Litera - rubric Grammar
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Dmitrieva E.I., Grubin I.V., Kudryavtseva E.V., Pluzhnikova I.I. - Translation of the grammatical meaning of past tense forms in a professional text (on the example of the railroad theme) pp. 8-17


Abstract: The subject of this article is the grammatical category of tense. The majority of linguists tend to define tense, the ratio of action to the moment of speech. The object of this research is the ways of translating past tense forms from English to Russian. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of functionality of the forms of expression of past tense in a professional text and translation techniques. The sentences selected via method of continuous sampling from online publications dedicated to the topic of transport, served as the material for this research. Analysis is conducted on 5,680 sentences. Examination of the language material employs the method of continuous sampling and quantitative analysis is used. Despite the fact that the grammatical category of tense in both English and Russian languages is well studied, translation of the category of tense has not been scrutinized within the framework of linguistic translation studies, which substantiates the relevance of this work. The novelty lies in systematization and quantitative description of the techniques of translation past tense forms from English to Russian. It is established that there are three main techniques of translating past tense forms into Russian: 1) using nonverbal means or infinitive verbs; 2) using nonpast tense forms; 3) using past tense forms. The choice of perfective or imperfective verb in translation is determined by the presence of additional grammatical meanings in the tense, as well as the context
Minets D.V., Gorushkina A.V. - Morphological Analysizer of a Text: Functional Opportunities pp. 12-22


Abstract: The object of the present research is the morphological analyzer of an autodocumental text with the subsequent profiling of the author's gender identity. It is an applied computer program written on the basis of Yandex MyStem v3.0, CentOS Linux, Apache v2.2, PHP v5.3, MySQL v5.5. This program allows to make morphological and syntactic markup, and also on the basis of linear discriminant analysis of Fisher diagnose the sex of the author of the text by the ratio of a number of morphological and syntactic parameters that are informative for this personal characteristic. The program is based on the results of the experiment conducted by the team of authors on the identification of the relationship between the formal and grammatical quantifiable parameters of the text and the author's sex on the material of the special body of autodocumentary texts created using statistical methods of data processing. The methods of text analysis used are statistical and descriptive. The methods of automatic text processing using the specially developed on the basis of the morphological analyzer "Mystem" from Yandex were extracted numerical values of the formal grammatical parameters of the text, the list of which was compiled from the materials of the Russian-language and English-language scientific literature and summarized by a number of works of this profile. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) the possibilities of using morphological-syntactic markup in the stylistic analysis of the text are described; 2) on the basis of the analysis of data in L. Brik and V. Mayakovsky's autodocuments and comparison of the results obtained from the gender perspective, it is revealed that female speech is less subject and less qualitative.
Fazlyeva Z.K. - The Similarities and Differences in the Structure of the Phraseological Units of the English and Turkish Languages pp. 129-147


Abstract: Abstract: the phrase-semantic field of “family” subject, which we have distinguished in two genetically unrelated, distant languages – English and Turkish – unites in its composition a large group of phraseological units. All the units under analysis are structurally subdivided into collocations and sentences. Within their composition there can be evolved the following types: substantival, verbal, communicative, adverbial, adjectival. To the study of the sentence structure phraseological units we have engaged proverbs and sayings, as far as the latter possess imagery, metaphoric, originality and high stability of the components. In the article we apply the comparative and typological method, the method of phraseological identity by professor Kunin A.V., the contrastive method, the method of transformational analysis. The source of the research is the material collected through the continuous sampling from phraseological dictionaries. On the basis of single criterion a comparative analysis of the phraseological structure has been carried out in the phraseological systems of systematically different, unrelated languages. Consequently, among the English and Turkish phraseological units there can be defined either similar or different structural models. For example, the English language units are characterized by the schemes: noun+and+noun, noun+prep+noun, and the Turkish language units by: noun+verb, noun+noun+verb types.
Suvorova N.N. - The Phraseology of the Russian Language Throughout History and at Present pp. 129-134


Abstract: The present article devoted to the phraseology of the Russian language deals with the use of phraseology in broad and narrow terms of history and modern times. The subject of the research is the phraseological units of the Russian language. The object of the research is the idioms used in modern verbal advertising. The author of the article has carried out the analysis of the composition of the enrichingidiomatic Russian language from antiquity to modern processes taking place in the language. Particular attention is paid to the typology of phraseological units and their use in the modern Russian language, particularly in the language of advertising. When writing this article the author has used researhces on phraseology by such well-known linguists as I. Sreznevsky, F. Fortunatov, N. Shan, and V. Vinogradov. As examples, the author describes modern advertising slogans created on the basis of phraseology. The author also offers her own classification of advertising slogans on the semantic and structural features of the use of one or another part of speech and syntactic function performed by them. Suvorova also defines several groups of phraseology used as the basis of an advertising slogan and describes positive and negative cases of the use of phraseology in advertisements. The theoretical material is illustrated by vivid examples.
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