of the teacher Ч to educate the student's ability to properly use freedom and accept the established restrictions. Kant notes that a person who has not been taught to use freedom correctly is not able to lead himself and take responsibility for actions and decisions. And in order for a person to appreciate the freedom of other people, it is necessary to socialize him, to acquaint him with the rules of cooperation in society [10, p. 1047]. Kant believes that the teaching of morality should take place according to a certain method, where each person should recognize the requirements of morality in his mind and follow them solely out of respect for the moral law. He suggests three consecutive steps that will help a person to discover his inner freedom and devote himself to the moral law: exercise in the power of judgment; interest in the moral law and moral duties and the assertion of the autonomy of practical reason, which allows overcoming the natural impulses of man. Through teaching these principles, students can engage in a conscious study of their own actions and develop respect for the requirements of the moral law [10, pp. 1047-1048].

Immanuel Kant believed in the idea of progress and repeatedly stressed that the human species does not remain unchanged, but evolves dynamically throughout history. He argued that humanity should strive for moral progress and the creation of a moral world where everyone will act in accordance with moral laws and achieve happiness and moral perfection [10, p. 1048].

Kant insisted on the importance of public education because he believed that the idea of private education was illogical and that its practice did not educate good citizens. Education should be institutionalized by the State in accordance with a plan that focuses on common grandiose goals and ideals. The goal of such education should be a better future and the formation of citizens capable of changing the world for the better [10, p. 1049].

For Kant, teaching ethics is not just teaching theory, he offers a method of "moral catechism", which includes both dialogue and dogmatism, the purpose of which is to teach students to conduct a dialogue with themselves so that students can freely use their minds, determine moral principles and accept them. Ethics training should be practical and personal [9, pp. 123-125].

Kant believes that virtue is a completely human quality, the moral willpower of a person, which allows him to fulfill his duty and limit himself morally. Virtue is also called "courage" Ч the inner strength necessary to overcome obstacles on the way to a moral life. To achieve virtue and morality, self-discipline is necessary, which is also required in education. Virtues can be taught and must be practiced. Education and dialogue with oneself are important for the formation of morality. Dialogues with other people and with yourself allow you to improve yourself in recognizing injustice and exercising self-control. According to the author, this is the role of philosophy and what distinguishes it from simple rhetoric [9, pp. 121-122].

In matters of morality, it is not enough to study the moral catechism without practicing it. What exactly should be limited in the education of the individual? Self-love, in order not to turn into selfishness, must be cultivated through moderation in demands and restriction, taking into account the self-love of others. One of the tasks of education is to develop rational selfЧesteem through virtues such as modesty. Education is a process based on the interaction not of isolated individuals, but of people with each other and the environment, therefore it includes the education of respect for the dignity of other people. It also helps a person to understand his own dignity and act accordingly, use his mind and resist mechanical inclinations [9, pp. 127-129].

It is necessary to teach not only knowledge, but also to develop the ability to critical thinking and self-development. At the same time, the existing traditional teaching methods may be ineffective, since students remain passive and forget the material they have studied. The key to the philosophy of virtue is "experiential learning", which activates students and promotes their enlightenment. Laura Muller does not find Kant's practical advice on this topic and refers as such an example to the problem-based learning of Paul Freire from his work "Pedagogy of the Oppressed". There are 3 states of problem-based learning: listening, dialogue, action. With the help of them, the student can implement the public use of reason according to Kant, according to the author. Another means of encouraging students' attention, efforts and social cooperation is joint homework both in and out of the classroom, as suggested by Stephen Fishman in his work on the philosophy of pedagogy in the writings of John Dewey [9, pp. 127-129].

One can see major coincidences in Kantian thought and in the theses of the Orthodox theology of personality, as well as in the ideals of modern pedagogical approaches, which makes this study relevant not only for the social environment of Orthodox Christians, but also for anyone striving for the development of society.

Within the framework of the philosophy of education, the role of aesthetic education is also important. Aesthetics in pedagogy aims not only to develop artistic perception, but also to form a personality, to help her in the process of self-knowledge and self-realization. Aesthetic education can contribute to the development of creative abilities and perception of the surrounding world in its various manifestations, which is useful for the self-development of the individual and its successful adaptation in society.

Laura D'olympio in her article "Aesthetics and eudaimonia: Education for flourishing must include the arts" relies on the Aristotelian concept of eudaimonia as a concept of a full life and argues in favor of introducing aesthetic education into educational programs to achieve eudaimonia by students. From the author's point of view, art promotes the development of the emotional and cognitive spheres of personality, supports its self-expression and moral formation. Aesthetic experiences and experiences are accessible to everyone and are achieved through teaching students to evaluate art according to its form and value, as well as through encouraging an open and receptive attitude to art [11, pp. 239-240].

The ability to perceive the surrounding world allows a person to evaluate the aesthetic qualities and features of the environment. People are the creators and consumers of images. So, children play, imitating adults, each other, animals, cars, etc. Imitation is a natural component of personality education. When a person, as a result of interaction with something, for example, with an object of art, the environment in nature, receives sensations of perception from sight, hearing and touch, then his mental and physiological reactions are activated; using concepts, memory, categories and ideas, the human mind receives meaning and forms a unique aesthetic experience. Aesthetic education can make this experience deeper, more accurate and richer by improving a person's natural ability [11, pp. 240-242, 245].

L. D'olympio contrasts the hedonistic calculation of "happiness" Ч the goal of learning for prosperity, which is close to eudaimonia. To achieve the latter, she gives a list of criteria, 10 basic freedoms and human rights, such as the right to life, freedom of movement and from violence, the ability to communicate with other people, have respect and equality before others, take care of nature, enjoy entertainment and control your environment. To achieve many of these criteria, the author suggests the mandatory introduction of aesthetic education into the school curriculum. He believes that all schoolchildren should be taught the skills and techniques of creating and evaluating art, as well as the theory of art. The Government and educational institutions should support this training and promote teacher training in this area [11, pp. 245, 248].

The stated concept is consonant with the teaching of the Orthodox theology of personality about the expression of personality in creativity, its openness to the perception of various experiences and the development of new competencies.

Pedagogy of career guidance

The career-oriented direction of pedagogy directly concerns individual work with students, taking into account the characteristics of their personality, therefore it closely correlates with the theology of personality and the philosophy of pedagogy.

The career guidance issue today is acute for various groups of society: not only for schoolchildren, but also for students of professional and higher education, as well as adults. Self-determination and personal development, search and development of new things are carried out throughout a person's life. For a person choosing a profession, regardless of his age and current social status, similar problems remain relevant. In scientific works, such an individual is commonly referred to as an "optant" [12, p. 86].

Specialists have different opinions about the classification of career guidance techniques by age. Some of them believe that career guidance should begin with the lower limit of youth age, marking it in the range from 15 to 18-20 years. However, this age is preceded by an important period of personality development [12, p. 88], and it seems more appropriate to move from general career guidance games and conversations to narrowly focused career guidance around the beginning of a teenager's education in high school (grades 5-6, 11-12 years). Then he (in most cases) already has a fairly clear idea of what he likes and what he does not like; during this period, it is possible to determine the student's aptitude for the humanities or technical sciences.

It is important not to miss the opportunity of career guidance at the age of 11-14 years, because at the age of 15 a young person approaches the topic of professional choice no longer from the position of calm perception of information about various professions. He is pressed by the need to choose a specialized secondary or higher educational institution, which involves determining the profile of the class in which he studies and the exams that he will take. At this time, he is no longer open to the process of career guidance as an opportunity to learn something new and try himself in it. The teenager is forced to make a choice of his future, which will be difficult to change in the future.

After the choice of profession is made, from about the age of 16, in grades 9-11, we can talk about the prospects, ways and means of professional realization after obtaining a specialty.

Thus, we can suggest the following correspondence of the stages of professional selfЧdetermination to age categories [12, p. 86-88]:

Ч 0-12 years Ч the period of accumulation of knowledge, cognition of the world and opportunities for professional development;

Ч 10-16 years Ч determination of abilities and ways of self-realization;

Ч 15-18 years Ч formation of professional intentions and choice of profession;

Ч 16-22 years Ч vocational training;

Ч 18-24 years Ч adaptation to professional activity;

Ч since the age of 22 Ч professional self-realization.

One of the fundamental problems of career guidance is the incorrect prioritization of students when choosing a specialty:

Ч 50% of students choose a university because of its proximity to home [13, p. 15];

Ч for young people, the priority is the external attributes of the profession, high pay, prestige and the opportunity to establish themselves in society [13, p. 12].

Now a lot of people in choosing between prestigious and interesting work prefer the first, which is strategically wrong. As a result of generalizing the experience of research and practice, the following principles can be identified, according to which one should choose a profession.

1. The case should work out: the optant should successfully cope with the tasks of the profession and spend comparable energy and physical resources on it;

2. The case should really be liked, since an unloved profession can be an insurmountable obstacle to self-realization for a particular person. For example, according to this criterion, if a person likes a pedagogical specialty, then it should be chosen instead of a position imposed on him by capitalist values in the field of politics or business, to which he is indifferent.

3. At the same time, it must be recognized that such a criterion for choosing a profession as interest in it may conflict with the availability and openness of vacancies [12, p. 88]. On this basis, we can single out the third important criterion for choosing a profession Ч the demand for personnel.

A study that allows you to assess whether a profession is suitable for an optant according to the first two criteria (ability and interest) will be primarily practical, and the third criterion (the demand for a profession) can be studied theoretically, based on data on the requests of companies in the job market, and these results can be offered to a person who is deciding on a profession.

Another important problem of career guidance is the limited choice of profession. The following reasons can be mentioned:

Ч lack of meaningful ideas about the world of professions for the choice,

Ч place of residence,

Ч the state of affairs in the labor market,

Ч high competition and competition,

Ч lack of confidence in your ability to make the right choice.

In connection with the latter reason, it should be noted that the remaining items on the list may be either the result of an adequate assessment of the situation, or simply the result of a lack of purposefulness [12, pp. 87-88].

The system of professional counseling, proposed in the works of V. Altukhov, E. Orlova and M.A. Garbuzova, which includes the following approaches, is devoted to solving many problems of career guidance:

Ч informational;

Ч diagnostic and consulting;

Ч developing;

Ч activating [12, p. 87].

The concept of "approach" used in this system can be defined as the concept of solving the problem of career guidance. These 4 main approaches combine the ideas and principles of career guidance by the types of optant's activities.

In addition, it is possible to call the "zero" stage of career guidance preparatory for others: the education of morality and value orientations, which are regulators of behavior, on their basis the individual chooses certain social attitudes as the goals of a specific activity [12, p. 87].

The informational approach to career guidance aims to provide the optant with a variety of reliable information about what specialties exist, the list of which is constantly expanding; about educational institutions; about employers; about the demand for professions in the labor market; about how to plan your career and what competencies you need to acquire [12, p. 87].

This can include educational exhibitions, open days (for example, at the HSE, RANEPA), job fairs, meetings with specialists and representatives of organizations (at the same time, it is necessary to plan such a meeting correctly: get real professional information from an expert for students), presentations, seminars on career guidance topics reference books, articles in the media, videos, reviews of specialties and professional activities, reviews of educational institutions and the labor market, descriptions of professions. There are also separate courses on this topic, useful articles, job banks for job seekers and employers.

Diagnostic and consulting approach to career guidance allows you to determine the inclinations and abilities of the optant, compares the personal characteristics and competencies of a person with the requirements for professions [12, p. 87].

The approach uses various forms of work: interviews, interviews and questionnaires; career guidance and psychological counseling; career guidance tests and testing complexes that assess the potential of the subjects and their professionally important qualities, competencies.

It is very important to treat the test results correctly, especially psychological ones. They can often be inaccurate Ч they should be taken more as a general guideline. In some cases, the results may not suit the tested person, from which it is possible to draw conclusions and adjust the professional choice according to the criterion of interest.

A developing approach to career guidance helps to form and improve various skills and abilities necessary for mastering a particular profession [12, p. 87].

This approach includes attending master classes, trainings and courses: full-time and online, for personal growth, increasing academic and work motivation, developing soft skills (flexible skills): the ability to work in a team, public speaking skills, self-presentation, communication skills, etc.

The developing approach is relevant not only for teenagers, but also for students and already working professionals: they can gain practical knowledge and skills necessary to build a successful career [12, p. 87].

The activating approach can also be used for different age groups, acquiring its own specifics for each group. Its purpose is to form the optant's internal readiness for independent and conscious construction of his professional and life path. The essence of it is to immerse a person in professional activity directly or in a game format.

This may include internships, internships, during which a person can try himself in several fields and choose the most preferred one [12, p. 88].

The student's academic performance and the degree of his interest in a particular subject often do not allow him to determine his professional inclinations. The activating approach allows a person to get a clear understanding of what this work is from the inside, about the obstacles that complicate the achievement of professional goals; helps to realize their advantages that contribute to the implementation of the plans and prospects; to begin the practical implementation of personal professional activity [14, pp. 62-63].

At the age of 11-13, as part of this approach, it would be appropriate to visit one of the educational and entertainment centers, career-oriented "cities", for example, Kidzania, where children are given the opportunity to try themselves in a variety of professions.

The activating technique is used in many companies and educational systems Ч in the internship of young specialists [12, p. 88], in school and university practice. Cooperation with vocational schools, employment centers, youth organizations, companies, enterprises and universities will be productive for schools in order to:

Ч to support the practical orientation of school career guidance;

Ч to introduce students to the professional world and work at a certain workplace;

Ч to give an idea of the methods of work;

Ч to introduce working (business) processes;

Ч to give real knowledge about the structure of companies and about the economic and technical relations of business;

Ч to introduce the field of social and economic relations within companies;

Ч motivate students to professional and school education.

About the activities during the internship, students can prepare reports (abstracts, reports), which will contain a presentation of the practice, a description of the activities during the internship, a description of the process and job descriptions.

Application of theology theses in career guidance approaches

The paper highlights 3 main criteria for choosing a profession: ability to the profession, interest in it and demand for it in the labor market. These evaluation criteria, of course, are not exhaustive, but they allow to a high degree to make the right choice of the direction of human development.

The field of scientific attention of the theology of personality does not concern the study of demand in the labor market, but interest in activity comes directly from a person's personality, and here a correct understanding of anthropology is simply necessary. The theology of personality provides the right vector for the study of personality: uniqueness, integrity, freedom of the individual to assimilate a new individual trait and the kenotic (dedication) of the personality indicate that:

Ч each person is unique, which means there cannot be one exact way to determine his interests: individual methods of work should be selected for the optant;

Ч it is not necessary to limit the range of specialties offered to a person only to those that suit his social status, geographical location, age, competitiveness and other social factors. At any place, you can start moving in the direction of the profession, if it suited the optant according to certain criteria. A person can find everything that at first glance is closed from him;

Ч a person, being not just a part of the world, but containing it entirely in himself, can eventually perceive perfection, as well as find unity with God Ч this is the goal that can be set for an optant at the end of the professional path.

Regarding the abilities of a person, personalism notes, in addition to the characteristics of the listed traits, his creative character, which allows us to draw the following conclusion about the definition of human skills:

Ч it is necessary to deploy a faceted crystal of a particular profession with a creative side to a person, since the creative functions of the work are much better perceived by a person, which will allow him to more accurately determine his abilities. Any activity performed in a certain way can be called art.

It was also said about 4 approaches of career guidance: informational, diagnostic and consulting, developing, activating. From the point of view of the theology of personality, a number of features of these approaches can be distinguished.

The informational approach uses the resources of a person's cognitive activity, which should be limited only by spiritual, moral and moral norms.

The diagnostic and consulting approach is aimed at personality research, while it should be taken into account that:

Ч diagnostic tests are not able to take into account all aspects of the uniqueness of the individual;

Ч career guidance consultations can help only with a deep immersion in the understanding of personality: common words are unlikely to help a person decide on his purpose in life.

The developing approach embodies the theses of individual freedom:

Ч even if a person has never thought about any kind of activity, this does not mean that he is not interested in it: perhaps it is through development in this area that he will acquire this ability, as well as show interest in it.

The activating approach tests a person not just in a professional trial, it immerses him in real working conditions in which he can gain real work experience:

Ч probably it is through kenoticism, the dedication of the individual in full immersion in the cause that brings good to people, it will be possible to see the perfection of the individual, and this will be a clear criterion for the right choice of the direction of activity. And, on the contrary, the mere presence of a person at activating career guidance events will not give the desired result.

Using these conclusions, as well as task-based and personalized pedagogical approaches, it is possible to supplement the lesson template and show the essence of the method under consideration.

The concept of "method" is used in relation to the stated research result, since it is a specific tool that can be used to solve a number of practical problems: professional counseling, achieving high academic performance, educating the student's personality. The method defines the steps, procedures and tools that need to be used to develop and conduct the lesson.

The differences in the case from the standard lesson with built-in diagnostics are made in separate paragraphs with a "+" sign.

Case preparation:

1. Class, UMK, stage of development of activity.

2. The main mastered skill of the lesson and the main operations that are part of it (within the framework of career guidance, there may be several basic skills: knowledge of the main specialties in the sphere of N, competencies from the sphere of N, assessment of one's own professional aptitude for the specialties of the sphere of N).

3. Subject task (within the framework of career guidance, an example of the task may be as follows: "To determine the points of professional disposition of students in the c sphere N").

4. Subtasks that form operational competencies (within the framework of career guidance, these are the tasks of developing and activating approaches with information inserts).

+ a wide range of tasks should be selected to find an approach to each student;+ the selection of tasks should not be limited to the social status, geographical location, age, competitiveness or other social characteristics of the student;

+ tasks related to activities that are far from the sphere of students' life should not be excluded;

+ tasks should be creatively oriented;

+ the range of tasks should include exercises for mastering not only professional, but also supra-professional, flexible competencies;

+ tasks should show a person the ultimate goal of professional activity: the perception of perfection.

5. Subtasks that diagnose the result of mastering the material step by step and in general (within the framework of career guidance, these are the tasks of the diagnostic and consulting approach).

+ it is necessary to correctly interpret the results of diagnostic tests/ tasks that are not able to take into account all aspects of the uniqueness of the individual;+ it is necessary to conduct career guidance consultations with a deep immersion in the understanding of personality.

6. Criteria for evaluating subtasks and subject tasks.

In the table, comments on the implementation of the case features are presented separately in the "Teacher's actions" column.

Table 1 Ч Working with the case

Lesson stageUsed part of the case

Teacher's actions

Organizational stage

1. Class, UMK, stage of development of activity

Ц

Repetition

5. Subtasks that diagnose the result of mastering the material in steps

6. Criteria for evaluating subtasks

Assessment of the current level of students' knowledge about sphere N, their competencies for sphere N and their professional aptitude for sphere N

Motivation for learning activities.

Updating knowledge.

Setting educational tasks

4. Subtasks that form operational competencies.

5. Subtasks that diagnose the result of mastering the material in steps.

6. Criteria for evaluating subtasks

The proposal of problems for finding points of interest in the sphere N

Goal setting stage

2. The main mastered skill of the lesson

Announcement of the sphere in which the immersion will be performed within the framework of the lesson

The stage of discovering new knowledge.

Introduction of a new learning experience into the knowledge system

3. The subject problem.

4. Subtasks that are part of the main task

The development of students in the field of N through the implementation of developing and activating tasks.

It is possible to work with students in interest groups.

The tasks should be carried out with the dedication of the student and his full immersion in the case. The exclusion of the simple presence of a person at career guidance events. If these requirements are not met, a conclusion should be drawn based on the criterion of interest and the following task should be proposed

Independent work on the topic.

Reflection of activity.

Homework

5. Subtasks that diagnose the result of mastering the material

6. Criteria for evaluating subtasks

Assessment of students' knowledge about the sphere N, the competencies they have mastered and their professional aptitudes for various specialties of the sphere N

Conclusion

The given pedagogical method embodies modern forms and approaches of career guidance pedagogy from the standpoint of Orthodox theology and is adapted for use in teaching various disciplines at different levels of education. The theses of the method are confirmed by various studies in the field of philosophy, which expands the possibilities of its use not only in the social environment of Orthodox Christians, but also in any society striving for development. The method is obtained as a result of building new connections between two developing areas of science: theology of personality and pedagogy, which can also be used for further study of these areas.

References
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First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the study, as it is indicated in the title ("Integration of the theology of personality according to the works of V. N. Lossky into modern career guidance approaches"), is considered from the standpoint of Christian anthropology, an integral and essential part of which is the theology of personality of V. N. Lossky. The author has identified the ethical grounds for integrating theology with the practice of career guidance, avoiding the paradoxes inherent in Christian pedagogy. For an authentic perception of the author's thought, it is necessary to abandon the principle of doubt that underlies the philosophical search. The theological Orthodox approach is based solely on the principle of unity, reducing the role of analysis and philosophical criticism in understanding the truth, relying on faith. This is both the strengths and weaknesses of the text submitted for review. On the one hand, the author consistently reveals his position, defining the relevant field of practical theology Ц the field of pastoral ministry in the field of career guidance. And this area, given the significant problems of modern society and the millennial educational experience of the church, is really open to missionary work and needs it. On the other hand, the inevitable oneЦsidedness of the author's approach excludes significant problems of intercultural communication from the orbit of research optics. As a result, the practical value of the presented work is limited by the social environment of the Orthodox parish. Christian Orthodox moralizing, as a career-oriented propaedeutics, can become an insurmountable obstacle for people (children) of a different culture, a different religion. This problem has not been considered in detail by the author, its solution has not been proposed, and its consideration from the author's point of view leads only to centuries-old theological discussions on very acute issues of faith, which influenced, in particular, the rupture of papal Rome and patriarchal Constantinople. It has to be stated that the subject of the study is considered somewhat one-sidedly, and the proposed methodological recommendations have a limited scope of application. The methodology of the research is based on a comparison of the ethics of the theology of the personality of V. N. Lossky and the ethical problems of the practice of career guidance. This comparison allowed the author to identify a number of problems in the modern theory and practice of career guidance, the solution of which is proposed from the standpoint of Orthodox preaching missionary work. Since the task of preserving the Russian Orthodox parish (worldview) in immigration played a key role in the works of V. N. Lossky, the one-sidedness of the author's approach is inevitable. But meanwhile, the contradictions revealed by the author between personality traits ("uniqueness, integrity, freedom and kenoticism") and the pragmatic attitudes of modern career guidance deserve attention. The author suggests methods for overcoming the trend of dehumanization in the fields of education and career guidance, which can and should be understood by theorists and practitioners. The relevance of the topic chosen by the author is high. Scientific and technological progress leads to the acceleration of revolutionary changes in society, which give special urgency to the problem of career guidance of a person at any age. The list of professions in demand is changing intensively, which requires a change in the paradigm of career guidance to professions that do not yet exist, but are potentially in demand. In this sense, the way proposed by the author for the development of adaptive abilities of a personality through the harmonious development of its basic properties seems to be one of the alternative and noteworthy means of reducing the long-term risks of further social development. The scientific novelty of the work is expressed by the author in a list of a number of methodological recommendations that are quite applicable in limited conditions. Further development of the author's methodology for the development of a harmonious personality capable of professional adaptation, taking into account the problems of intercultural (non-confessional) communication, seems promising. The style as a whole cannot be considered strictly scientific: the attitudes of "ought" predominate, based on faith, rather than philosophical criticism; there is no clear distinction between the categories of pedagogical method and approach, which makes confusion in the concepts of "method Ц approach" significantly complicates the reading of the author's thought. For a philosophical journal in the context of the post-non-classical paradigm of the development of scientific knowledge, the author's position is acceptable. The structure of the article as a whole is subordinated to the logic of presenting the results of a scientific and philosophical search. There are typos and punctuation errors in the text (for example, "... individual...", "... precisely because God gave ...", "... the corresponding stages ...", etc.), indicating the need for authorial or editorial proofreading. The bibliography reveals the problem area to some extent. There is a lack of access to scientific or theological (theological) literature over the past 5 years, which reduces the importance of the work. The design of the bibliography meets the editorial requirements. The appeal to the opponents is correct, but due to the author's approach it is exclusively complementary. The relevance of the issues raised by the author ensures the interest of the readership of the journal "Philosophical Thought" in the presented article. Nevertheless, a small revision of the text, taking into account the comments of the reviewer, will enhance the quality of the planned publication.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

In the journal Philosophical Thought, the author presented his article "Integration of the theology of personality according to the works of V. N. Lossky into modern career guidance approaches", in which a study was conducted on the possibilities of applying the theological doctrine of personality traits in the process of learning to choose a future profession. The author proceeds in studying this issue from the fact that the scientific interests of pedagogy and theology have many points of intersection, as modern pedagogy is looking for new ways of interacting with students, and the theology of personality opens up new facets of understanding man, his nature and existence. The relevance of the study is due to the need to take into account personal qualities in the process of orienting future applicants to choose the profession most suitable for their personality type. The scientific novelty lies in the integration of the theses of the theology of personality and pedagogical approaches to vocational guidance of schoolchildren. The purpose of the study is to study the approaches of career guidance and the provisions of the theology of personality regarding certain characteristics of a person's personality, as well as combining the studied material into a single practical guide. The methodological basis was made up of an integrated approach, including philosophical, functional and pedagogical analysis. The theoretical basis of the research was the works of such scientists as V.N. Lossky, S.A. Chursanov, I. Kant, as well as practitioners-specialists in career guidance M.A. Garbuzova, M.V. Naumova, etc. Based on the provisions of the works of V.N. Lossky and S.A. Chursanov, the author presents a detailed philosophical and theological analysis of such personality traits as uniqueness, integrity, freedom and kenoticism. Noting the philosophical basis of pedagogy and developing the thesis that education with a teacher is necessary for a person to develop, realize his capabilities and potential, as well as for the formation of a progressive society, the author recognizes the importance of I. Kant's works in the development of moral aspects of education. It is necessary to teach not only knowledge, but also to develop the ability for critical thinking and self-development. The concept outlined by the author is in tune with the teaching of the Orthodox theology of personality about the expression of personality in creativity, its openness to the perception of various experiences and the development of new competencies. The author pays special attention to the study of career guidance in pedagogy. He highlighted the age stages of professional self-determination, priorities and principles of choosing a future profession, approaches in the system of professional counseling (informational, diagnostic and consulting, developing, activating). In addition, the author identifies the "zero" stage of career guidance, preparatory to others: the education of morality and value orientations, which are regulators of behavior, on their basis a person chooses certain social attitudes as goals of a specific activity, which echoes his research in the field of theology. The author considers the options for applying the theses of theology on the development of personality in each of the listed approaches. As a result of the analysis of the research material, the author has developed a method for choosing the direction of activity and presented an expanded lesson template. According to the author, the method is a tool that can be used to solve a number of practical problems: professional counseling, achieving high academic performance, educating the student's personality. The method defines the steps, procedures, and tools that must be used to design and conduct the lesson. In conclusion, the author presents the conclusions and main provisions on the studied material and notes the prospects for further research in this direction. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing a topic for analysis, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the study of modern forms and approaches of career guidance pedagogy from the standpoint of Orthodox theology is of undoubted scientific and practical cultural and pedagogical significance. The obtained material can serve as a basis for further research within the framework of this issue. The material presented in the work has a clear, logically structured structure that contributes to a more complete assimilation of the material. This is also facilitated by an adequate choice of an appropriate methodological framework. The bibliographic list of the study consists of 14 sources, which seems sufficient for the generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study. The author fulfilled his goal, received certain scientific results that allowed him to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication.
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