Litera - rubric Semantics
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Preobrazhenskaya A. - 'Not by Bread Alone': the Metaphor of 'Tasting the Book' in the Baroque Preaching pp. 36-43


Abstract: The article is devoted to the metaphor of 'tasting the book' based on the example of two compilations of selected preaching works written by the first poet laureate Simeon of Polotsk, 'Spiritual supper' (1681) and 'Spiritual dinner' (1683). The author defines specifics of the metaphor in old Russian religious literature and baroque literature of the second half of the XVIIth century. She also traces back the development of the metaphor and its use in the headings based on the Ukranian-Polish homiletic tradition as well as its lexical interpretation. The author analyzes the successive development of the metaphor's semantic components in poetic and prosaic prefaces to the aforesaid compilations. The research methods used by the authors include hermeneutical, cultural-historical, contextual, comparative-historical and comparative analysis. The main results of the research include description of the metaphor of tasting the book in Russian baroque literature of the pre-Peter period based on the example of preaching works written by the first poet laureate Simeon of Polotsk. The authors also offer a detailed analysis of the metaphor's semantic components and lexical meaning of these components in terms of the Russian literary process during the second half of the XVIIth century. 
Pris F. - Does the classical principle of bivalence hold? (Charles Travis versus Timothy Williamson) pp. 60-128


Abstract: In this paper I seek to find a middle way pragmatic solution to Williamson-Travis’s controversy about the principle of bivalence within a Wittgensteinian pragmatism. It seems to me that Travis does not distinguish between the new applications of one and the same concept and the applications of a similar, but different concept (for example, a more general concept). And his examples do not support his thesis about the violation of the principle of bivalence. On the contrary, Williamson, I think, does not take into account the pragmatic “open texture” phenomenon. I partly agree with Williamson that Travis’s examples look like those in which in different contexts words refer to different properties. Unlike Williamson, who operates with the notions of a character (linguistic meaning) and content, and unlike Travis who operates with the notions of a semantic meaning and understanding, I introduce tree levels of meaningfulness: the linguistic, the semantic (or the level of a rule/concept), and the pragmatic one (the level of the use of a rule/concept, or the meaning-use level). I agree with Williamson that the classical principle of bivalence holds. It is “violated” only in a domain of potential new utterances, whose truth-conditions are not pre-determined (such utterances are not fully meaningful). This is the phenomenon of the conceptual (hence, I think, also ontological) under-determination of the world. Travis’s «Aristotle condition» is equivalent to the condition that the gap between thought, language and the world is closed.
Shvetc E., Sokolova G. - Particularities of the Symbolic Nature of Phraseological Units in Terms of Creating the Phraseological Meaning (the Case Study of Phraseological Units of the French Language with an Ethnonym Component) pp. 98-105


Abstract: The object of the research is the phraseological units with an ethnonym component. The subject of the research is the lexical and semantic particularities of the aforesaid units. The present article is devoted to particular features of the symbolic nature of phraseological units which is conditioned by the fact that there is a certain symbolic connection between the form and content. Analysis of phraseological units' semantic structure particularities allows to view the process of phraseological meaning formation in terms of the reflection of stereotyped images of various nations in the sphere of French phraseology. The authors of the article analyze the three-level organisation of the phraseological unit semantic complex that consists of various kinds of information structures creating the cognitive environment, however, the main and the leading element that participates in the development of the phraseological meaning is the semantics of a culturally marked enthonym that reflects the sphere of social relations and points out at certain features of ethnic communities. The research methods used by the authors in their research include the method of semantic analysis, partial selection method, description, cultural-historical method and comparison. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors describe the phraseological fund of stereotyped images reflected in the structure of studied phraseological units that are some kind of a condensate of cultural memory allowing to trace back the process of phraseological semiosis.   
Gabysheva L.L., Basharina Z.K. - Anthroponymic space of the novella Wolves Do Not Sleep By L. Gabyshev, I. Zozulya: semantics and functions of the name pp. 142-150


Abstract: This article analyzes the anthroponymy of the detective novella “Wolves Do Not Sleep” (1974) by Lev Gabyshev and Ivan Zozulya, which reflects the author's message, promotes understanding and perception of the text by readers. The subject of this research is the semantics and functions of literary names in artistic space of the text, process of adding meaning, and saturation of content of onym. The goal of this work is to determine functions and multidimensional semantics of anthroponyms based on the internal form of the word, connotations and paronymic associations, as well as reveal the impact of all implicit and explicit components of onym upon discovery of intentions and worldview orientations of the authors. The article is first to analyze the system of literary names of the novella “Wolves Do Not Sleep” by L. Gabyshev and I. Zozolya, and reveal the meanings and functions of the last names of the protagonists. The work contributes to further development of methodology of analysis of proper nouns in artistic space of the text, specification of such fundamental concepts as connotative semantics, function of onym, text, language game, etc The conclusion is made that the literary names of the novella differ in semantic diversity, have a vast and complex lexical background, and characterized as multifunctional symbols. Onyms perform the role of linking structural elements of semantic space of the text, ensuring its coherence. In addition to the text-forming function, anthroponyms fulfill a characteristic and meaning-making function; indicating the spatial-time coordinates of the text as a whole, they localize the character in a certain time and geographical space, giving information on his national affiliation. Being involved in creation of semantic multidimensionality of the text, literary names are verbal means for realization of the author's intentions and worldview.
Silkina I. - The Meaning of the TERRA Noun (Based on the Analysis of the Corpus of Modern Portuguese Newspapers) pp. 162-172


Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the nouns terra in Portuguese newspapers of the end of the 20th – beginning of the 21st centuries. Information about the meanings of a word is also contained in explanatory dictionaries, however they contain the lexical norm of a literary language, in contrast to written and oral texts created by native speakers and reflecting the usual usage. Due to the fact that the purpose of this study is to analyze usage rather than norms, we used the texts of modern Portuguese newspapers contained in the corpus O Corpus de Referência do Portuguê Contemporâneo (CRPC) as the material. We have analyzed more than a thousand contexts from the newspaper subcorpus corresponding to the terra request, and the revealed values are structured in accordance with their meaning and modern ideas about the Earth and its structure, as well as taking into account the given explanatory dictionaries. The scientific novelty of the article is related to the use of data and the functionality of the CRPC corpus for the analysis of the noun terra, which was not previously considered by domestic researchers. As a result of the analysis of contexts, eight broad meanings were identified, in six of which several somewhat narrower ones were identified, and many of them reflected the peculiarities of terra perception by modern native speakers.
Liashenko T. - On the Functions of Propery Names in Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin's Novel 'The Golovlyov Family' pp. 224-235


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the role of proper names in Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin's novel 'The Golovlyov Family'. This is the issue that has not been duly studied by Russian science and thus provides a wide area for research. The subject of the research is both male and female propery names used in the novel. The researcher emphasizes the etymology of anthroponyms as well as word-making models used in the anthroponymic system of the novel. The object of the research is the polyfunctionality of propery names in a literary work. The methodological basis of the research is V. Vinogradov's and other researchers' views as well as those of researchers in general and special theory of anthroponimics. The author comes to the conclusion that a name performs many functions in the novel The Golovlyov Family'. The role of anthroponyms is not limited to only naming function but contribute to the identification of a character. Names reflect distinguished features of the novel characters (i.e. perform the function of describing a personality), emphasizes relations between heroes, clarifies the author message, thus becoming an element of the narrative plot and means of conveying the message of the novel. 
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