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Schabykov V.I., Kudryavtseva R.A., Kartashova E.P. - The Mari Language in Modern Urban Family (Sociolinguistic Research) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of the research is the attitude of married couples living in the cities of the Mari El Republic towards the Mari language, the place of the Mari language in the communication and values system of an urban family. The problem set by the authors is viewed taking into account the ethnofactor opposition between a mononational Mari family when both spouces identify themselves as Mari and multicultural family when one of the spouces of Mari and the other is Russian. The rationale of the research is caused by the need to study the modern sociolinguistic situation in polyethnic Russian Federation constituents and to define the role of national (regional) dialects. The research is based on the sociolinguistic data obtained in 2012 by the sociological department of Vasiliev Mari Research Institute of Language, Literature and History as a result of the survey dedicated to the topic 'The Language Situation in the Mari El Republic'. The research methods include statistical analysis, systematisation, analysis and generalisation. The author has also used the sociological tools such as random non-repetition quote sample, standard inteview, etc. The scientific novelty of the research is caused, first of all, by the empirical material that is introduced to the academic community for the first tijme, and, secondly, by the problems raised by the authors (communicative and values role of the Mari language in the minds of a modern urban family) that is viewed from the point of view of regional ethnosocial and sociolinguistic studies. The authors focus on the following questions that allow to define the attitude of spouces in the aforesaid two types of married urban couples towards the Mari language: recognition/denial of Mari as a native language, competence in Mari, concerns about the future of the Mari language, attitude to the status of the Mari language and its functions in the society, and prospects for developing Mari as a state language. The authors of the article prove the fact that mononational and multinational families have very different attitudes to the Mari language. Multicultural families tend to deny the ethnic importance of Mari which creates opportunities for their further language assimilation.
Tsygankov A. - Conceptual Genesis of the Word 'Ritter' in Middle High German of the XIIth - XIIIth Centuries pp. 59-70


Abstract: The article is devoted to consideration of semantic genesis of the word ritter in the sredneverkhnenemetsky XII-XIII language of centuries. Semantic genesis of the word is analyzed by means of the appeal to German-speaking sources of the considered time period, and also to the latest developments of a modern German-speaking media studies. On the basis of the done analysis it is claimed that originally, in a German-speaking medieval universum, the word ritter had no general semantic connotations with widely known image of the noble soldier on a horse which completely are established only by the end of the XIII century. The leading method of research is the etymological analysis in its application to the XII-XIII Middle High German language of centuries. It is proved that the happened transformations of sense were caused by dialectic interrelation of two historical factors: first, growth of the feudal relations which promoted formation knights striations with self-understanding inherent in it and a self-name; secondly, "symbolical import" which was carried out by the German emperors from France as standard of the strong and independent royalty.
Milovanova A.I. - Creation of an Unreal Phenomenon by Phraseological Units Using the Somatic Component pp. 63-69


Abstract: Phraseological units convey their meanings through an unreal image and are of great interest to researchers because phraseological units have contradictory notions inside their structure as well as components that have a cultural importance. The author of the article analyzes means of creation of unreal phenomena by phraseological units with the somatic component. The author pays special attention to the role of somatism in the process of creation of an unreal phenomenon, phraseological activity of somatism and cultural specific features of such phraseological units in the Russian language. The author has used the classification and analogue methods which allowed to divide phraseological units into groups depending on the frequency of this or that somatism being used. The main approach to studying cultural specific features of phraseological units was the component analysis and determination of the cultural knowledge conveyed by the structure and vocabulary of phraseological units. As a result of the research, the author offers her own classification of means of creation of unreal phenomena by phraseological units using the somatic component. This allows to define the main patterns of phraseologization of these wordcombination as well as to describe somatisms that are most active in terms of phraseology and reflect cultural specific features. The results of the analysis demonstrate that cultural specific features of somatisms in the Russian language are caused by a specific attitude of a Russian to particular parts of the body. 
Griber Y.A., Jonauskaite D., Mohr C. - The Colors of Emotions: Experimental Research of Associative Relations in Modern Russian pp. 69-86


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of associative relations between twenty emotional concepts (interest, amusement, pride, joy, pleasure, satisfaction, admiration, love, relief, compassion, sadness, guilt, sorrow, shame, disappointment, fear, disdain, disgust, hatred and anger) and twelve basic names of colurs in the Russian language (red, orange, yellow, green, light blue, blue, violet, brown, pink, grey, black and white). The research is aimed at 1) discovering chromatic and achromatic meanings of emotions; 2)discovering syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations between color associations; 3) conduction of a linguocultural expertise of national specifics of discovered associative relations. The research is based on the on-line experiment that involved 103 Russian speakers (63 females and 40 males, the average age of resondents is 36.5, min age is 19 and max age is 78, sd=16.7). To analyze emotions, the researcher has applied the Geneva Emotion Wheel Inventory (GEW version 3.0) as a tool for self-evaluation of emotions and attitudes to a particular event. The results of the experiment have proved that Russian culture correlates the lightness of color to the valency of emotions. Positive emotions are associated with light colors and negative emotions are associated with darker colors. The closest emotional relations were demonstrated by yellow and orange, light blue and green, red and pink, black and grey. These pairs are often found as components of color images, too. 
Borunov A.B. - Quantitative Research of the Author English-Language Corpus by Raghu N. Mitra pp. 76-87


Abstract: The subject of this research is the frequency of the lexical unit usage in the English-Language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra that was obtained through automated processing of the corpus with the program "WordSmith Tools". The object of the research is the English-language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra consisting of 414311 words. By the means of computer processing the author made a frequency list consisting of 50 units as well as compared the frequency of the semantic field usage of "Crime" according to the corpus of contemporary American English and author corpus of R. N. Mitra. The research methods used by the author included comparative, statistical and mathematical methods. The conversion of the text into the author corpus and its further processing were carried out using computer software. As a result of the study, the author English-language corpus was converted into the frequency list to compare this one with a frequency list of the corpus of contemporary American English and to carry out a critical analysis of the data. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author attempts to conduct a quantitative analysis of the language corpus of American English of the early 21st century and comparative analysis of the results.
Karelina N.A. - Modern Trends in the Development of Canada's Indigenous Languages pp. 79-86


Abstract: The matter under research is the modern trends in the development of Canada's indigenous languages, i.e. the languages spoken by the representatives of the First Nations, Metis and Inuit as well as new legislative policy of the state aimed at restoration, preservation and practical use of the languages. The author focuses on the new law about preservation of indigenous languages issued in June of 2019, objectives, mechanisms, and prospects as well as issues that arise n modern linguistic education and practical use of languages. In her research Karelina has used general research methods such as analysis and synthesis of research literature and statistical data and comparative approach. The research results demonstrate that the situation with Canada's indigenous languages is still difficult, therefore the Indigenous Languages Act is meant to improve the situation. The law implies state financing of language development programs, research analysis, publications of study books and dictionaries, education of teenagers and training specialists. Recently, a number of indigenous communities of Canada has demonstrated positive trends in expansion of the number of native language speakers as a result of immersion programs at the levels of pre-school and school education and use of new technologies, development of mass media and ethno-tourism. The experience of Canada is of great practical importance for the development of federal and regional programs of support and development of indigenous minorities of Russia. 
Kuzembayeva G.A. - Nominative Density of the Concept of NOBILITY / in the English and Russian Languages pp. 88-100


Abstract: Subject. The multi-component structure of concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages characterized by the presence of various groups of cognitive signs of the concept is the evidence of its importance in the culture of these nations. The study aims to define the nominative density of the concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages by the comparative analysis in diachrony makes it possible to determine the importance of the concept in the culture of the English and Russian ethnic groups and to identify the differences in the above mentioned linguistic cultures.Methods. The data for the study was obtained from the texts of contemporary English and Russian fiction writers with reference to the etymological and explanatory English and Russian dictionaries data. Text selection was carried out by continuous sampling. A wide range of methods and techniques for studying and modeling the concept was used: the method of etymological analysis, the method of analysis of dictionary definitions, method of semantic-component analysis, technique of continuous sampling, technique of contextual analysis method of linguistic description and observation method diachronic studies, comparative method, the method of statistical calculations. Topicality. Comparative analysis of the concept NOBILITY / in diachrony revealed differences in its nominative density, which gives us the opportunity to talk about the specifics of the English and Russian national picture of the world and priority of certain concepts for the native speakers of these languages.Conclusions. The highest nominative density in the English linguistic culture has a cognitive feature of the concept that expresses high origin, belonging to a upper social class which is present in all synchronous periods of texts, whereas, in all investigated periods of Russian linguistic culture high frequency has a cognitive sign of the concept that expresses the high moral qualities and this indicates cultural differences in data of ethnic groups. The cognitive feature of the concept "high origin, class" in the Russian sphere of concept was erased with time, losing its cultural significance for the Russian language consciousness. In both nominative spheres of the concept the lowest density characterizes the cognitive features of external manifestations of nobility.
Dashkevich D. - Peculiarities of Phonetical Accent in Pronounciation of Russian Alveolar Fricatives in the Speech of IndoEuropean Language Speakers pp. 113-121


Abstract: The object of the research is the interfered Russian speech of speakers of a number of Indo-European languages. In the course of the study, two tasks were set: to record and analyze the phonetic accent of speakers of different-structured languages; to identify universal difficulties in the assimilation of Russian front-lingual noisy consonants, typological and specific features that appear when pronouncing noisy front-lingual consonants in interfered Russian speech of speakers of some languages of the Romance, Germanic and Slavic groups. The main methods for solving the tasks set in the work are comparative, descriptive and experimental. The basis for the study was the linguistic experiment, which consisted in recording the audio carrier and the subsequent analysis of the interfered Russian speech of foreigners using a special technique. In the linguistic experiment, materials for recording were used, constructed taking into account the differences between the phonetic system of the Russian language and the phonetic systems of the students' native languages.The novelty of the study lies in the fact that as a result of the linguistic experiment, a material was collected that allowed to give an analytical understanding of the similarities and discrepancies in the phonetic accents of speakers of different structural languages, to determine the universal difficulties encountered by all foreigners studying Russian, typological difficulties and typological features of the emphasis of speakers some languages, including unrelated ones, as well as specific errors that occurred in speakers of specific languages. Taking into account the data of the analysis, it is possible to create a training course for Russian sounding speech for speakers of Indo-European languages.
Kudryavtseva R.A., Schabykov V.I. - Foreign Speech Communication of Mari Youth (Sociolinguistic Aspect) pp. 120-131


Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign speech communication of Mari youth. The purpose of the article is to define the place of the Russian and English languages in the verbal communication of contemporary young people aged 15 - 29 years old, residing in the Republic of Mari El and identifying themselves as Mari. The rationale of the research problem is caused by the need to analyze today's sociolinguistic situation in polyethnic constituents of the Russian Federation and the role of state and foreign languages in these constituents. The topic is also important as part of studies devoted to the ethnocultural integration in a society. The empirical basis for the research is the sociolinguistic data obtained in 2012 by the Sociology Department of Mari Research Institute of Language, Literature and History named after V. Vasiliev in the process of the population survey devoted to the topic 'Linguistic Situation in the Republic of Mari El'. The research methods used by the authors include: statistical method, systematisation, analysis and generalisation. The authors have also used sociological tools such as random non-repeated quota sample, formal structured interview, etc. Sociolinguistic data used by the authros in their research are introduced in the academic literature for the first time and analyzed depending on respondents' places of residence (village/city) and educational background (secondary education/higher education or incomplete higher education). The research is focused on two questions that clarify the nature of the foreign speech communication of Mari youth. The first question is related to using non-ethnic (foreign) language in a situation of everyday communication (with their parents, hubands or wives, preschool or school age children). The second question is related to self-assessment of their verbal skills in relation to different kinds of speech activity (readiness for qualitative foreign communication). The authors of the article prove that Mari young people have a high level of linguocompetence in Russian and low level of linguocompetence in English. The Russian language is actively used by them in everyday life and often performs functions that could be performed by their ethnic language. 
Rustamov A.M. - Geographic Terms and Names of Places in the Zangezur Area pp. 137-150


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes geographic terms and how these terms derived from names of places in the Zangezur Area of the Trans-Caucasian Region. There is an ethnic diversity in Zangezur and throughout Azerbajan in general which, of course, is reflected in names of places there. Toponymic terms of Turk origin are divided into two groups: 1) terms of ancient-Turk origin and 2) terms of Azerbajanian origin. These geographic names and terms are the most important evidence of the history of these territories. Ancient Turk roots in names of places in the Zangezur area prove that Turk ethnic groups used to live there even before Christ. Geographic names like that reflect history and geography of the country and therefore they prove that Turk tribes actually lived there. 
Ilyushin G.E. - The Problem of Genre in Literary Translation from Russian into Spanish pp. 145-152


Abstract: The subject of this study is the translation of Russian literature of the second half of the XX century. The author traces how the genre features of the texts affect the reader's and translational understanding of the works on the material of the central translations for Russian postmodernism of the works of Benedict Erofeev and Sasha Sokolov. Based on the material of the most striking examples the author examines ways of transmitting such characteristic techniques as a combination of elements from different registers, as well as a sound wordplay, rhyming and rhythmization. The research was based on the translations and the stage adaptation of the poem Moscow-Petushki and the translation of the novel School for Fools. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes the Spanish translations of Russian literature in the linguopragmatic aspect and explains the nature of the translational transformations associated with the discrepancy between the linguistic pictures of the world. The analysis confirms the thesis that the main reason for all translational transformations is to assume the original genre setting and specific ideas about Russian literature of the second half of the 20th century.
Kuleshova V.O. - The Principles of Creation of English-Russian Terminological Dictionary of Photonic Crystals Terms pp. 215-222


Abstract: In her article Kuleshova proves the need to create an English-Russian terminological dictionary in a relative new field of knowledge, the theory of photonic crystals. There is no such a dictionary today. Creation of a dictionary is an integral task on the basis of the systems approach, in this case, it is caused by the need to develop the system of terms of photonic crystals in the Russian language. The author examines the conceptual grounds of the dictionary and defines thematic and aspect-related orientation of the dictionary, its purposes and volume, criteria for selection of terms, etc. The author offers her own classification of terms and harmonizes these terms to other terminological systems. The subject of the research is the anlaysis of the principles to be observed when creating a terminological dictionary, the object of the research is the terminological system of photonic crystals. To select the research material, the author has applied the continuous sampling method as well as the method of scientific description implying systematization and interpretation. The main results of the research are the structure of the dictionary at the marco- and microlevels, rules for selection of terms and development of a terminological system of photonic crystals. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author systematizes terms in the theory of photonic crystals and harmonizes English and Russian terminological systems in this field. The dictionary is to be used by specialists in the field of photonic crystals theory as well as physics and other technical science students. 
Ignatov I.A. - Semantics and Functions of the Word 'Citizen' in Modern Russian Language (the Case Study of Mass Media Language) pp. 215-223


Abstract: The article isd devoted to the analysis of the word 'citizen' that reflects the relation between a person and state. According to the author, it is necessary to analyze the semantics of this lexeme to better understand the general concept of human. At the early XXIst century that lexeme had seven definitions, three definitions prevailing: 1. Humans inhabitting the territory and following the law who are often opposed to state and ruling class. 2. Individual element of the society, often carelessly used instead of words 'men', 'personality', 'individual' to name an adult, profession or go before a propery name lik Mrs or Mr. The research is based on the use of contextual and lexical semantic research methods and implis analysis of mass media texts of the early XXIst century as well as the National Corpus of the Russian language (1002 contexts) taking into account Russian definition dictionaries. Thus, the word 'citizen' denotes one's attitude to the state. It is an active element of the language and has semantic relations to other words and lexemes. The analysis of the semantic structure and functions of this word in modern Russian language has never been carried out on the basis of mass media. 
Vol'f O.A. - Violation of the Formal Logic Law By Excluding the Middle in Journalistic Texts: Errors, Manipulation, and Stylicstic Means pp. 314-322


Abstract: The subject of the research is violations of one of the laws of formal logic, the law of the excluded middle, that can be found in modern media discourse. Special attention is paid to the problem of correlation in the speech practice of deviations from the law of noncontradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Based on the analysis of examples from journalistic texts, an attempt was made to examine the studied illogism in three aspects: as logical errors, as manipulative techniques, and as figurative and expressive means realized in tests in the form of tropes and figures. The purpose of this work is to determine the linguistic status and features of the implementation of conscious and unconscious deviations of the law of the excluded middle in the media discourse. The methodological basis of the study involves the methods of systematization and analysis (interpretation, classification, and contextual analysis). The author came to the conclusion that, in a speech, violations of the law of the excluded middle are found only in symbiosis with violations of the law of non-contradiction. Analysis of examples from journalistic texts showed that there are two types of deviations from the law of the excluded middle depending on the reasons for their occurrence. If a logical rule is violated unconsciously, then a logical error appears in the text. In the case when the author intentionally goes to damage the logical structure of the utterance, the violation is a technique. In turn, the goals of the addressee predetermine the division of techniques into manipulative (in the case when the recipient does not have to notice a logical discrepancy) and stylistic ones iin the case when the recepient uses paths and figures (which are meant to influence the addressee).
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