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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Linguistics"
Barteneva V.V. - The Kinesic Component of an Emotional Dialogue (the Case Study of William Makepeace Thackeray's Novel 'Vanity Fair') pp. 1-10


Abstract: In her article Barteneva emphasizes the role of non-verbal communication and analyzes the process of interpreting non-verbal behavior. She focuses on analyzing the interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of an emotional dialogue. The subject of the research is the language means that are used to describe different forms of emotional non-verbal behavior. The object of the research is the functioning of lexical units that reflect non-verbal communication in a literary text. Kinesics are represented as the main element of the non-verbal communication system, in particular, gestures, hand, arm or head movements and mimics are used to convey information, thoughts, intentions or feelings of heroes. The author also analyzes functions of kinesic signs in an emotional dialogue. In her research the author has used the method of continuous sampling of non-verbal communication means used in literary texts and the method of vocabulary definitions analysis. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes emotional speech of characters where each non-verbal sign is closely related to a psychological portrait of a character and his or her emotional state at that very moment. The author also defines peculiarities of the language expression of composition components that convey a non-verbal emotional communication in fiction dialogues. The author also describes the functions of gestures in a literary writing and provides specific examples for each function.  
Zinnatullina L. - Variability of Adverbial Phraseological Units in the Russian and English Languages pp. 17-25


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the variability of adverbial phraseological units in the English and Russian languages. The subject of the research is the peculiarities of different kinds of phraseological unit variants in two languages compared: lexical, phonetic, morphological, combined and graphic that are defined based on the criteria of separability of phraseological units as well as the means of their contextual use. The researcher also compares the frequency of the use of these variants in Russian and English. Examples of the use of different variants of adverbial phraseological units are selected from Russian and British national corpuses. The research methods used by the researcher include: comparitive method, method of phraseological description offered by A. Kunin as well as contextual method and method of corpus linguistics. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher defines the frequency of represented variants of adverbial phraseological units and compares them. The researcher also appeals to two major national corpuses for the first time in the academic litrature. The main conclusions of the research are the following: adverbial phraseological units of both languages have lexical and combined variants; morphological variants are typical for Russian and not so frequently met in English; there is a limited number of phonetic variants in Russian while graphic variants of adverbial phraseological units are typical for English. 
Juqman E. - pp. 22-27


Tadzhibova A.N. - The World of Metaphor in Mass Media Discourse pp. 35-44


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mass media discourse and a media metaphor as a method of impact on public consciousness. The object of the research is the web-based media in Russian and German that contain information on the events taking place in the world. Special attention is paid to the language of media discourse which is characterized by fast adaptation to the changing realities of our life, subtle analysis of the social priorities influencing consciousness of people and determining their behavior and exact reflection of these aspects in the texts. Evaluativity and capability to influence mass consciousness are important functions of media discourse. Changes of social conditions and public formations lead to the change of language and by that to change of people. In her research the author has applied the complex method of research which includes methods of the comparative description of metaphors and analysis and the method of continuous sampling of discursive fragments. The author comes to the conclusion about interrelation of lexico-semantic processes and social and political changes as it is most effective as means of reflection of changes in the society life. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes metaphors that are staticized in the Russian and German media discourses, and promoting, in general, the formation of ideas of election campaign in the USA and creation of the political image of candidates. Such approach to research has allowed to determine general tendencies of the development of mass media discourse in Russia and Germany.
Balikoeva M.I. - National-Cultural Peculiarities of Farewell (the Analysis of the Ossetic and English Languages) pp. 70-76


Abstract: In her article Balikoeva analyses speech etiquette farewell formulas in the Ossetic and English languages. Cross-cultural differences, specific picture of the world of different nations and language differences affect relationships between people of different culture and efficiency of their interaction and mutual understanding. This creates the need to analyze different mechanisms of cultural perception. The author of the article analyzes and compares speech farewell formulas in two languages in order to define similarities and differences in the national speech etiquette, the latter being part of natoinal culture, behavior and communication. In the course of her research the author has used methods of semantic, structural and comparative analysis, continuous sampling method and survey using a questionnaire. The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate common and specific features of farewell formulas in these two languages. The author underlines that speech farewell formulas are a stereotype that demonstrates one's attribution to a certain language and culture and performs different functions. They are intended to preserve national culture, on the one hand, and identify one's attribution to a certian national culture, on the other hand.
Rudneva E.G. - Philosophical Approaches to the Language pp. 71-90


Abstract: The article is devoted to comparison and the analysis of various approaches to "language philosophy". Scientific the language origin problem concern delimitation, for example. Here at once serious contradictions between researchers are found. Also divergences between the speculative philosophy based on contemplation and supervision and analytical philosophy which is based on the reached language results are characterized. In article different philosophical approaches to language are differentiated. Types, theories and standards of value are considered. The special attention to a problem of an intentionality and to speech acts is paid. Methods which allow to analyze not simply communication of thinking and language, and to reveal the constituting role of language, the word and speech in various forms of a discourse, in knowledge and of structures of consciousness and knowledge are used. In article distinction between classical philosophy which explained a language origin by the nature and on interrelation of language and thinking, and modern interpretation of problems of language is carried out. It is noted that V. Humboldt understood language as a mind organon. The role of F. Nietzsche who came to the conclusion is highlighted that all deviations from truth are connected with the delusions proceeding from increase of a role of words-fiktsy. The important place is given to definitions, descriptions and references.
Danilova N.K. - Relational Nature of a Subject of Expression in a Narrative pp. 74-93


Abstract: In the article one of parameters of discourse process, the subject of the statement which determination of value forms the subsequent configuration of sense is investigated. The subject position is considered as a form-building component which "emptiness" of semantics creates conditions for its language registration depending on the diskursivnykh of strategy of the subject of the speech. The subject of the statement is analyzed as the matrix operator connecting statements in organized sequence in the course of production of the text. In a narrative discourse cognitive, communicative and language measurements of the subject of the statement form the narrative roles representing a combination of the designated prospects. As a method of research the linear discourse analysis which units are sequences, i.e. sequences of statements which are characterized by grammatical and thematic completeness is used. In the proposed solution of the problem of discourse sense the understanding of the subject of the statement as functions from a number of the factors connected with the conceptual basis of a plan, communicative strategy focused on the author both on the reader and with actually language norms of the organization of the statement is new. As a result of the analysis the main matrix models of a narration, the external, determined by domination positions of the observer, a neutralized role writing and reading and internal in which the grammatical subject unites a modus frame and a dictum basis of the statement are allocated.
Fazlyeva Z.K. - Interlanguage Phraseological Correspondences (The Case Study of the English and Turkish Languages) pp. 74-82


Abstract: In this article phraseological units of the subject "family" in the English and Turkish languages are chosen as an object of research. Phraseological units of this subject make considerable group in phraseological funds of both languages and are one of the brightest and figurative. It is necessary to find such equivalent units on the basis of which it is possible to create communicatively equivalent statements in two languages and which are found only during theoretical research by comparison of originals to their translations in process of conversion of phraseological units. In this article by comparison of phraseological units of the English and Turkish languages we consider the following types of the interlingual relations: full equivalents, partial equivalents. Works of the famous domestic linguists have formed methodological base of this article. In this research the comparative and typological method, a method of phraseological identification, a kontrastivny method, a method of the transformational analysis are applied. Results of comparative studying of FE promote identification of the common and peculiar features of their structural models, identification of the facts of influence of system of one language on another, and also to detection of regularities of the translation of FE from one language on another. Full interlingual equivalents are presented by a small amount of phraseological units in both languages and only substantive FE with structures of Adj + to N, N + N. The phraseological units differing with the structural organization, but having the general figurative basis act as partial equivalents.
Bazhenov E.V. - Special Vocabulary and Term Formation of Civil Aviation in the Russian and English Languages pp. 75-87


Abstract: The subject of the research is the questions about peculiarities of formation and functioning of special vocabulary and terminology in the sphere of civil aviation. In his research Bazhenov focuses on task-oriented use of terms and abbreviations of aviation vocabulary in the English and Russian language, this process requiring particular attention to adequacy of translation and emphasizing the need in applied linguistics which would take into account specific features of professional activity of aviators. The methodology of the research is based on a number of approaches and research methods common for linguistic studies. Within the framework of the article, Bazhenov focuses on the definition, main features and peculiarities of special vocabulary of civil aviation. In addition, he analyzes the main trends, forms and methods of term formation in this sphere taking into account peculiarities of the Russian and English languages. 
Berdinskaya I.A., Zorina Z.G. - Interpreting the Status of the Phoneme б /b/ in Mari Dialects pp. 90-97


Abstract: The subject of the research is the status of the phoneme /b/ in Mari dialects. There is a traditional belief that, firstly, the phoneme /b/ does not have an independent status in Mari dialects because it is a borrowing from the Russian language; 2) Mari people do not distinguish between bilabial stop consonant /b/ and bilabial fricative consonant /ß/; 3) in Mari dialects  /b/ is substituted with /р/ or /ß/. The purpose of the research is to prove the status of the phoneme /b/ as the original individual unit. The research is based on the theoretical material related to functioning of labial consonants /p, b, m, ф, ß/ as well as field records of highland and meadow living speech. The authors analyze records using aural and statistical methods in order to get a clear picture of practical implementations of labial consonants in Mari dialects. The results of the research prove that: 1) the phoneme /b/ has an independent status in Mari dialects and is not borrowed from the Russian language, however, it has certain restrictions in distribution: it is always combined with the labial consonant /m/ and always stands after it. Modern Mari-Russian bilingualism which is so wide-spread today, has practially eliminated all limitations in the distribution of the phoneme /b/ in Mari dialects. 2) Aural and statistical anaylsis has demonstrated that Mari people clearly differentiate between bilabial stop consonant /b/ and bilabial fricative consonant /ß/. 3) At the initial stage of Mari-Russian relations the Russian language (in this case, the Northern Russian dialect) had an unclear differentiation between phonemes /p, b, ф, ß/. For example, such words as Poris (Boris) and pagor (bagor) and others appeared in Mari dialects exactly the same as they were in the Russian language. Thus, it was the Russian language itself but not Mari dialects that created the basis for substituting /b/ with /р/. 
Grushina O.A. - pp. 94-101


Khandarkhaeva I., Zyryanova E. - The 'Sign of the Emergence of a New Situation' and its Implementation in Description and Narrative Type Texts pp. 96-101


Abstract: The object of the research is the description type texts and narrative type texts of modern Russian authors. The object of the research is the signs of a 'new situation', 'change', 'sequential relationship', 'emergence of a new situaton' in perfect verbs used in texts of description and narrative types. The authors of the article analyze the principles that define such sign as the emergence of a new situation in description and narrative type texts. To discover its peculiarities, the sign of the emergence of a new situation in description type texts is analyzed depending on the following genre types: description of one's appearance or portrait, landscape, interior design or personality description. One of the main methods used by the authors is the semantic contextual analysis that is based on the analysis of semantic peculiarities of verb predicates in terms of description and narration as well as the method of linguistic observation and description of language factors. Functional semantic types of speech are still of great interest to researchers, thus the novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors describe peculiarities of semantic signs of verbal predicates at the textual level. In particular, the use of perfect verbs in description type texts and narrative type texts are still an understudied topic and the textual approach provides a better insight into their text-formation role. Depending on the logical conceptual attribution of a text, the authors define the role of semantic signs of perfect verbs. Based on the overall logical description method (synchronologeme), semantics of predicates, the change-in-state concept and change-in-situation concept and the emergence of a new situation, description type texts use a statal type perfect verbs and narration type texts use actional perfect verbs. 
Varfolomeeva Y.N., Kharanutova E.I. - Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Media Texts (on the Basis of PR-Texts) pp. 101-107


Abstract: The article deals with the concept of PR-text and genre varieties of PR-texts. At present, the theory and practice of public relations do not fully cover the genre system of PR-texts and genre characteristics and genres groups are not defined. In addition, in linguistics there is no uniform classification of properties for assessing the quality of PR-texts. Based on the analysis of different assessment criteria, the authors have defined 21 information-structural, 8 communicative and 6 aesthetics characteristics of PR-texts which can be used to assess the effectiveness of the quality of PR-texts. The authors have used the method of language analysis to study the quality of PR-texts. In addition, they have also used the methods of linguistic observation and description of linguistic facts as well as the comparative method. Information-structuarl assessment criteria include information capacity, response efficiency, presence of a topic, specificity, coherence and integrity, depth of contents, logical structure, readibility and understandability, importance of information, credibility and accuracy of information (presence of concrete facts), dividedness, openness/closedness, completeness of a text, accurate heading, correct use of quotations, textual composition, syntax parameter (sentences with an easy structure and textual rythm), lexical parameter (simple words, absence of slang words, paragraph length). Communicative features of PR-texts are realised through publicity of a text, communicative orientation, presence of a basic PR-subject, initiation from the basic PR-subject, optimal content, authorship type, references, and selectability. Aesthetics characteristics include spacial-time discreteness, references to an official site of an organisation in a PR-document, use of infographics, highliting of actual information, providing references to other resources, and giving contant information about responsible individuals. 
tayebianpour F., . - Means of Expressing the Modal Form of Possibility in the Persian Language pp. 129-143


Abstract: In Russian modal opportunities value, still draws attention of the Russian linguists and researchers. This concept, undoubtedly, contacts not one language unit, and the whole statement. As existence of the statement without embodiment of its ultimate goal – communications – doesn't make sense, definition of possible means for knowledge and understanding of the statement in each language deserves special attention. The special characteristic of modal opportunities value, its communication with logical concepts of reality and unreality, its ability in representation of various language means of expression in any language, draw attention to this subject not only the Russian linguists, but also linguists of the whole world. In this article lexical and grammatical means of expression of modal value of opportunity in the Persian language are considered. This consideration is made on the basis of the dissertation work comparing these means in the Russian and Persian languages. For writing of the thesis relating to article methods of consideration of scientific sources, the comparative and comparative analysis of the Russian and Persian offers in the sphere of functional grammar were used. Novelty of this work consists in primary consideration of means of expression of the concept "opportunities" of the Persian language. In initial work this consideration took place taking into account the approaches accepted in the Russian linguistics for definition of these lexical and grammatical means. As a result we found important and common lexical and grammatical means of expression of value of opportunity in the Persian language.
Krasikov V.I. - "Language is Disguising Our Thoughts"? Linguistic Meaning of the Word As One of the Formative Elements of Its Meaning pp. 132-142


Abstract: The object of research in the proposed article is the meaning and its linguistic expression. The subject of the research is the interaction of semantic and linguistic meanings. The author of the article deals with such aspects of the topic as meaning in its totality, the relationship between semantic and linguistic meanings, and the influence of the sign means of expression on the meaning of the expression. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the concepts of "meaning" offered by B. Russell, R. Carnap, H. Price, G. Reichenbach, A. Losev, K. Levi-Strauss, H.-G. Gadamer, R. Bart, L. Wittgenstein, C. Lewis and E. Sapir. The methodological basis involves typification, comparison, analysis, subject-object scheme, construction, and elements of philosophical reflection. As a result, an extensive conceptual material has been analyzed, matrices of interpretations of "meaning" have been revealed in the characteristic representatives of the neo-positivist, structuralist, hermeneutical and analytical traditions. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he offers defines a relationship between the features of the formation of semantic values and the specificity of their linguistic expression. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author develops a philosophical-anthropological version of understanding the relationship of meaning and its linguistic expression based on the analysis of characteristic theories of meaning.
Den'gina A.V. - Factors of the Vagueness of the Inner Form of English and French Phraseological Units with the Components of Religious Terms pp. 133-138


Abstract: As a link between the expression plane and content plane of a phraseological unit, the inner form defines the degree of expresiveness and figurativeness of the unit as well as peculiarities of its contextual use and plays an important role in the process of defining the interlingual correspondences. In this regard, analysis of the issues that relate to the aforesaidelement of the semantic structure of phraseological units are of great interest to researchers. The subject of this research is the phenomenon of the vagueness of the inner form of English and French phraseological units with the components of religious terms, i.e. religious vocabulary of different specialization. The author of the article compares the degree of expresiveness and specifics of a number of linguistic and exralinguistic factors that cause the phenomenon of the vagueness. These include rethinking, change of the component structure as well as the loss of certain realities or abandon of religious traditions or historical facts. The main research method used by the author is the method of scientific description that implied such techniques as interpretation, systematization, classification and statistical methods. The research results demonstrate that the most essential factor that causes the phenomenon of the vagueness, i.e. the loss of the derivation link between the literal and redefined meaning of phraseological units consisting of religious terms is the expressive rethinking that quite often results from the distorted identification of the components. The highest degree of isomorphism between compared languages in different aspects of expressive rethinking is the phenomenon of allomorphism. This phenomenon has been discovered by the author as a result of analyzing extralinguistic factors of the vagueness of the inner form. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that English and French phraseological units with the religious component have never before been the topic of comparative research in terms of the vagueness of their inner form. 
Spalek O.N. - Horonyms and Oiconyms in Chinese Phraseology pp. 138-144


Abstract: The subject of the research is the peculiar functions of horonyms and oiconyms as the most commonly used kinds of toponyms presented in Chinese phraseology. The author examines horonyms and oiconyms in Chinese phraseological units including astionyms (names of urban facilities or country districts), comonyms (names of country facilities). The researcher focuses on the influence of horonyms and oiconyms in the development of transferred meaning of a phraseological unit as well as abilities of onyms demonstrate lexical features that are not typical for proper names. In the course of the research the author has used the method of synchronous description, method of semantic analysis and functional description of collected material as well as elements of statistical and etimological analysis. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author carries out an in-depth analysis of functions of horonyms and oiconyms in Chinese phraseology. In the course of the research the author has discovered that being part of phraseological units, horonyms and oiconyms may actualize connotations that they have which, in their turn, may affect the process of the developing of transferring meaning. Moreover, being part of phraseological units, onyms may demonstrate lexical features that are not typical for proper names, in particular, create contextual antonymy and synonymy. 
Belozor A., Ovchinnikova O. - Culturological and Linguistic Components of Cross-Cultural Communcation in the French and English Languages pp. 153-161


Abstract: The authors of the article reviewed and analyzed the features of modern language training for successful interaction with representatives of different cultures. Special attention is paid to the importance of the dialogue between cultures as a mechanism for equal interchange of spiritual values and knowledge. The authors consider such aspects of language training as the formation of a secondary linguistic personality and peculiarities of working with authentic information that allows understanding the realities of a different culture. The object of the research is intercultural communication, the subject of the research is the competence approach and vocational education in language training. In the course of the study, the authors resorted to system, structural-functional and typological analysis, and also used a comparative method. The novelty of the research lies in a comprehensive analysis of the competencies necessary for the development of a successful professional in demand in the global community. The main conclusions of the study are the provisions that in the current conditions of the global community a specialist is in demand, not only fluent in foreign languages and ready to constantly improve their professional competencies. A competitive professional should be open to understanding and perceiving the realities of a different culture, while at the same time preserving their cultural identity communication, dialogue between cultures, English, authentic texts, sociocultural mutual exchange
Oshurmakhmadova S.S. - Ideographical Organisation of Diplomatic Clerical Vocabulary pp. 216-220


Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the vocabulary of diplomatic clerical work. The researcher demonstrates that analysis of a lexical language system within vocabulary thematic groups makes lexical material available for study in all kinds of aspects. She also demonstrates that diplomatic standartization is reflected not only in the writing style and choice of components but also their location and graphic presentation. Specific features of diplomatic clerical vocabulary are a result of the fact that it is used by narrow groups of professional diplomats and lawyers specialising in international law. Thus, diplomatic clerical vocabulary is a term system that has been intensively developing. In the process of development, varied thematic groups have been created and constantly enriched with new expressive means of business style. The researcher offers a classification of lexical thematic groups based on the following criteria: semantic similarity of words; partial or full coincidence of meanings; possibility or impossibility of mutual substitution of words in a particular context; synonymy, antonymy, differentiation, generalisation and stylistic use of words. 
Golubitskii Y.A. - Scientific language: reality of corporate desire? (Addressing the issue of lexical and stylistic aspect of modern humanitarian research works) pp. 228-276
Abstract: The author of this article, being a philologist, literator and sociologist in his scientific work, analyzes the lexical and stylistic aspects of scientific works in humanitarian sciences in context of norms and traditions of the national Russian language. In his opinion, binary preposition of linguistic debate - encratic and acratic languages, Russian tradition for written fixation of scientific work, is, in fact, a quasi-language itself and is defined not as an independent communication phenomenon, but as a system of anomalies in regular language. The article provides a historical outlook on the interaction of scientific and literary methods of fixation and reflection of social realities - interaction that represents a pendulum of divergence and convergence processes.
Bryukhova E.I. - Peculiarities of the 'Lie' Category Functions in the Language Culture of the Japanese People pp. 322-329


Abstract: In the culture of communication of any nation, the phenomenon of lies is one of the central places. The subject of the research of this article is the functioning of the “lie” category, an important aspect of Japanese language culture from the point of view of understanding the characteristics of the culture and mentality of the Japanese. The analysis of ideas about lies is extremely interesting, since we need to take into account the specifics of the attitude to it in Japanese culture in practical activities in order to achieve better mutual understanding in contacts with Japanese. The main method used in the article is a method of theoretical analysis of Japanese scientific literature devoted to the category of “lies” and a method of generalization. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that an attempt was made in domestic practice to understand the question of Japanese perception of a lie; the article is a small but necessary part to research the topic of lies and deception in Japanese culture. The main conclusion of the article is the position that the carriers of Japanese culture perceive lies as a necessary tool for maintaining harmonious, smoothed relations in society. The Japanese, who are extremely sensitive about interpersonal communication, constantly pay attention to the nature of the behavior, the nuances of the words spoken, and the lie in this sense performs important functions: as a regulator of language behavior, it makes communication smooth, conflict-free, through it polite, tactful, “caring” speech interaction with the Other. 
Efremova N. - The Role of Stylistic Devices in Smetanin's Literary Journalism pp. 330-339


Abstract: The subject of the research is the stylistic figures of speech used in Yakut artistic prose. The object of the study is the syntactic constructions that form the artistic and stylistic originality of Yakut artistic journalism. The goal of the research is the linguistic proof that the stylistic techniques used in the works, anaphora, anaepiphora, antimetabol, antipophore, antithesis, apostrophe, hemination, hypophora, homeology, impersonation, enumeration, pickup, interruptedly continued utterance, rhetorical exclamation, rhetorical, rhetorical exclamation, enumeration, enumeration, interception syncrisis, syntactic parallelism, comparison, enargy serve as expressive means that form this style in ideological and artistic terms as well as convey emotions and feelings of the writer. The method of descriptive analysis reveals the role of stylistic figures (receptions) in Yakut artistic journalism. The research covered texts for the essays and short stories of the classic Yakut literature, the front-line writer T. Smetanin, written on the military-patriotic theme during the Great Patriotic War. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the identification and systematization of stylistic figures of speech used in Yakut artistic prose based on the analysis of essay works of the Yakut classic, the front-line writer T. Smetanin. The writer's language and style have not been studied enough: there are no works that highlight the genre and stylistic features of his creative heritage. The stylistic techniques in the artistic journalism of T. Smetanin played a special role in creating the artistic image of the Great Patriotic War, thereby evoking the reader with deep feelings of patriotism.
Abdul'manova A., Maksimova M.A. - Word-Formation Models of Nouns in the Field of English Customs Vocabulary pp. 340-347


Abstract: The subject of this research is the word-formation models of nouns in English-language customs vocabulary. Insufficient knowledge of this layer of vocabulary as well as the emergence of a variety of words not yet recorded in special dictionaries and glossaries but having a pronounced professional affiliation creates the need to consider development trends and to carry out a detailed study of types of word formation and activity problems of word-building models of customs vocabulary. This determines the rationale of the research. The aim of the work is to determine the main derivational models of the formation of English-language customs terminology. The research methodology is based on systematization, description and classification of language material; word-building and contextual analysis of the models of derived words and the establishment of quantitative parameters that reveal and confirm language patterns that regularly appear in customs vocabulary. The scientific novelty of the work is caused by the fact that it studies nouns and their word-formation models based on the analysis of English-language customs vocabulary which is considered as a microsystem of interconnected and interdependent elements, uniting a number of industries (transport, economic, etc.). An attempt is made in the work to provide a comprehensive lexical description of the formal characteristics of customs vocabulary.
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