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Dai M. - The World of the East in the works of A. Fet pp. 30-43


Abstract: The presence of philosophy in the texts of Russian writers is quite natural. Many researchers in their works focus on the peculiarities of the formation of the creative path of authors from Russia, emphasizing the proximity and understanding of eternal problems, motives, and the meaning of life. A.A. Fet is one of such authors. The personality is attractive from the point of view of the analysis of creativity and the foundations of the ideological meaning of the formation of the creative path and the presence of a philosophical orientation in poetry. Whether this is a natural phenomenon in this particular author and in what exactly the world of the East manifests itself in Fet's work is to be found out in this article. A number of examples are collected here – excerpts from Fet's poetry as a sign of proof of the eastern philosophical orientation of the texts. Among the main tasks of the work is: analysis of the historical time in which Fet lived and worked from the position of the influence of philosophy on various spheres of life of Russian society; a detailed examination of the presence of Eastern philosophical motives in the work of the Russian writer using excerpts of texts.The main conclusions are made: there are philosophical motives in the poetic speech under consideration, in particular regarding the expression of conceptual worldview foundations: the presence of unity and integrity of all living things, the infinity of being, the divine origin of life, reflections on death, symbolic transmission of secret meaning and the urge to reflect on eternal categories in the reader of the work of A.A. Fet. The images show the presence of a deep level of semantics of the poetic text, translating the topics touched upon in poetry into the sacred plane. In our opinion, A.A. Fet's appeal to the motives of Eastern philosophy is due, on the one hand, to the depth and capacity of the author's own reflections due to his education and his own emerging writing style, and, on the other hand, to the popularity of symbolism, love and craving for philosophy in society.
Porol P.V., Porol O.A. - From the search for the "quiet girl" in N. Gumilev's poetry pp. 55-62



Abstract: N. Gumilev's appeal to the theme of China can be traced in a number of his poetic texts, the pinnacle of which can be called the cycle of poems "Porcelain Pavilion" (1918). The study examines one of the dominant Chinese images in N. Gumilev's poetry the image of a Chinese girl, clearly visible among the space of poetic texts created by the poet both Chinese and Russian. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of poetic works, the semantics and functioning of the image of a Chinese girl in the poet's perception are analyzed. During the research, the authors of the article turn to the cultural and historical realities of China, its philosophy and mythology. China and Russia are separated in N. Gumilev's mind and, at the same time, merged into one in a number of works. The reasoning and conclusions of the authors of the article are based on critical research, a comparison of two cultures. The analysis of poetic works was carried out in the semantic aspect using the search for textual parallels. The study was carried out using the structural-semiotic method. What was new in the work was the identification and interpretation of the image of a Chinese girl in N. Gumilev's poetry. During the research, the following poetic works were analyzed: "The Queen" (1909), "I believed, I thought..." (1911), "The Girl" (1912), "The Moon on the Sea" (1918), "The Road" (1918), "The Three Wives of the Mandarin" (1918). In the cycle "Porcelain Pavilion", the image of a Chinese girl occurs nine times. The genesis of the "quiet girl" in the poems under consideration is revealed. It was found that the image of a Chinese girl corresponds to the "canons of the image" of Nothing ("The Queen"). The image of a Chinese girl symbolizes the outcome of human existence in a world without God, without being in its highest sense ("I believed, I thought..."). In the poem "Moon on the Sea", as in the subsequent poems of the cycle "Porcelain Pavilion" ("Connection", "Poet", "House"), N. Gumilev adheres to the Chinese tradition, comparing the female image with the moon.
Spektor D.M. - Writing and Time. Way of Golem pp. 71-83


Abstract: The subject of the study is represented by triple ratio referentsii- mimesisa- story, traceable on the text of P. Ricoeur's "time and the story." The study proved that chronological time is closely related to the body-space reference and co-compliant activities. "Story" in opposition to it (reference) other (non-chronological) time (other-world), the "collection-itself" in the subject position. This procedure is related to the re-reading of the text, including the re-viewing the incident arising from the formation of subjectivity-and-retrospective differentiation-occurring entities. The article made an attempt this reconstruction (the qualitative) time in its projection on the structure of the narrative-the story.The method of investigation is connected with the analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the concept of "mimesis" in the treatment of "soul" and "spirit". This ratio is assumed in the base of the temporal structure of the reconstruction.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop the concept of time-the story of language, events, plot, genre typology of characters and stories. With the "treatment" of subjectivity / entity mapped "conversion" to the original, word, seen in perspective "vanishing point" as a reference point "pro-of-knowledge", and the starting point of historical intelligence (humanitarian properties).
Spektor D.M. - Historical Roots of Dramatic Poetry pp. 100-135


Abstract: In this article the treatment according to which scenic action in one way or another "displays" is analyzed deeply implanted in classical philosophy or "expresses" life, the tragedy and the comedy act as typical forms of such reflection — as well as typical forms of expressiveness which the limelight gives often to the banal vital phenomena – "condensing" them, rejecting routine, not typical and minor, and exposing most "essential" on the foreground.Overcoming of the general metafizichnost and spirit of Education induces to address to real historical roots of tragic action. Removal it from under exclusive aegis of a panlogizm allows to plan the real bases of poetics. As the main method thus acts the historical reconstruction in no small measure connected with search and the statement of "basis", in which real and historical conditions of an origin still directly visible. They, according to the author, are connected with initiation of a special condition of ecstasy (in a number of researches identified with a spiritualizing), releasing its testing from influence of the instincts which indissolubly binding existence with are (isolated) life - in - a body. Framework similar experience caused emergence of special (virtual) reality – as realities of possible interactions (opposite reality of coexistence of ranks of the separate isolated beings and sushchnost). Universality of human life forms such space of opportunities creating beings from the endured - the relations (for example, such subject, as a community – earlier in the nature not existing)
Bai Y., Pinaev S.M. - Aesthetics of Zen Buddhism in the works of M. A. Voloshin
(On the example of poetic miniatures inscriptions for watercolors)
pp. 117-124



Abstract: This article examines the embodiment of the ideas and aesthetics of Zen Buddhism in the works of M. Voloshin. The purpose of the article is to identify how the thought and aesthetics of Zen Buddhism are presented in the works of M. Voloshin. The material for the work was M. Voloshins poetic miniatures - inscriptions on watercolors, autobiographies and memoirs. M. Voloshin himself called Buddhism the first religious step in his autobiography. Zen Buddhism does not accept the dualism and irreconcilability of Western philosophy, for example, the opposition God-man, moment eternity, peace struggle, etc. One typical feature of M. Voloshin's work is philosophical harmony, and many of his poems resonate with the poems of Zen (Chan) masters. Categories embodied in Zen poems, such as the frailty of the earthly, eternity and harmony of nature, can also be found in the poems of M. Voloshin. The novelty lies in the fact that currently little attention is paid to the manifestations of the philosophy of Zen Buddhism in the works of the poet. The analysis of Maximilian Voloshins watercolors paintings allows us to assert that Zen Buddhism occupies an important place among his aesthetic and ideological guidelines. The study of the reception of Zen Buddhism in the work of M. Voloshin is of great importance for understanding his poetry, the concept of creativity and worldview. Under the influence of the ideas and aesthetics of Zen Buddhism, Voloshins poems reflect his three fundamental categories of aesthetics: The principle of simplicity; Harmony; The principle of emptiness and silence.
Saprykina O.A., Shkolnikova O.Y. - Genres of Old Provençal poetry in the Works of Italian Troubadours: Reception and Interpretation pp. 146-153



Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the development of Old Provençal poetry in Italy in the 12th-13th centuries. Using specific examples from the work of early Italian troubadours (Peire de la Caravana, Peire de la Mula, Sordello, Lanfranco Cigala, etc.), the authors examine in detail such aspects of the topic as the reception and interpretation of the tradition of Old Provençal poetry. Of all the genres of poetry in the works of Italian troubadours, the most developed are the political and social ones sirventes and tenso, which should be seen as an intensification of the participation of poets in the social and political life of Italy. All this can be studied by reflection in poetic creativity of the 12th-century and 13th-century Italian troubadours. In this regard, the authors of the article pay special attention to poetic works belonging to these two genres. The relevance of this study lies in a comprehensive linguistic, literary and historical approach to the consideration of the issue. The use of such an integrated approach allows to identify the main trends in the development of Provençal poetry, reasons associated with the historical context, as well as linguistic diversification associated with the choice of a particular genre. The authors come to the conclusion that the repertoire of poetic genres and the choice of language in which poetry is created changes depending on the dynamics of social and cultural conditions. The large number of sirvent and tenson is an important observation, indicating the presence of a social cultural context and space in which such political and satirical works and impromptu debates on a variety of topics were in demand. These genres will receive their further development in the history of Italian literature.
Fedotova K.S. - Poetics of Proper Names Catalogues in Works Written by Nikolay Gumilev pp. 149-159


Abstract: The article deals with proper names catalogues in poetry by Nikolay Gumilev. The catalogue is defined as a complex variety unifided in semantics and syntax manners, and also involved in composition of literary text. Poetonyms as nominative units of artistic speech became the subjects of this paper. The author of the article specified peculiar features of organisation of proper names catalogues in poetry by Nikolay Gumilev. Poetonyms functioning in a structure of nominative lists have been analysed. The author of the paper has shown that the last name of catalogue is often instrumental in list, and that the whole catalogue as a unified varety is often contradistinguished to one poetonym used in title or in main part of text. Comparative method, methods of description and context interpretation have been used in this research. Poetonyms have been analysed due to their contextual functions and co-operation with their epithets and descriptions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the poetics of proper names catalogues has not been yet attentively analysed. The case study of poetry by Nikolay Gumilev has shown that the proper names catalogue is a polycomponent variety which is seamlessly involved in the literary text architectonics and took part in the expression of the artistic conception. In proper names catalogue the poet creates the unit image with its special semantics sphere which could be understood due to the analyse of each poetonym in the list, the cooperation of poetonyms and the role which the catalogue plays in a composition of literary text.
Karpov I.P. - Mari and Russian Poetry in Critical Commentaries of A. Tudorovskaya (the Article 'The Poet's Mastery' Published in 1944) pp. 163-170


Abstract: During the Great Patriotic War, several literary critics and critics lived in the Republic of Mari El, who were evacuated from Moscow and Leningrad. They made a definite contribution to the development of the Mari and Russian literatures in the republic. The activity of the critic and folklorist E. A. Tudorovskaya was especially fruitful. The article analyzed the Mari and Russian texts and put important theoretical problems (the ratio of form and content, the integrity of the poetic work). The content and value of the article is disclosed in this publication. The study uses the authorological methods of text analysis, in which the author is considered as a subject of activity, and the text as the objectification of the author’s existential forces. In this article, for the first time in the domestic literary criticism, the critical heritage of E. A. Tudorovskaya, the article “The Poet's Mastery”, which was published in the Mari almanac “For the Motherland” in 1944, is analyzed. The significance of this article for the development of Mari and Russian literatures is determined. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the work of E. A. Tudorovskaya was one of the first experiences of intellectual criticism in the republic, a significant contribution to the history of criticism of Mari El.
Kuprin A.S. - The poetic specificity of Gilda's "On the Death of Britain" and the "Hesperica Famina": a pragmatic aspect and a dominant analysis. On the 135th anniversary of the birth of B. I. Yarkho (1889-1942) pp. 176-189



Abstract: Τhis article deals with the work of the British writer Gildas the Wise "On the Ruin of Britain" and the poetic text "Hisperica Famina", written in the British archipelago (presumably in Ireland). Both works are written in Latin and represent milestones in the history of the Hiberno-British literature of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. There is no consensus about dating to a year or at least a decade for both texts. "On the Ruin of Britain" was written presumably in the late V early VI centuries; the Hisperica Famina are usually attributed to the second half of the VII century. "On the Ruin of Britain" contains a brief historical sketch and an protracted invective against the kings and clergy of Britons. The Hisperica Famina represent the Latin versification practice of Hibernian scribes. The methodological ideas of Boris I. Yarkho (1889-1942), set out in his fundamental work "A Methodology of Precise Literary Studies", serve as a conceptual basis for this research. On its basis, the author of the article identifies complexes of stylistic features and their compositional distribution which reflects poetic dominants common to Gildas and the author of the Hisperica Famina (so called faminator). The tendency of syntactic interlocking in the Hisperica Famina regularly prevails over the same tendency in "On the Ruin of Britain", it indicates that a specific attitude to the syntactical style, usual for the faminator and his poetic circle, began to form back in the Gildas's era. The common features of both texts show the prevalence of certain poetic dominants and can serve as a serious argument in defense of the thesis of the continuity from Gildas or writers of his circle to the faminator. The stylometry method may be very useful for comparing texts even if they they differ in genre and era.
Feng M. - Peculiar Features of the Documentary Biographical Sports Literature of the XXth Century (the Book of Selected Works 'Sportsmen' From the Series 'Lives of Great People' pp. 243-250


Abstract: The literature about sports and sportsmen of the XXth century still remains an understudied issue. The author of the article demonstrates that sports essays unite the documentary writing and literary writing when an author describes the world of sports based on sports facts and biographical memories. In the XXth century researchers often referred to the synthesis of documentary and literary beginnings in works of different genres and themes, however, the nature of the documentary-literary prose is sitll difficult to be defined. The subject of this research is the synthesis of the documentary and literary in essays about sportsmen as well as the conceptual and genre peculiarities of a series of essays 'Sportsmen' from the Lives of Great People. The author has applied the following methods and approaches: biographical that implies interpretation of an essay as reflection of biographical and personal features of famous sportmen as well as problem thematic and comparative methods. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the researcher views sports documentary literature in the form of essays. The main conclusions of the research are the following. The results of the analysis demonstrate that essays from the Sportsmen collection presents a synthesis of documentary and literary methods and genres. The researcher describes particular means and method used by the author to depict important sports events that played a great role for the entire country and reveal personal traits and biographies of sportsmen. Some essays combine analytical and essay-like free narration form that is based on complex association relations and figurative generalisations. These and other aspects define peculiarities of the literary manner of essay writers. 
Zou X. - The portrayal of China in Russian poetry: "Chinese Journey" by O.A.Sedakova pp. 258-268



Abstract: The subject of the article is the reflection of Chinese culture in the poem cycle "Chinese Journey" by O. A. Sedakova. In spite of the relatively large number of studies of this cycle, a close reading of it, undertaken from the perspective of a bearer of Chinese culture, may reveal new episodes in need of commentary and evidence of Sedakova' profound knowledge of Chinese philosophy and classical poetry. Although the significance of Taoist ideas for Sedakova has been discussed, it is possible to point out images and ideas that have not been noted before and are related to Lao Tzu and the Book of Changes, also some details that can possess a symbolic meaning in Chinese culture. Thus, although the significance of the image of water for the cycle has already been noted, its connection with the ideas of Lao Tzu has not been explained; in the light of the ideas of Taoism, we understand the images of the path, heaven and earth. The study explains the symbolic meaning that Sedakova's images of willow, mountain, ladder, flute, and swallow have in Chinese culture. We conclude that Sedakova's poetry is based on the harmonious interaction of European and Chinese; this assessment has already been expressed in science, but we have reinforced it with new examples.
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