The Buddhist ontology of gradual and sudden from the perspective of Mahayana: comparative coverage of Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Peer-review in 24 hours: How do we do it? > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Publication in 72 hours: How do we do it? > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Open access publishing costs > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy > Editorial board
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

72 - !
. 72 DOI .
!
MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Philosophical Thought
Reference:

The Buddhist ontology of gradual and sudden from the perspective of Mahayana: comparative coverage of Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions
Urbanaeva Irina Safronovna

Doctor of Philosophy

Chief Scientific Associate, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

670047, Russia, respublika Buryatiya, g. Ulan-Ude, ul. Sakh'yanovoi, 6

urbanaeva@imbt.ru

 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8728.2018.7.26851

Review date:

13-07-2018


Publish date:

13-08-2018


Abstract.

The subject of this research is the Mahayana, which as commonly knows, was being transmitted in two directions: Tibet and Mongolian world (Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva), and Eastern Asia (China, Korea, Japan). Comparison of the two directions of Mahayana with regard to traditions lead to the question: why the mainstream of Indo-Tibetan Mahayana manifests as a “gradual” path to enlightenment, while the mainstream of Chinese / Far Eastern Mahayana as a “sudden” path; which one most vividly reflects Chan/Zen? For answering this question, the author analyzes the differences between Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions in terms of interpreting the Buddhist ontology. The scientific novelty consists in the subject itself – the ontological differences between the two directions of Mahayana that manifest in the alternative ways of conceptualization of the Path (gradual and sudden path to enlightenment), as well as in the method of philosophical cross-cultural analysis applied to the philosophical comparison of the two directions of Mahayana. A conclusion is made that the methods and content of philosophical interpretations of the basic Buddhist doctrines and substantiation of the path in Indo-Tibetan and Chinese Madhyamaka have significant differences, which require the further detailed analysis.

Keywords: Chandrakirti, Nagarjuna, Sudden Path, Gradual Path, selflessness, Madhyamaka, Mahayana, Seng Chao, Tsi-Tsang, emptiness
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

References
1.
Anashina M. Vnezapnoe prosvetlenie Khueinena: revolyutsiya v chan'. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: //https://anashina.com/huineng/
2.
Berezhnoi S.B. Tri sistemy buddiiskoi ontologii // Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya Fil Dyumulen G. Istoriya dzen-buddizma. Indiya i Kitai / per. s angl. A.M. Kabanova. SPb.: ORIS, YaNA-PRINT,1994. 336 s.
3.
Geshe Dzhampa Tinlei. Vozzreniya chetyrekh filosofskikh buddiiskikh shkol. Novosibirsk: Dzhe Tsonkapa, 2013. 502 s.
4.
Dyumulen G. Istoriya dzen-buddizma. Indiya i Kitai / per. s angl. A.M. Kabanova. SPb.: ORIS, YaNA-PRINT,1994. 336 s.
5.
Kenchog Chzhigme Vanpo/ Dragotsennoe ozherel'e: Kratkoe izlozhenie kontseptsii buddiiskikh i nebuddiiskikh filosofskikh shkol /Per. s tib. A.M.Donets. Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo Rinpoche-bagsha, 2005. 69 c.
6.
Lenkov P.D. Filosofiya soznaniya v Kitae: buddiiskaya. shkola fasyan (veishi). SPb.: Izd-vo SPb. un-ta, 2006. 257 s.
7.
Nagardzhuna. Ob''yasnenie bodkhichitty i praktika Gukh'yasamadzhi / Per. s tib. A. Kugyavichusa. SPb.: Izd-e A. Terent'eva (Nartang), 2011. 108 s.
8.
Sudzuki D.T. Ocherki o dzen-buddizme (Pervaya chast') / Per. s angl. N. M. Seliverstova. SPb: Nauka, 2002. 472 s.
9.
Sutra serdtsa Pobedonosnoi Materi, Ushedshei-Za-Predely Sovershenstva Mudrosti [bcom ldan das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pai snying bo]: tekst i kommentarii na osnove ustnykh nastavlenii Geshe Dzhampa Tinleya /per. s tib. i sost. komment. I.S. Urbanaevoi. Ulan-Ude: In-t mongolovedeniya, buddologii i tibetologii SO RAN; RIO buddiiskoi obshchiny Zelenaya Tara, 2006. 184 s.
10.
Urbanaeva I.S. Buddiiskaya filosofiya i praktika: postepennyi i/ili mgnovennyi put' prosvetleniya. Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BNTs SO RAN, 2016. 420 s.
11.
Urbanaeva I.S. Indo-tibetskaya traditsiya sistematizatsii Ucheniya Buddy v kategoriyakh "Osnova", "Put'", "Plod" i kontseptsiya stadial'nosti // Filosofskaya mysl'. 2017.
12.
S.104121. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://e-notabene.ru/fr/article_24145.html. DOI: 10.25136/2409-8728.2017.12.24145. 12.Fen Yu-lan'. Shkola chan' // Fen Yu-lan'. Shkola chan' // Pakhomov S.V. (red). Antologiya dzen. SPb.: Nauka, 2004. 403 c. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://texts.news/religiya-buddizm/fen-lan-shkola-39532.html
13.
Khabdaeva A. K. Kontseptsiya Abkhidkharmy v perevodakh kitaiskikh buddiiskikh monakhov // Buddiiskie teksty Kitaya, Tibeta, Mongolii i Buryatii. Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BGU, 2013. S. 3975.
14.
Khu Shi. Razvitie dzen-buddizma v Kitae // Pakhomov S.V. (red). Antologiya dzen. SPb.: Nauka, 2004. C. 15 46.
15.
Chandrakirti. Vvedenie v Madkh'yamiku / per. s tib., predisl., komment., glossarii i ukaz. Dontsa A.M. SPb.: Evraziya, 2004. 464 s.
16.
Chzhe Tsonkapa. Bol'shoe rukovodstvo k etapam Puti Probuzhdeniya. 5 tt. / per. s tib. A. Kugyavichyusa., pod red. A. Terent'eva. Stikhotvornye otryvki v per. M. Kozhevnikovoi. Spb., 19942001. 2-e izd.: 2 tt. Spb., 2007. 3-e izd.: 2 tt. SPb., 2010.
17.
Chzhe Tsonkapa. Sokrashchennoe rukovodstvo k etapam puti Probuzhdeniya (Srednii Lamrim) / per. s tib. A. Kgyavichusa; nauch. i obshch. red. A. Terent'ev. M.: Fond Sokhranim Tibet, 2015. 656 s.
18.
Yangutov L. E. Traditsii Pradzhnyaparamity v Kitae. Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BGU, 2007. 274 s.
19.
Yangutov L.E. Translyatsiya i transformatsiya buddiiskikh kategorii i ponyatii v kitaiskom buddizme // Problemy translyatsii i filosofskoi interpretatsii buddizma (na materiale tibetskoi i kitaiskoi traditsii). Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BNTs SO RAN, 2018. S. 232249.
20.
Yangutov L. E., Khabdaeva A. K. Traditsii Abkhidkharmy v Kitae. Ulan-Ude: Izd.-poligr. kompleks FGOU VPO VSGAKI, 2010. 276 s.
21.
Adamek Wendy L. (2007) The Mystique of transmission: On an early chan history and its contexts. New York: Columbia University Press.
22.
Betty L. Stafford (1983). Nāgārjunas Masterpiece: Logical, Mystical, Both, or Neither? // Philosophy East and West. Vol. 33. No. 2. P. 123138.
23.
Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen-mo (Bol'shoi tibeto-kitaiskii tolkovyi slovar'). Beijing: National Publishing House, 1998.
24.
Buswell Robert E., Jr. (1990) Chinese Buddhist Apocrypha. University of Hawaii Press.
25.
Chao Lun. The Treatises of Seng-chao/ Translated into English with Bibliography, Introduction, Notes and Appendices by Walter Liebenthal. Hong Kong University Press, 1968.
26.
Chan Alan K.L. (2009) Neo-Daoism // Routledge History of World Philosophy. Vol. 3: History of Chinese Philosophy / Ed. by Bo Mou. N.-Y.: Routledge. Pp.303323.
27.
Chang-Qing Shih (2004). The Two Truths in Chinese Buddhism. Delhi: Motial Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
28.
Dg. T. Beijing (izdanie Teng'yura, slichennoe s degeskim izdaniem Teng'yura). Pekin: Krung goi bod kyi she rig dpe skrun khang, 19952005.
29.
Enichi O. (1981) The Beginnings of Tenet Classification in China // The Eastern Buddhist 4, no. 2. Pp. 9194
30.
Frauwallner E.(2010) Die Philosophie des Buddhismus. Fourth edition 1994. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag; Delhi: Motial Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
31.
Garrett Mary M. (1997) Chinese Buddhist Religious Disputation // Argumentation. 11(2). Pp. 195209.
32.
Holt Linda Brown (1995). From India to China: Transformations in Buddhist Philosophy // The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health & Fitness, 1995. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.thezensite.com/Zen Essays/Historical Zen/From India to China.htm.
33.
Jamgön Kontrul Lodrö Tayé (2007). The Treasure of Knowledge. Book Six, Part Three: Frameworks of Buddhist Philosophy: A Systematic Presentation of the Cause-Based Philosophical Vehicles / Kalu Rinpoché trans. group under the direction of Ven. Bokar Rinpoché; this volume trans., introduced, and annotated by Elizabeth M. Gallahan. New-York, Boulder: Snow Lion Publications.
34.
Lai Whalen (1983). The Early Prajñā Schools, Especially Hsin-Wu, Reconsidered // Philosophy East and West. Vol. 33. No. 1. Pp. 6177.
35.
Lai Whalen. (2012). Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey // Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. P. 719. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.cw.routledge.com/ref/chinesephil/Buddhism.pdf.
36.
Lancaster Lewis R. (2012). The Movement of Buddhist Texts from India to Chine and the Construction of the Chinese Buddhist Canon // John R. McRae and Jan Nattier (ed.). Buddhism Across Boundaries, Sino-Platonic Papers, 222. Pp. 226260.
37.
Liebenthal W. (1952) Was ist chinesischer Buddhismus // Asiatische Studien : Zeitschrift der Schweizerischen Asiengesellschaft. Band (Jahr): 6. Heft 1-4. S. 116129. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://doi.org/10.5169/seals-145467
38.
Liebenthal W. (1968) Chao Lun: The Treatise of Chao/ Translated into English with Bibliography, Introduction, Notes and Appendices by W. Liebenthal. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
39.
Nakamura H. (1964, 1968, 1971) Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples India-China-Tibet-Japan / Revised English Translation Edited by Philip P. Wiener. East-West Center Press. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/Nakamura-The-ways-of-thinking-of-eastern-peoples.pdf
40.
Tan P. (2008). Chinese challenges to Buddhism. Buddhist interactions with Confucianism and Daoism; and Chinese Mahāyāna // Tan P. How Buddhism Became Chinese. Pp. 2364. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://dharmafarer.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/40b.2-Chinese-challenges-to-Bud-dhism.pdf.
41.
The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nāgārjunas Mūlamadhyamakakārikā / trans. and comment. by Jay L. Garfield. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
42.
Toh. (A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons) / Ed. Ui, Suzuki, Kanakura, and Tada. Sendai, Japan: Tohoku University, 1934.
43.
Tsong Khapa (2006). rJe. Ocean of Reasoning: A Great Commentary on Nāgārjunas Mūlamadhyamakakārikā / Translated by Geshe Ngawang Samten and Jay L. Garfield. Oxford University Press.
44.
Shes-rab-snying-po //bla-mai rnal-byor dang yi-dam-khag-gi bdag-bskyed-sogs-zhal-don-gcas-btus-bzhugs-so. Bod-gzhung-she-rig-dpar-khang, 2003. Pp. 446450.
45.
Swanson P. (1985). The Two Truths Controversy in China and Chih-I's Threefold Truth Concept: Ph. D. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1384 p. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://www.academia.edu/1067319/The_Two_Truths_Controversy_in_China_and_Chih-Is_Threefold_Truth_Concept_Buddhism_Religion_Lotus_Sutra_Tien-Tai_Tendai_
46.
Zürcher E. (1959, 1972, 2007) The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. 2 vols. Leden: Brill.
47.
Weirong Shen and Shiu, Henry C. H. (2007) Editors Preface // Raymond E. Robertson. A study of the Dharmadharmathavibhanga (Volume one): The root text and its scriptural source (the Avikalpapravesadharani), with excerpts from Kamalasilas Avikalpapravesadharanitika. Monograph series in Sino-Tibetan Buddhist studies Beijing: China Tibetology publishing house. Pp. 18.
Link to this article

You can simply select and copy link from below text field.


Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated" Website