Litera - rubric Syntax
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Selemeneva O.A. - The Сomplicated Simple Verbal Predicate in Ostrovsky's Plays: Formal and Substantial Levels pp. 108-119


Abstract: In this article the author analyzes the complicated form of simple verbal predicates in the plays of Alexander Ostrovsky on formal and substantial levels. The playwright actively uses the conjunctionless repetitions of lexically meaningful verbs, the combinations of verbs in the identical forms, one of them shows the purpose of action made by the subject, formations of adverbial type ending in -ом as means of complication of simple predicate. The numerous group was formed by simple verbal predicates complicated by different particles: так и, было, было вот, чуть было, чуть было не, чуть не, всё, вот всё, и, взял, взяли, возьму + да и + вот, себе, знай, словно, будто, как будто, точно, ровно, как бы, как бы не in the plays by Alexander Ostrovsky. We also refer idioms (transformed and not modified) with the syntactic indivisibility and indivisible meaning to the means complicating the structure of simple verbal predicate. The verbal idioms in the position of predicate helps the playwright to reveal the individuality of the characters, to express the author’s modality. We consider the verbal composites (such as заливается-плачет, нежит-томит) in combination with the particles (such as так, так и); the former isn’t named as complicating elements of simple verbal predicate in the linguistic literature, but always arouses interest of academics. Such complex words have common features with word, idiom and free word-combination. The complexity of the external and internal forms of the compositing formations allows us to consider them as complicated forms of simple verbal predicates. These means of complication introduce the additional shades of meaning into the simple verbal predicate. In the plays by Alexander Ostrovsky we have identified the following meanings: the meaning of the temporal extent of the action or state, the meaning of the incomplete realization of the action or state, the meaning of action that is close to realization but is not put into effect or characteristic close to the exposure, but is not revealed, the meaning of the composite action or state, the meaning of action that is revealed independently of unfavourable conditions or in spite of something, the meaning of action that the subject realize in his own interests for the sake of pleasure, the meaning of action that the subject realize with the total disregard of the external circumstances, the meaning of doubts about the truth of something or comparison with something, the meaning of assumption or possibility, probability of some events and others. Some of the meanings can be expressed by the totality of linguistic resources. On the whole the use of the complicated simple verbal predicate is a distinguishing feature of the author’s style of Alexander Ostrovsky seeking to paint the vivid domestic picture of merchant-burgher environment, create the original characters, to reveal the psychology of characters through the everyday conversational constructions.
Guskina E.N. - Contextual modifications of a discursive word ‘however’ and their lexical support pp. 144-151


Abstract: Examination the means of local coherence of the text, namely various auxiliary units, such as conjunctions and conjunctive means, particles, pronouns, hybrid units, etc., remains relevant in studying the text. Same means of textual coherence are classified by the linguists depending on the vector of research. The subject of this article is the discursive word ‘however’. Discursive words are an important part of text studying, and textual coherence in particular. The object of this article is the functionality of the word ‘however’ in the instance of ending narration, as well as the corresponding contextual modification “ending of description / discussion”. The contexts for linguistic analysis that largely contain the word ‘however’ were taken from the Russian National Corpus. Analysis is conducted on the contexts of fiction and popular science styles. The scientific novelty of research consists in examination of the peculiarities of using the word ‘however’ in combination with other words (enough, no more, never mind), as well as the specificity of formation of syntactic constructions with the word ‘however’. The conclusion is made the speaker can end narration, description, discussion due to unwillingness or inexpediency to continue the thought, or due to shifting  onto a new aspect of the given situation.
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