Litera - rubric Folklore
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Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K. - On peculiarities of plot composition of the sequence of fairytales On Stepmother and Stepdaughter in Dagestan folklore pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this article is the tale aesthetics of one of the richest areas in Dagestan folklore – faerie epos, which found its artistic reflection in specific cites of plot composition of the themed sequence of tales “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter”. The aforementioned tales are characterized by the narrative-thematic variety and richness of poetic means and techniques. The object of this research is the narrative-compositional, stylistic and poetic peculiarities of fairytales to the world famous storyline “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter”. The goal of this work consists in illustration of the narrative-thematic variety and determination of the character of science fiction substantiated by specificities of the genre using the method of comparative-historical and analytical analysis, based on tales to the story “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter” popular in the folklore of multiple ethnic groups of Dagestan – Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Nogais, etc. The scientific novelty consists in the first comprehensive study of the variety of narrative-thematic content of the sequence of fairytales, as well as determination of their ideological-aesthetic foundation and distinctness of compositional structure. Some tales do not deviated from the theme of “stepmother – stepdaughter” conflict; some include various side episodes of science fiction nature full of magic and miracles; and some contaminate with the tales to a different storyline, theme or motif.
Reznikova K.V. - The Problem of the the Epic Cultural Heritage of Krasnoyarsk Krai Indigenous Peoples pp. 20-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is the epos of indigenous ethnic groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (eposes of the Evenks, Nenets, Dolgans, Enskies, Selkups, Chulyms, Yakuts, Kets, Nganasans) including the Evenki epic works. Based on the results of field researches conducted by students, graduate students, and researchers of the Siberian Federal University, the author of the article describes the actual condition of folklore of indigenous ethnic groups of the North and Siberia. The content analysis of the Evenki epos "Brave Sodani Bogatyr" is carried out, the most significant images and symbols typical for Evenki epic works are described. Linguoculturological methods of research were applied, the overview of epic works of Krasnoyarsk Krai indigenous ethnic groups and the content analysis of the chosen fragments of the Evenki heroic epos were carried out. The author concludes that eposes of various ethnic groups possess a similar plot structure: exposition or introduction (description of time, place, main characters); complications (misfortune, desire to travel, matchmaking); climax (fight against opponents, notably that relatives of a future wife can be such opponents); denouemen (marriage, homecoming of the bogatyr). In addition to the plot structure, eposes also have general motifs, such as the anger of the hero changing his appearance and the hero putting charms on his arrows to gain a victory over the rival. 
Tinyakova E.A. - Where to Look for the Image of Hero (the Focus on National Features in the Russian Traditional Culture) pp. 21-49


Abstract: Object of research is the concept "heroism" as philosophical and historical, in the basic, against welfare transformations of the 20th and 21st centuries in Russia. Reasonings proceed from a dichotomy: death and celebration of life. An object of research is the historical road of heroism in the Russian national history. The author asks a question how to use the concept "heroism" of education. An object of research are the secular and religious forms of imprinting of courage and courage, the word and phrase of Russian conveying and settling meaning of heroism. In research the historical and chronicle method, literary and art, ethnic, social and political, and also religious and secular approaches was used. In research has been applied auxiliary historical −. The main conclusions of the conducted research is allocation of a timeless component in concept of heroism, generally in religious approach which is less inclined to historical variability of views and opinions. In article the attention to transformation of interpretation of historical maintenance of feats through history is also paid. The author's conclusion is actual that in a modern social situation of Russia the concept "heroism" seeks to take the place of worthy social value. Modern line of this concept − tendency to life, but not aspiration to death is noted. 
Kolesnik M.A. - Review of the Studies of Folklore of Indigenous Peoples of the North pp. 39-59


Abstract: The research subject of the present article is the scientific works devoted to collecting, describing and publishing folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. In his research Kolesnikov tries to classify folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North according to their chronological order as well as their attribution to a particular ethnocultural group (Yakuts, Dolgans, Khanty, Mansi, Selkups, Evenks, Kets, Nganasans, Nenets, etc.). This review allows to outline the challenges of today's studies of folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North and provide recommendations for futher researhes of the cultural heritage of the Northern and Siberian poeples. The research methodology is mostly connected with the analysis of scientific works and researches on the topic. Kolesnikov has applied the comparative historical method and the chronological method to studying scientific works on the folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. Based on the conclusions of the research, the researcher offers the following measures aimed at preservation of the folklore of indigenous peoples of the North: - It is necessary to apply new preservation measures instead of the previous ones using digital techologies and othe opportunities. This would allow to create the common database of all the collected data and provide better opportunities for studying them. - Taking into account the fact that some ethnic groups have already forgotten their national language, it is neessary to publish their folklore in Russian and other languages. - It is important to conduct different activities (festivals, holidays, contests, etc.) for the youth. This would allow to ensure the continuity of folklore traditions. - There should be target programs created and grants provided for the preservation, research and promotion of folklore. - Folklore lessons should be given at schools, colleges, institutes and universities not only in the regions where a particular ethnic group lives but throughout the North in general. - New collections of folklore songs, fairy-tales, legends, puzzles, etc. should be published and recorded. Audio books, audio records, videos and digital materials should be made to cover the largest audience possible. - It is also necessary to create specialized folklore centers where folklore archives would be stored and special activities would be conducted. 
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K., Bekeeva A.M. - Artistic system of the childrens poetic folklore of Dagestan pp. 42-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic system of children's folklore of Dagestan. Based on the analysis the example of cradlesongs, play poetry, and calendar songs, the author determines their thoughtful humanistic and democratic motif, high ideological focus, and aesthetic perfection. The article covers the ideological, thematic and artistic content, and highlights the archaic elements of cradlesong poetry, which enjoys most popularity among other genres of the poetic folklore. The author’s special contribution consists in explication of specificity of artistic means and aesthetic foundations of the folk worldview and culture reflected in folk poetry; as well as in analysis of compositions of various folklore genres as the elements of single literary system, which indicates their focus on labor, strong ideals of patriotism, kindness and continuity throughout the entire social practice of the people. The oriented towards a young developing individual, children's poetic folklore reconstructs the work and life experience in a form comprehensible to a child. This is why were created the cradlesongs, nursery rhymes, games that involved poetry, and all these word-creating activities, which in their centuries-long evolution led to higher imagery, infused and gifted each upcoming generation truly humanistic values. Children's poetic folklore that reflects the questions of folk pedagogy based on life experience of the mountaineers, had a major impact upon the development Dagestan children's literature.
Zolotova T.A., Ivanova E.S., Plotnikova E.A. - Vyatka Folklore: Regional Features and Forms of Presentation pp. 47-55


Abstract: The authors of the present article offer a possible model to describe passage (initiation) rites in traditional (folklore) culture. The article is focused on the Vyatka maternity rite. The research is based on the materials that have been collected in the territory of the Kirov Region and north-eastern part of the Mari El Republic by folklore expeditions of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Mari State University during the past decades of the 20th century and present a chronological cut of the maternity rite of the 20 - 30s of the 20th century. According to the authors, the summary model of the Vyatka maternity rite should include three description types: ethnographic, structural-semiotic and hypertextual (hypermedia). The description algorithm offered by the authors of the article allows to get an insight into the maternity rite as a rite of 'double passage' (during the labour both a child and a mother attain a new essence; both of them become new members of the society and raise their social status), to clarify the regional features of such rites (main cycles, order and frequency of actions, chronotope organisation kinds, character selection patterns, 'thematic' kinds of 'hoodoo' texts, productive types of their structures, particularities of lexical-morphological, syntax-oriented, rhythmic and artistic levels). In its turn, the multimedia model allows to describe a multidimensional nature of a rite: the main text is illustrated with graphical and/or digital materials, images, music notes and voice records oif speech and music, photo and video fragments.
Alkhlavova I.K., Khidirova E.S. - Hadji Abrek by M. Y. Lermontov: to the question of genesis of the poem and authenticity of the folklore basis pp. 57-71


Abstract: The subject of this article is the origins of the poem “Hadji Abrek” by M. Y. Lermontov, question of location where the events take place, as well as the question of the possible impact of folk poetic oeuvres upon the work of Mikhail Lermontov. The article describes different opinions and interpretations (within the format of the article) on the topic, to the exclusion of “emphatic” commentaries and remarks. The object of this research is folklore and historical materials that contribute to revelation of idea of the poem, description of the protagonists, characterization of the Caucasian and Dagestan folklore, the echoes of which are traces in Lermontov’s poems.  The authors underline that geographical and ethnographic “nuances” were used by Lermontov to describe the forming picture in the mountain country. The novelty of this study consists in analysis of the material testifying that the inclusion of “installations” of another nation is substantiated in the poem, not just because it is somewhat of a tribute to romanticism, but it is also marks Lermontov’s comprehension of the folklore as an untouchable ”heart” of culture and ethnic uniqueness. The acquired results contribute to the scientific Caucasian studies and Lermontov studies. The conclusion is made of folklore in Lermontov's poem indicates a number of defining characteristics that allowed determining individual expression of poet's work. It is reflected in selection of the examples of folk poetry, peculiar regard to the sources, and their deflection in the poem.
Alkhlavova I.K., Akamov A.T., Adzhiev A.M. - On the Balkar-Karachay-Kumyk folklore commonness pp. 75-84


Abstract: The subject of this article is the genetic affinity of the Balkar, Karachay and Kumyk folklore. Interconnection between three closely related nations – Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks, whose origins take roots in the ancient time and continued in medieval times, are reflected virtually in all folklore genres: myths, heroic epos, ritual and nonritual poetry, heroic-historical songs, etc. The object of this research is the folklore and historical materials that testify to close genetic affinity of the Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks. The scientific novelty of this work consists in analysis of the material that demonstrates significant commonness of Balkar-Karachay-Kumyk folklore. Therefore, the targeted study of folklore ties of Balkars-Karachays and Kumyks with regards to all genres, represents not only scientific-theoretical significance, but also allows determining specific cultural-historical paths of development of these ethnoses along with other ethnic groups of North Caucasus. The conducted analysis of tales, nursery rhymes, skipping-rope rhymes, proverbs and sayings of the three ethnic groups emphasizes their typological similarities and genetic affinity. This allows formulating the conclusions of scientific-theoretical nature, as well as on the history of the indicated ethnoses.
Usatov K.A. - Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of third culture (almanac In-Between Time) pp. 85-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov, namely in almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”). I. I. Bashmakov (Ivan Vanenko) is one of the representatives of mass literature of the 1830s – 1850s. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the peculiarities of using folklore plots, motifs, and images in the poetic and prose texts of the people’s writer. Bashmakov uses a thematic diversity of fairy tales, pastiche of folk songs, epic poems, and anectodes. His texts also feature traditional elements of the combination of peasant and urban culture (“third culture”). Analysis is conducted on the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) by I. I. Bashmakov, using the cultural-historical and historical-literary methods. The novelty lies in consideration of folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of “third culture”. The works contained in the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) are introduced into the scientific discourse. Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov is associated primarily with application of folklore plots and images, as well as folklore artistic and stylistic peculiarities, based on which his works are attributed to aesthetic row of the “third culture”.
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K., Bekeeva A.M. - Song genres of traditional folklore of the Dargin people: ideological-aesthetic and artistic uniqueness pp. 94-103


Abstract: The subject of this research is the key genres of song folklore of the Dargin people – one of the ethnoses of Dagestan, which includes such Akushin, Kaitag, Kubachin, Mekegin, Tsudakhar, and others. An attempt is made to examine genre diversity of the Dargin people traditional poetic folklore, describe the forms of existence of specific genres, determine their ideological-aesthetic and artistic content, trace their evolution and transformation, as well as characterize the poetics. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of genre diversity of the song folklore of the Dargin people, its national specificity, artistic uniqueness and forms of existence. In the course of this research, the author applies the method of scientific analysis of theoretical literature on the topic, comparative-typological and descriptive-analytical methods, including observation, interpretation and comparison, which allows giving philological assessment of the text, reveal folk poetic means of expression. The scientific novelty lies in establishment of the fact that some of the genres under consideration still exist, but have undergone transformation. In a number the Dargin Districts, such as the rural localities of Harbuk, Urkarah, Madzhalis, Kubachi, Usisha, etc., texts of ritual poetry that have been previously performed by the adults, now shifted into the repertoire of children's folklore; multiple wedding songs – from ritual folklore to the category of love lyricism, and are performed mostly at youth parties and festivities. Lamentations were subjected to the influenced of Muslim religion, and now often feature the appeals to Allah to bless with patience and mercy, etc. Ballades in the folklore of the Dargin people also experiences certain genre changes: tragedy and drama of the situation fade away, and the ballades grow into the type of lyrical song of family, life or love content.
Mukhamedova F.K., Alieva F.A. - Family and household songs in the Dargin folklore pp. 99-106


Abstract: The subject of this research is the family and household songs as one of the genre varieties of non-ritual lyrics in the Dargin folklore. They are thematically related with family life, household, customs and traditions of the Dargins. Their content reflects the typical aspects of patriarchal family of the prerevolutionary Dagestan, when due to the rigid local customary laws, women were deprived of the right to decide their fate; therefore, multiple songs resemble sadness, sorrow, suffering, and distress of the heroes. This article explores the thematic diversity of family and household songs in the Dargin folklore, their poetics and nature of visual-expressive means; as well as reveals their ideological-aesthetic, artistic, stylistic and compositional functions in poetry. The novelty of this research lies in introduction of Dargin family and household songs into the scientific discourse, as well as description of the uniqueness and poetic means and techniques used therein. Analysis of the songs demonstrated that the poetic system of song lyrics as a whole, and family-household in particular, are characterized by the use of such literary techniques as metaphor, epithet, symbols, contrasts, iteration, etc., which play a significant role in the poetic text, reflecting the emotional state and the depth of feelings of the lyrical heroes.
Danilova A.N. - V. D. Atlasov as the anchor of the Yakut heroic epic tales Olonkho pp. 101-109


Abstract: The study of folklore heritage, along with the analysis of the collecting activity of individual local history experts and enthusiasts, is of genuine interest in the folklore studies. One of such people was Vladimir Dmitrievich Atlasov, born in Ust-Aldansky District. The goal of this article consists in examination of some questions of collecting activity Of V. D. Atlasov based on the text structure of Olonkho, as well as in establishment of the record of Olonkho text “Kentestey Bege”. For achieving the set goal, the author applies descriptive, structural and comparative methods. Based on the published texts and archival materials, the article examines certain aspects of V. D. Atlasov's collecting activity for documentation of the Yakut heroic epic tales Olonkho. The novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to analyze the folkloristic work of V. D. Atlasov – enthusiast, collector of Olonkho, and textology of interpretation of the Yakut heroic epic tale “Kentestey Bege” by S. M. Neustroev. As a result of textological research of the manuscript, the author determines some peculiarities of the record of Olonkho. The presence of multiple revisions testifies that Neustroev was working hand to hand with the Olonkhosut (the storyteller, performer of Olonkho). The text was carefully vetted, and in some instances edited by the collector. The texts is written mostly in modern graphics, although the letters of the old Latin alphabet are used occasionally.
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K. - Ethnospecifics of the songs on seasonal work migration of the urban locality of Kubachi pp. 102-108


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historically formed folklore tradition of the ethnic environment. The object of this research is the unique thematic cycle of songs on seasonal work migration in the national lyrics of the Kubachi folklore, a high-altitude locality in the Republic of Dagestan, known for its unique jewelry mastery. Seasonal work migration, caused by the socioeconomic, historical and geographical conditions of livelihood in the region, contributed to the origin of the lyrical songs among the people – the so-called songs on seasonal work migration. They brightly and emotionally express the feelings and the moods of the artisans, forced to abandon their homes and head for foreign land to find work. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the fact that it is the first to conduct special analysis on the seasonal work migration songs as a unique song cycle of the migrating artisans, the residents of the high-altitude locality of Kubachi, forced to scour various cities and countries in search of work. The work presents the findings on the enthospecific uniqueness, thematic specificity, and creative techniques typical for this song cycle.
Mukhamedova F.K., Alieva F.A. - On the technique of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains pp. 126-133


Abstract: The subject of this research is the quatrains – a variety of lyrical songs, one of widespread and popular poetic genres in the folklore of the peoples of Dagestan. The object of this research is the method of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains, which plays an important compositional role within the text structure, which is reflected in juxtaposition of images from the natural world and the psychological affections of the lyrical hero. The goal of this article lies in demonstrating the functional peculiarities of artistic parallelism technique in each particular case; as well as in determining the basic principle of juxtaposition of the images of nature with the world of human feelings and degree of their convergence, which reveals the emotional state of a person. The research methods of comparative-historical and philological analysis of the lyrical songs are based on the ideas advanced by V. G. Belinsky, A. N. Veselovsky, A. M. Novikova, S. G. Lazutin, Y. M. Sokolov, and others. The method of analysis allows determining the role of artistic parallelism in conveying the emotional state of the heroes. The novelty[WU1]  of this research consists in comprehensive analysis of the structure and content of texts that are structured on the technique artistic parallelism; identification of the peculiarities of its application on the material of Dargin song lyrics, which have not been previously introduced into the scientific discourse. The author demonstrates that the technique of artistic parallelism carries a vast ideological meaning, performs an important compositional function in disclosure of the content of the song, contributing to a vivid and imagery expression of thoughts and feelings of the hero. The article is first to explore the commonly used in Dargin folklore technique of artistic parallelism, when a single principle of syntactic construction is characteristic for two quatrains of the same theme. It is established that the idea laid down in the first quatrain is being further developed, enriching its content and acquiring new details that enhance the emotional perception of the poetic expression. [WU1]
Bakanova A.V. - Danse Macabre in Catalonia: historical-philological aspect pp. 132-142


Abstract: The object of this research is the theatricalizes “Danse Macabre” in the Catalonian city Verges is the only extant in La Bisbal province testimony of the popular in Medieval Western Europe traditions of Macabre. “Danse Macabre” in Verges takes place on a Maundy Thursday: five actors-skeletons with the symbolic inventory in their hands – scythe, colors, urns with ash and hourglass – move to the sounds of drums and remind spectators on the brevity of life and implacable approach of death. The presence of Macabre images in the Medieval art and literature is substantiated by crisis mentality caused by the Black Death and military conflicts. The conclusions on the archetypical features and authentic elements in Catalonian “Danse Macabre” are based on the research of historical-literary context, examination of the main scientific hypothesis regarding the Iberian trace in the emergence of this synthetic genre form, analysis of the circle beginning of Catalonian “Dance Macabre” under the influence of oriental presence on the peninsula. The author assesses modern approaches towards “Danse Macabre” with their sad procession of the representatives of all social classes to mass manifestations of democratic spirit of irreconcilability and resistance, democratic satire that is fighting for social equality facing death and acting against impunity of the powers that be.
Alchinova G.R. - To the question on Bashkir superstitions of anthropological orientation (on the example of evil eye) pp. 147-153


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Bashkir superstitions of anthropological orientation. Superstitious beliefs are a complex, insufficiently studied genre of folklore. Using the example of Bashkir folklore, the author examine the widespread in multiple cultures superstition – the evil eye – a malevolent glance upon something or someone. Envy and admiration are considered the main reasons for evil eye curse. The article uses the examples of Bashkir superstitious beliefs related to evil eye and protection against it. For achieving the set tasks and goals, the author conducted questionnaire-based survey among informants from various districts of the republic analyzes the accumulated material and compares with the previously collected folklore of Kurgan and Orenburg Bashkirs. Relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by the fact that a person, often subconsciously, believes in superstition, which causes anxiety and behavioral pattern aimed at protecting himself and loved ones against the evil eye. The author comes to the conclusion that in the folklore there are multiple methods of protection against admiring or malevolent glances. Window tracery, ornaments, drawings, embroideries, décor items, silver (Bashkir women always carried silver coins) served as protective amulets. Protection power is also attributable to the Holy Book of Quran, cutlery (knife and scissors), object of flora (rowan and juniper) and animal nature (bear of wolf tooth, claw of golden eagle). Evil eye is also often mentioned in Bashkir literature, particularly in the novel of Z. Biiesheva.
Lepeshkina L. - pp. 177-187


Illarionov V.V., Illarionova T.V. - Suntarsky District Epic Tradition: History of Olonkho Collections pp. 194-200


Abstract: The subject of the research is the history of collecting olonkho in Suntarsky district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The object of the study is the epic tradition of the Yakut heroic epos olonkho. This article analyzes the stages of collecting olonkho materials in the Suntarsky district. Chronologically, the study covers the period from the middle of the XIX century and XX century. For the first time the plot of the olonkho of the Suntarsky district was recorded by R.K. Maak in the XIX century. In the 20th century, folklorists A. Savin and V. Illarionov made a significant contribution to the collection of folklore. The main research methodology is related to analytics of existing scientific works. A comparative historical research method was used, the review was made using the chronology of scientific publications about the olonkho in the Suntarsky district. Compilation of the olonkho records compared to other ulus in general was conducted satisfactorily. However, the absence of necessary materials on olonkho of the first half of the XXth century demonstrates the nonsystemic nature of investigative activity. At the moment, only three texts of olonkho suntars of narrators have been published, and archival materials are inaccessible to a wide readership. This creates certain difficulties in the study of the epic of the area. 
Gabysheva L.L. - Cultural connotations of landscape terms in the Yakut epos Olonkho pp. 284-290


Abstract: The subject of this research is the metaphorical meanings of landscape terms as the fragment of mythopoetic worldview of the Yakut epos Olonkho. The words denoting marsh, tundra, gully, ravine, snag, windthrow, etc. in the texts of Yakut epos attain connotations of an unclean place and opposed to the words signifying an open even terrain. The latter have positive attitudinal epithets. Special attention is given to the functions of landscape terms, which served as the so-called framing markers between the worlds, as well as comprise full names of the characters of Olonkho, demarcating Aiy and Abasy. Referring to the semantics of landscape terms, the article applies the structural-semantic method, contextual analysis, lexicographic sources and comparative-historical linguistic data. The author is first to establish connotative meanings and functions of words in the Yakut epos Olonkho designating open even terrain on the one hand, and marsh, tundra, gully, ravine, snag, windthrow, etc. on the other. Semantic opposition even/uneven dates back to the myths and melodies of the ancient Yakut dance Osuokhai usually performed in celebration of New Year. Incorporation of the terms of land and steppe in one multivalent word dojdu produces associations with the prototype of historic original homeland of the Turkic peoples, possibly preserved in the language and memory of people.
Egorova O. - Actualisation of Mythological Concepts in Folklore (Based on the Analysis of Russian and British Fairy-Tales) pp. 296-303


Abstract: The subject of this research is the specifics of the actualization of mythological representations in folklore works. The aim of the work is to trace the transformation of animism and totemism as the first most important beliefs of people in Russian and British fairy tales. Comparative analysis allows to determine the genesis of the historical development of the fairy-tale genre, the evolution of its moral, moral and aesthetic attitudes, as well as the influence of the mythological tradition on the fantastic images and motifs of folklore works. The corpus of texts selected from collections of Russian and British fairy tales served as the research material. The methodological basis of the article consists of a complex cultural-cultural method of system analysis in the form of a comparative comparative study, historical-genetic and historical-typological comparisons. The integrated approach used by the author allows to determine the originality and evolution of mythological representations in two folklore traditions as well as to reveal the influence of myths on fiction, the plot composition and the system of characters of Russian and British fairy tales. The scientific novelty of the work is caused by the fact that for the first time an analysis of the genesis of mythological views in folklore was carried out on the basis of Russian and British fairy tales. The author of the article concludes that mythological beliefs in folklore works are creatively rethought and serve as the means of transmitting socially important information and values.  
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