Litera - rubric Eternal symbols
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Eternal symbols"
Eternal symbols
Il'chenko N.M., Chernysheva E.G. - ''Visible is a symbol'': Nature as an animated creature pictured by Russian and German romantics pp. 15-27



Abstract: The topicality of the research refers to the problem of national identity, national code, embodied among other spheres of spiritual life and in literature. Romantics' worldview was composed on the foundation of folklore, myth and literary tradition. The system of symbolic motifs of 'infancy' and 'pre-earth life', affinity of souls, joining in death and others became significant elements of the works in the Romanticism period. The study object is the collection of writings connected to natural-philosophic ideas of Nature as a living creature. The subject-matter of the research is national identity of Romanticism, manifested in the peculiarities of Nature perception. In the process of analysis, a comprehensive literary approach was used, combining historical-literary, historical-genetic, comparative-typological methods, which made it possible to establish the specifics of the embodiment of ideas about Nature by writers of Russia and Germany of the Romantic era. Presenting the natural-philosophic system of life conception, the writers relied on F. Schelling's philosophy. It is demonstrated that Russian romantics associate the origin of ideal female images with Heaven (angel-woman) and German romanticists with the Earth (flower woman). Angel woman and flower woman help the characters to understand the essence of the existence. Natural symbols used in the works (sky, earth, flower atc.) and other symbolic images (melody, kiss, icon etc.) convey the specific mystic world understanding of the authors. Novelty of the research lies in the analysis of dominant images, that makes it possible to determine 'the independence of the face' of romantics in Russia and Germany, basing on the idea of a man dependent on Nature that existed in the developed national tradition. This approach makes it possible to specify the understanding of the particular characteristics of archetypic female images presented in ethnic-cultural sphere.
Vodyasova L.P. - Metaphorical modeling of conceptual dyad LIFE and DEATH in the erzya language pp. 26-35


Abstract: The subjects of analysis in the article are the concepts LIFE and DEATH, which represent a problem of the self-consciousness and its place in the society. They constitute the conceptual dyad, because they relate, compare, evaluate in the language consciousness, constantly. This is the most ancient, the basic unit of a language picture of the world. The aim of employment is to describe their metaphorical modeling material of one of the Finno-Ugric languages the Erzya language. The research of problems we were determined as follows: 1) to identify the key words-representants concepts of life and death; 2) among the selected token to identify those who have a metaphorical meaning; 3) to set the context, revealing the metaphorical concepts. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the work on cognitive linguistics by A. Wierzbicka, S. G. Vorkachev, E. A. Cypanov and others. The main method was defined descriptive. It is used to study the content side of the lexemes-represetants and their functioning in certain contexts. The material for analysis served as precedent and literary texts. Based on the research we came to the conclusion that the conceptual dyad has universal and specific symptoms that are caused by language and cultural traditions of the Mordovian people, the specifics of his thinking, principles of coding information. Theoretical and practical significance of the work is to create preconditions for the further study of the problem of the relationship between language, thought and culture of the Finno-Ugric peoples, the development of cognitive areas in the Finno-Ugric linguistics, as proposed methodology concept study can be used to identify means of verbalization of concepts and of closely and far related other Finno-Ugric languages.
Krotovskaya N.G. - Peter Ackroyd. Venice (translation) pp. 28-109


Abstract: Venice is one of the most mysterious cities in Italy. People living in Venice do not only have a different dialect but even think differently than other Italians. Perhaps the roots of this phenomenon are in the incredibly complicated and rich history of their homeland. Peter Ackroyd describes different aspects of the city life not only as a incurable romantic but also as a documentalist who wants to put the historical record straight. 
Krinitsyn A.B., Galysheva M.P. - Venetian Text in Russian Poetry of the 19th - 20th Centuries pp. 29-48


Abstract: The subject of the research is the image of Venice in Russian poetic texts of the 19th - 20th centuries. The aim of the article is to outline the image of Venice as it is presented in the poetry of the Silver Age, by analyzing the brightest examples of so called 'Venetian' poetry. The authors viewed that poetry as part of the literary tradition and traced back how the perception of the city had been changing over the 19th - 20th centuries, at the same time, they aso analyze the texts they've selected in terms of the writers' ideology using texts by the same authors to clarify the author's message. The authors analyze 'Venetian' texts by Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev, Sergey Gorodetsky and Osip Mandelstam. The author of the article applies the structural analytical method to analyze motifs of 'Venetian' texts and comparative historical method to analyze tranformation of motifs at the diachronic level. The results of the research demonstrate the following: even though poets of the 20th century had very different world views and aesthetic concepts, their images of Venice had a number of typical motifs: transcendence of pure beauty and increasing anxiety of a lyrical hero, tragic perception of the reality and presentiment of death (both of a hero and Venice), and combination of eternity and fragility of the city. Both symbolists and acmeists preferred the image of the night Venice depicted mostly in dark colours. Being an integral phenomenon, the image of Venice had predetermined the modus of each new poetic text that interpreted Venice in its own way while orienting at precedent texts at the same time. 
Gurevich P.S. - Three Focuses on Pushkin's Tragedy pp. 31-52


Abstract: Article is devoted to A.S. Pushkin's tragedy "Mozart and Salieri" in interpretations of famous Russian philosophers – S. Bulgakov, G. Meyer, I. Ilyin. It is remarkable that the Russian thinkers quite often addressed to art. Their philosophical experiences in area of literature are very significant. In this case three views of Pushkin's tragedy are compared: each of philosophers offers the option of the main conflict which is the cornerstone of this composition. So, S. Bulgakov considers that the main contents of the tragedy are interfaced to friendship dramatic art. Estimating this condition as spiritual, connected with love, he considers that tragic sense of work in treachery of friendship from Salieri. Other reading of the tragedy is offered by G. Meyer. It regards as of paramount importance a figure of the black person who ordered to the composer the requiem. Here, according to the philosopher, the main conflict of the tragedy. It is that Salieri acts in full consent with the death angel. The murder subject, thus, finds additional connotations. At last, I. Ilyin sees tragedy grain in the conflict of genius and villainy. Round this subject is also under construction its analysis of work of Pushkin. In article concepts of an esthetics which allow to consider features of the tragedy as a genre are used. At the same time the author uses also the komparativistsky method helping to reveal the general and excellent in interpretations of the tragedy the Russian philosophers. In article three views of A.S. Pushkin's tragedy "Mozart and Salieri" are for the first time compared. Each of these approaches to contents of the composition allows to comprehend the main conflict of the tragedy in a new way. In article critical evaluation of the version, according to which tragedy essence in treachery of friendship is given. At such treatment it wasn't obligatory for Pushkin to take a plot from musical practice. Besides, this look lays aside other vital problems put by the tragedy – whether is art craft, whether are compatible the genius and villainy, etc. Certainly, the analyzed articles didn't apply for the complete and full analysis of the tragedy. However taken together, they give the developed idea of interpretation of the tragedy of Pushkin "Mozart and Salieri" in the Russian philosophy.
Perevalov V.P. - 'Heart-Felt Devotion' or 'Deeply Hurt Ambition' (On the History of the Relationship between Karamzin and Pushkin in 1818 - 1820) pp. 74-106


Abstract: The article is devoted to the relationship between Nikolay Karamzin and Alexander Pushkin during the period of social discussions around the first eight volumes of The History of the Russian State (1818 - 1820).  'Close reading' of Pushkin's texts about the Historiographer, microanalysis of these texts in terms of the historical environment of those times and application of new materials, although the latter were already known disregarding thereto, allow to specify the exact time when the Poet wrote one of his best epigrams about Karamzin: 'His History attains gracefulness and simplicity...' The basis for defining the date of Pushkin's epigram was the author's statement that the same critical oppositions against the concept of 'saving czarist regime' could be expressed both in prose and poetry. Clear logical distinction between those is necessary because their authors, time of creation and environment where they were created were absolutely different. The author focuses on the moment of creation of that epigram because the epigram represented a crucial landmark event in their relationship, in particular, the point where their personal relationship was broken up. In its turn, the length of existence of the epigram and environment where the epigram became popular were the factors that later allowed the partices to reach a compromise as a result of the events when Karamzin defended the Poet during proceedings about the authorship of satirical poems against the government. The Historiographer (along with others) asked for the mercy for Pushkin while remaining politically opposed to Pushkin's views in April of 1820. The 'heart-felt devotion' of Pushkin to Karamzin was restored and later played an important role in Pushkin's creative writing when the Poet wrote about the 'deed of the honest man' and dedicated his Borin Godunov to Karamzin, etc.
Liashenko T. - Lexis of the thematic group food and food consumption in the novel by Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin The Golovlyov Family pp. 84-96


Abstract: The subject of this research is lexemes of the thematic group “food and food consumption” in the novel by Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin “The Golovlyov Family”. The object of this research is the functional yield of these linguistic units in the text. The author of the article describes the functionality of food images in literature in form of the system of oppositions “external (existential) – internal (psychological)”, and “static-dynamic”. The four functions are differentiated: external static (food image as a detail scenery), external dynamic (food image as a theme-forming element), internal static (food image as an element of portrait of the character), internal dynamic (food image characterizes the dynamics of relations between the characters). It is noted that the thought on “low functionality” of gastronomic images in a literary text, which is expressed in some research, testifies to insufficient study of such rich material. Food as a literary image, as well as the motif of food consumption in a literary text always convey semantic meaning. In the novel “The Golovlyov Family”, the words with “food” semantics serve for the formation of external, existential aspect of narration, as well as internal, psychological aspects. Images of food alongside motifs of food consumption are characterological (describing portrait of the character) to a lesser degree, and more often used for demonstrating relationships between the characters.
Oreshkin A.S. - Quixotism - the tragedy of immortality pp. 128-162
Abstract: This article deals with the branch of Spanish existentialistic ideas of late XIX to early XX centuries called "Quixotism". The author explores the views of Miguiel de Unamuno, who was the founder of Quixotism, regarding the crisis of Spanish self-consciousness and the search for the foundations of human morality, which were personified by the characters of "The Indigenous Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha" by Servantes.
Poltavets M.A. - The history of creation of libretto to the opera The Demon by A. Rubinstein based on the text of eponymous poem of M. Y. Lermontov pp. 144-153


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of creation of libretto to the opera “The Demon” by A. Rubinstein based on the text of eponymous poem of M. Y. Lermontov. The object of this research is the text of libretto written over the period from the end of 1870 to 1871. The article examines the stages of creation of the opera, which involved Y. P. Polonsky, A. N. Maykov, P. A. Viskovatov, and A. G. Rubinstein. The article presents the previously unknown facts of working on the text, and considers the question of possible attribution of the text. The research employs historical-literary and hermeneutical methods, which allow to systematically trace the teamwork of authors on the text of libretto. The conclusion is made that the composer took part in in creation of the text along with the librettist, which is testified in correspondence and memoirs of the contemporaries, namely the reminiscences of P. A. Viskovatov. The question of authorship of the text of libretto remains relevant.
Kletckaya S. - Nabokov's 'Lolita' and 'Gift': Plot and Event Parallels pp. 193-204


Abstract: The subject of the research is the plot and event parallels that can be found in Nabokov's two novels, Lolita and Gift. According to the author of the article, the intertextual reference of Gift and Lolita is not limited to the episode where a simple variant of Lolita's plot is mentioned in Gift, the last novel Nabokov wrote in Russian. Plot parallels can be also found in details and circumstances of Fedor Godunov'Cherdyntsev becoming close to Zina Mertz in Gift (the episode when Fedor inspected the apartment where Zina lived with her mother and step-father) and the first meeting of Gumbert Gumbert with Lolita when inspecting Charlotte Geiz' house. In her research Kletskaya has used the comparative method as well as elements of the formal and structured analysis methods. Based on the important role of the tragic love story in the creativity of Nabokov as it is traditionally viewed by Russian science, the author of the article carries out a comparative analysis of the aforesaid plots and makes conclusions that cast light on the long history of Nabokov's working on that plot. The researcher also makes a hypothesis about self-quoting of Gift in Lolita. 
Anisimova O.V., Makarova I. - Interplanetary Transfer, or The Odyssey of the Future (Analysis of the Image Field 'Ship' in World Science Fiction) pp. 205-215


Abstract: The matter under research is the image field 'ship' viewed in terms of world science fiction based on the analysis of novels written by such authors as Lukian Samosatsky, Jonathan Swift, Jules Verne and Author Clarke. The researchers focus on the analysis of symbolic meaning of the image field 'ship' in literature in general and science fiction in particular. In their article they attempt to analyze peculiarities of literary interpretation of core elements of the image field 'ship' offered by different authors. Their aim to develop a full picture about the matter of study. The methodology of the research is based on complex analysis of the matter under research including such kinds of analysis as culturological, literary, intertextual, historico-literary and literary-biographical. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyze the symbolic content of a mythopoetical image of ship viewed as the image field in terms of world science fiction. Conclusions made by the author as a result of the research are the following: 1) mythopoetical image of ship is widely presented in science fiction novels and is still important today; 2) science fiction writers represent all three components of the core of the ship image field in their novels. 
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