Litera - rubric Folklore
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Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K. - On peculiarities of plot composition of the sequence of fairytales On Stepmother and Stepdaughter in Dagestan folklore pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this article is the tale aesthetics of one of the richest areas in Dagestan folklore – faerie epos, which found its artistic reflection in specific cites of plot composition of the themed sequence of tales “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter”. The aforementioned tales are characterized by the narrative-thematic variety and richness of poetic means and techniques. The object of this research is the narrative-compositional, stylistic and poetic peculiarities of fairytales to the world famous storyline “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter”. The goal of this work consists in illustration of the narrative-thematic variety and determination of the character of science fiction substantiated by specificities of the genre using the method of comparative-historical and analytical analysis, based on tales to the story “On Stepmother and Stepdaughter” popular in the folklore of multiple ethnic groups of Dagestan – Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Nogais, etc. The scientific novelty consists in the first comprehensive study of the variety of narrative-thematic content of the sequence of fairytales, as well as determination of their ideological-aesthetic foundation and distinctness of compositional structure. Some tales do not deviated from the theme of “stepmother – stepdaughter” conflict; some include various side episodes of science fiction nature full of magic and miracles; and some contaminate with the tales to a different storyline, theme or motif.
Reznikova K.V. - The Problem of the the Epic Cultural Heritage of Krasnoyarsk Krai Indigenous Peoples pp. 20-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is the epos of indigenous ethnic groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (eposes of the Evenks, Nenets, Dolgans, Enskies, Selkups, Chulyms, Yakuts, Kets, Nganasans) including the Evenki epic works. Based on the results of field researches conducted by students, graduate students, and researchers of the Siberian Federal University, the author of the article describes the actual condition of folklore of indigenous ethnic groups of the North and Siberia. The content analysis of the Evenki epos "Brave Sodani Bogatyr" is carried out, the most significant images and symbols typical for Evenki epic works are described. Linguoculturological methods of research were applied, the overview of epic works of Krasnoyarsk Krai indigenous ethnic groups and the content analysis of the chosen fragments of the Evenki heroic epos were carried out. The author concludes that eposes of various ethnic groups possess a similar plot structure: exposition or introduction (description of time, place, main characters); complications (misfortune, desire to travel, matchmaking); climax (fight against opponents, notably that relatives of a future wife can be such opponents); denouemen (marriage, homecoming of the bogatyr). In addition to the plot structure, eposes also have general motifs, such as the anger of the hero changing his appearance and the hero putting charms on his arrows to gain a victory over the rival. 
Tinyakova E.A. - Where to Look for the Image of Hero (the Focus on National Features in the Russian Traditional Culture) pp. 21-49


Abstract: Object of research is the concept "heroism" as philosophical and historical, in the basic, against welfare transformations of the 20th and 21st centuries in Russia. Reasonings proceed from a dichotomy: death and celebration of life. An object of research is the historical road of heroism in the Russian national history. The author asks a question how to use the concept "heroism" of education. An object of research are the secular and religious forms of imprinting of courage and courage, the word and phrase of Russian conveying and settling meaning of heroism. In research the historical and chronicle method, literary and art, ethnic, social and political, and also religious and secular approaches was used. In research has been applied auxiliary historical −. The main conclusions of the conducted research is allocation of a timeless component in concept of heroism, generally in religious approach which is less inclined to historical variability of views and opinions. In article the attention to transformation of interpretation of historical maintenance of feats through history is also paid. The author's conclusion is actual that in a modern social situation of Russia the concept "heroism" seeks to take the place of worthy social value. Modern line of this concept − tendency to life, but not aspiration to death is noted. 
Shkalina G.E. - S.G. Chavain's novel "Elnet": the unity of the Mari language, folklore and traditions pp. 28-40



Abstract: The article contains an analysis of the genre content and poetics of the novel "Elnet" by the classic of Mari literature Sergey Grigoryevich Chavain in the unity of the Mari language, folklore and cultural traditions of the Mari people. The work is considered as a "linguistic metaphor", in the context of ideological issues of the epoch, as an intellectual novel in the Mari national literature. The author's concept associated with the archetypal image of the Elnet River, symbolically placed in the title of the work, is revealed, its connection with the writer's ideological plan, as well as with the Mari national and world cultural tradition, its literary and artistic context is revealed. Considerable attention is paid in the article to the consideration of this image as an expression of the traditional ancestral faith, the core of which is the worship of nature and the cultivation of the human in man in the bosom of the "accommodating and nurturing landscape" (the term of Lev Gumilev). The article is devoted to a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study of the classic novel of Mari literature. The content of the actual literary text of the novel is considered in a broad socio-cultural context, through the prism of the mythological, philosophical, and aesthetic views of the Mari people. 3. The article proves that the name of Sergei Grigoryevich Chavain is one of the most fateful for the Mari nation; the author of the novel "Elnet" was concerned about the state of the intellectual and cultural status of the nation, its worldbuilding horizon; the writer remains today a "singer of the people", a vivid symbol of national life. For the first time in regional science, the question is raised about the main levels of the Mari world created in the novel "Elnet" by Sergei Grigoryevich Chavain, vividly traced in the title image the image of Elnet; they are defined in the article as follows: 1) Elnet as a tributary of the Volga, one of the most beautiful rivers in the territory of the Mari territory; 2) Elnet as the motherland, the Ecumene; 3) Elnet as the "golden" world of wonderful Mari songs; 4) Elnet as the prophetic Path of the Mari people. The story of Mari, understood by S. Chavain, is a Road leading into the distance behind an open door, at the same time it is a spiritual process fueled by a rich cultural heritage, currents of the present, and a dream of accomplishment.
Kolesnik M.A. - Review of the Studies of Folklore of Indigenous Peoples of the North pp. 39-59


Abstract: The research subject of the present article is the scientific works devoted to collecting, describing and publishing folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. In his research Kolesnikov tries to classify folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North according to their chronological order as well as their attribution to a particular ethnocultural group (Yakuts, Dolgans, Khanty, Mansi, Selkups, Evenks, Kets, Nganasans, Nenets, etc.). This review allows to outline the challenges of today's studies of folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North and provide recommendations for futher researhes of the cultural heritage of the Northern and Siberian poeples. The research methodology is mostly connected with the analysis of scientific works and researches on the topic. Kolesnikov has applied the comparative historical method and the chronological method to studying scientific works on the folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. Based on the conclusions of the research, the researcher offers the following measures aimed at preservation of the folklore of indigenous peoples of the North:  - It is necessary to apply new preservation measures instead of the previous ones using digital techologies and othe opportunities. This would allow to create the common database of all the collected data and provide better opportunities for studying them.  - Taking into account the fact that some ethnic groups have already forgotten their national language, it is neessary to publish their folklore in Russian and other languages.  - It is important to conduct different activities (festivals, holidays, contests, etc.) for the youth. This would allow to ensure the continuity of folklore traditions.  - There should be target programs created and grants provided for the preservation, research and promotion of folklore.  - Folklore lessons should be given at schools, colleges, institutes and universities not only in the regions where a particular ethnic group lives but throughout the North in general.  - New collections of folklore songs, fairy-tales, legends, puzzles, etc. should be published and recorded. Audio books, audio records, videos and digital materials should be made to cover the largest audience possible.  - It is also necessary to create specialized folklore centers where folklore archives would be stored and special activities would be conducted. 
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K., Bekeeva A.M. - Artistic system of the childrens poetic folklore of Dagestan pp. 42-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic system of children's folklore of Dagestan. Based on the analysis the example of cradlesongs, play poetry, and calendar songs, the author determines their thoughtful humanistic and democratic motif, high ideological focus, and aesthetic perfection. The article covers the ideological, thematic and artistic content, and highlights the archaic elements of cradlesong poetry, which enjoys most popularity among other genres of the poetic folklore. The author’s special contribution consists in explication of specificity of artistic means and aesthetic foundations of the folk worldview and culture reflected in folk poetry; as well as in analysis of compositions of various folklore genres as the elements of single literary system, which indicates their focus on labor, strong ideals of patriotism, kindness and continuity throughout the entire social practice of the people. The oriented towards a young developing individual, children's poetic folklore reconstructs the work and life experience in a form comprehensible to a child. This is why were created the cradlesongs, nursery rhymes, games that involved poetry, and all these word-creating activities, which in their centuries-long evolution led to higher imagery, infused and gifted each upcoming generation truly humanistic values. Children's poetic folklore that reflects the questions of folk pedagogy based on life experience of the mountaineers, had a major impact upon the development Dagestan children's literature.
Zolotova T.A., Ivanova E.S., Plotnikova E.A. - Vyatka Folklore: Regional Features and Forms of Presentation pp. 47-55


Abstract: The authors of the present article offer a possible model to describe passage (initiation) rites in traditional (folklore) culture. The article is focused on the Vyatka maternity rite. The research is based on the materials that have been collected in the territory of the Kirov Region and north-eastern part of the Mari El Republic by folklore expeditions of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Mari State University during the past decades of the 20th century and present a chronological cut of the maternity rite of the 20 - 30s of the 20th century. According to the authors, the summary model of the Vyatka maternity rite should include three description types: ethnographic, structural-semiotic and hypertextual (hypermedia). The description algorithm offered by the authors of the article allows to get an insight into the maternity rite as a rite of 'double passage' (during the labour both a child and a mother attain a new essence; both of them become new members of the society and raise their social status), to clarify the regional features of such rites (main cycles, order and frequency of actions, chronotope organisation kinds, character selection patterns, 'thematic' kinds of 'hoodoo' texts, productive types of their structures, particularities of lexical-morphological, syntax-oriented, rhythmic and artistic levels). In its turn, the multimedia model allows to describe a multidimensional nature of a rite: the main text is illustrated with graphical and/or digital materials, images, music notes and voice records oif speech and music, photo and video fragments.
Kartasheva A.O., Ustinovskaya A.A. - Valery Bryusov and Urban Folklore: a game with genre tradition pp. 49-57



Abstract: The subject of the study is a literary game with the genre tradition of urban romance and factory (working) songs in the poetry of the poet of the Silver Age Valery Bryusov. The object of the study is Bryusov's genre palette and his creative searches in relation to the extensive development of genres of domestic and foreign literature, as well as folklore. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as Bryusov's genre strategies, his playing with genre constants and the deliberate distortion of the genre "grid" of the working song with the involvement of features of another, related genre of violent urban romance. Special attention is paid to the catamnesis of Bryusov's texts: their further embodiment in music as songs, both purposeful and spontaneous. The main conclusions of the study are observations on the stylization of folklore in the literature of the Silver Age and reflections on the genre nature of the works of one of the most significant collections of poems by Bryusov, Urbi et orbi (1903). A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is their consistent tracing in Bryusov's "songs" of the presence of references to specific realities included in the apperceptive base of the reader and the author himself. The novelty of the research lies in the appeal to the genre of urban romance and factory song in Bryusov's work and in the expansion of the evidence base of observations on the genre diversity of the work of this poet and prose writer.
Chalbanova K.V. - The Moon and the Sun in Kalmyk Mythology pp. 52-60



Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of Kalmyk cosmogonic myths about the Sun and the Moon. The author's task is to analyze the myths in the collections, to show that, despite the records or publications in different years, the general culture influenced the cosmogonic mythology of the Kalmyks. The subject of the study is plots, images and other elements of Kalmyk oral narratives about heavenly bodies. The main material of the study is the texts of Kalmyk myths recorded by researchers of the Kalmyk Scientific Center in the regions of Kalmykia and published in the volume "Myths, Legends and Legends of the Kalmyks" of the "Code of Kalmyk Folklore", and the material printed in the collection "Seven Stars" was also used. The novelty of the research lies in the analysis of cosmogonic myths presented in two collections published at different times. The main conclusion of the study is the fact that there are several versions of the myth of the Arach, which are different versions of the same plot. The appearance of the Sun and Moon is mentioned only in a few myths, in which they appear from the waters of the ocean in different ways: knocking down water with a mountain, with the help of a huge pump, with a blow of a sharp spear. Kalmyk cosmogonic myths explain not only the birth of the Sun and Moon, but also solar and lunar eclipses. This plot is quite widespread among the Mongolian peoples. In all the myths described above, the Sun and the Moon help Vajrapani Gegyan catch the Arach and cut it in two. The lower part descends to the ground, the upper part rises to the sky. Lunar and solar eclipses found a peculiar reflection in the consciousness of the ancestors. The peculiarity of the Kalmyk cosmogonic myths indicates the desire of the ancestors to know the world.
Alkhlavova I.K., Khidirova E.S. - Hadji Abrek by M. Y. Lermontov: to the question of genesis of the poem and authenticity of the folklore basis pp. 57-71


Abstract: The subject of this article is the origins of the poem “Hadji Abrek” by M. Y. Lermontov, question of location where the events take place, as well as the question of the possible impact of folk poetic oeuvres upon the work of Mikhail Lermontov. The article describes different opinions and interpretations (within the format of the article) on the topic, to the exclusion of “emphatic” commentaries and remarks. The object of this research is folklore and historical materials that contribute to revelation of idea of the poem, description of the protagonists, characterization of the Caucasian and Dagestan folklore, the echoes of which are traces in Lermontov’s poems.  The authors underline that geographical and ethnographic “nuances” were used by Lermontov to describe the forming picture in the mountain country. The novelty of this study consists in analysis of the material testifying that the inclusion of “installations” of another nation is substantiated in the poem, not just because it is somewhat of a tribute to romanticism, but it is also marks Lermontov’s comprehension of the folklore as an untouchable ”heart” of culture and ethnic uniqueness. The acquired results contribute to the scientific Caucasian studies and Lermontov studies. The conclusion is made of folklore in Lermontov's poem indicates a number of defining characteristics that allowed determining individual expression of poet's work. It is reflected in selection of the examples of folk poetry, peculiar regard to the sources, and their deflection in the poem.
Alkhlavova I.K., Akamov A.T., Adzhiev A.M. - On the Balkar-Karachay-Kumyk folklore commonness pp. 75-84


Abstract: The subject of this article is the genetic affinity of the Balkar, Karachay and Kumyk folklore. Interconnection between three closely related nations – Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks, whose origins take roots in the ancient time and continued in medieval times, are reflected virtually in all folklore genres: myths, heroic epos, ritual and nonritual poetry, heroic-historical songs, etc. The object of this research is the folklore and historical materials that testify to close genetic affinity of the Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks. The scientific novelty of this work consists in analysis of the material that demonstrates significant commonness of Balkar-Karachay-Kumyk folklore. Therefore, the targeted study of folklore ties of Balkars-Karachays and Kumyks with regards to all genres, represents not only scientific-theoretical significance, but also allows determining specific cultural-historical paths of development of these ethnoses along with other ethnic groups of North Caucasus. The conducted analysis of tales, nursery rhymes, skipping-rope rhymes, proverbs and sayings of the three ethnic groups emphasizes their typological similarities and genetic affinity. This allows formulating the conclusions of scientific-theoretical nature, as well as on the history of the indicated ethnoses.
Usatov K.A. - Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of third culture (almanac In-Between Time) pp. 85-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov, namely in almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”). I. I. Bashmakov (Ivan Vanenko) is one of the representatives of mass literature of the 1830s – 1850s. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the peculiarities of using folklore plots, motifs, and images in the poetic and prose texts of the people’s writer. Bashmakov uses a thematic diversity of fairy tales, pastiche of folk songs, epic poems, and anectodes. His texts also feature traditional elements of the combination of peasant and urban culture (“third culture”). Analysis is conducted on the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) by I. I. Bashmakov, using the cultural-historical and historical-literary methods. The novelty lies in consideration of folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of “third culture”. The works contained in the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) are introduced into the scientific discourse. Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov is associated primarily with application of folklore plots and images, as well as folklore artistic and stylistic peculiarities, based on which his works are attributed to aesthetic row of the “third culture”.
Wuren G. - Nomination of heroes in the Anglo-Saxon epic "Beowulf" pp. 86-92



Abstract: The subject of the study are the peculiarities of the nominations of heroes in the archaic Anglo-Saxon epic "Beowulf". The language nomination, which is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, is closely related to a person's understanding of the surrounding world and plays an important role in language. However, despite its importance, the study of this issue remains insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the uniqueness of the hero nominations in Beowulf, analyzing the hero nominations not only etymologically, but also considering their potential meanings in context. To achieve the purpose of the study, various methods were used, including interpretive, word-formation, descriptive and etymological approaches. The results of the study can be used in teaching lecture courses on the Old English history and lexicology of English and, in reading special courses on linguocultural studies. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that it conducted a comprehensive review of the system of hero nominations in the epic poem "Beowulf". It is concluded that the nominations of heroes in Beowulf are characterized by the use of proper names, which can be classified into monothematic, dithematic and suffix-monothematic names. On the other hand, there are various nominations based on common names, enriched with rich stylistic techniques, such as kenning, metaphor, etc. The nomination of heroes can change in different situations, reflecting the language, culture and values of the ancient Anglo-Saxon society.
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K., Bekeeva A.M. - Song genres of traditional folklore of the Dargin people: ideological-aesthetic and artistic uniqueness pp. 94-103


Abstract: The subject of this research is the key genres of song folklore of the Dargin people – one of the ethnoses of Dagestan, which includes such Akushin, Kaitag, Kubachin, Mekegin, Tsudakhar, and others. An attempt is made to examine genre diversity of the Dargin people traditional poetic folklore, describe the forms of existence of specific genres, determine their ideological-aesthetic and artistic content, trace their evolution and transformation, as well as characterize the poetics. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of genre diversity of the song folklore of the Dargin people, its national specificity, artistic uniqueness and forms of existence. In the course of this research, the author applies the method of scientific analysis of theoretical literature on the topic, comparative-typological and descriptive-analytical methods, including observation, interpretation and comparison, which allows giving philological assessment of the text, reveal folk poetic means of expression. The scientific novelty lies in establishment of the fact that some of the genres under consideration still exist, but have undergone transformation. In a number the Dargin Districts, such as the rural localities of Harbuk, Urkarah, Madzhalis, Kubachi, Usisha, etc., texts of ritual poetry that have been previously performed by the adults, now shifted into the repertoire of children's folklore; multiple wedding songs – from ritual folklore to the category of love lyricism, and are performed mostly at youth parties and festivities. Lamentations were subjected to the influenced of Muslim religion, and now often feature the appeals to Allah to bless with patience and mercy, etc. Ballades in the folklore of the Dargin people also experiences certain genre changes: tragedy and drama of the situation fade away, and the ballades grow into the type of lyrical song of family, life or love content.
Van T. - The development of Internet memes as a form of online folklore in the era of the pandemic pp. 97-106



Abstract: With the development of the information society, all social institutions have undergone changes. Folklore, as a sociolinguistic phenomenon, has also undergone a transformation of the concept of network folklore, the structure of which includes Internet memes. The aim of the work is to consider the development of Internet memes as a form of network folklore during a pandemic. The subject of the study is Internet memes as a new form of network folklore. The secondary analysis of the research and data collection from Yandex Wordstat for 2023 were used to achieve the goal. The content analysis of memes on the platform Reddit was also carried out. The results showed that memes during the pandemic period have gained their actuality as a new form of network folklore, which has a feature of mass psychotherapeutic impact through the possibility of escaping reality, as well as a more positive view of the situation. In the context of total digital communication during the coronavirus period, the Internet environment was saturated with content, making it difficult to identify the most popular Internet meme. The results of the work can be used as a theoretical base containing a systematized range of works on the topic of network folklore and digital communication, as well as a base for practical application in the field of sociolinguistics and journalism. The novelty of the work lies in the detection of a new form of digital communication. The development of language is closely linked to the development of society and its processes. The conclusions of the work confirm the importance of memes as a form of network folklore in a period of mass isolation due to the spread of coronavirus infection digital communication.
Mukhamedova F.K., Alieva F.A. - Family and household songs in the Dargin folklore pp. 99-106


Abstract: The subject of this research is the family and household songs as one of the genre varieties of non-ritual lyrics in the Dargin folklore. They are thematically related with family life, household, customs and traditions of the Dargins. Their content reflects the typical aspects of patriarchal family of the prerevolutionary Dagestan, when due to the rigid local customary laws, women were deprived of the right to decide their fate; therefore, multiple songs resemble sadness, sorrow, suffering, and distress of the heroes. This article explores the thematic diversity of family and household songs in the Dargin folklore, their poetics and nature of visual-expressive means; as well as reveals their ideological-aesthetic, artistic, stylistic and compositional functions in poetry. The novelty of this research lies in introduction of Dargin family and household songs into the scientific discourse, as well as description of the uniqueness and poetic means and techniques used therein. Analysis of the songs demonstrated that the poetic system of song lyrics as a whole, and family-household in particular, are characterized by the use of such literary techniques as metaphor, epithet, symbols, contrasts, iteration, etc., which play a significant role in the poetic text, reflecting the emotional state and the depth of feelings of the lyrical heroes.
Danilova A.N. - V. D. Atlasov as a fixator of the Yakut heroic epic olonkho pp. 101-109


Abstract: In folklore studies, the study of folklore heritage, the analysis of the collecting activities of individual local historians, enthusiasts arouses genuine interest. One of these people was Vladimir Dmitrievich Atlasov, a native of Ust-Aldan district. The purpose of this work is to study some issues of V. D. Atlasov's collecting activity on the basis of the olonkho text texture and to establish the history of the recording of the olonkho text "Kentestei Beg". Descriptive, structural and comparative methods were used to achieve this goal. On the basis of published texts and archival materials, the article examines some aspects of V. D. Atlasov's collecting activity on fixing the Yakut heroic epic Olonkho.   The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the folkloristic work of V. D. Atlasov, an enthusiast, collector of olonkho, the textology of the recording of the Yakut heroic epic "Kentestei Beg" performed by S. M. Neustroev are considered. As a result of textual research of the manuscript, some features of the olonkho record were revealed. The presence of many amendments of various types indicates that the author worked in close cooperation with Olonkhosut himself. The text is clearly verified and in some places edited by the collector himself. Most of the text is written in modern graphics, but the letters of the old Latin alphabet are used in writing some words.
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K. - Ethnospecifics of the songs on seasonal work migration of the urban locality of Kubachi pp. 102-108


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historically formed folklore tradition of the ethnic environment. The object of this research is the unique thematic cycle of songs on seasonal work migration in the national lyrics of the Kubachi folklore, a high-altitude locality in the Republic of Dagestan, known for its unique jewelry mastery. Seasonal work migration, caused by the socioeconomic, historical and geographical conditions of livelihood in the region, contributed to the origin of the lyrical songs among the people – the so-called songs on seasonal work migration. They brightly and emotionally express the feelings and the moods of the artisans, forced to abandon their homes and head for foreign land to find work. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the fact that it is the first to conduct special analysis on the seasonal work migration songs as a unique song cycle of the migrating artisans, the residents of the high-altitude locality of Kubachi, forced to scour various cities and countries in search of work. The work presents the findings on the enthospecific uniqueness, thematic specificity, and creative techniques typical for this song cycle.
Mukhamedova F.K., Alieva F.A. - On the technique of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains pp. 126-133


Abstract: The subject of this research is the quatrains – a variety of lyrical songs, one of widespread and popular poetic genres in the folklore of the peoples of Dagestan. The object of this research is the method of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains, which plays an important compositional role within the text structure, which is reflected in juxtaposition of images from the natural world and the psychological affections of the lyrical hero. The goal of this article lies in demonstrating the functional peculiarities of artistic parallelism technique in each particular case; as well as in determining the basic principle of juxtaposition of the images of nature with the world of human feelings and degree of their convergence, which reveals the emotional state of a person. The research methods of comparative-historical and philological analysis of the lyrical songs are based on the ideas advanced by V. G. Belinsky, A. N. Veselovsky, A. M. Novikova, S. G. Lazutin, Y. M. Sokolov, and others. The method of analysis allows determining the role of artistic parallelism in conveying the emotional state of the heroes. The novelty[WU1]  of this research consists in comprehensive analysis of the structure and content of texts that are structured on the technique artistic parallelism; identification of the peculiarities of its application on the material of Dargin song lyrics, which have not been previously introduced into the scientific discourse. The author demonstrates that the technique of artistic parallelism carries a vast ideological meaning, performs an important compositional function in disclosure of the content of the song, contributing to a vivid and imagery expression of thoughts and feelings of the hero. The article is first to explore the commonly used in Dargin folklore technique of artistic parallelism, when a single principle of syntactic construction is characteristic for two quatrains of the same theme. It is established that the idea laid down in the first quatrain is being further developed, enriching its content and acquiring new details that enhance the emotional perception of the poetic expression.  [WU1]
Bakanova A.V. - Danse Macabre in Catalonia: historical-philological aspect pp. 132-142


Abstract: The object of this research is the theatricalizes “Danse Macabre” in the Catalonian city Verges is the only extant in La Bisbal province testimony of the popular in Medieval Western Europe traditions of Macabre. “Danse Macabre” in Verges takes place on a Maundy Thursday: five actors-skeletons with the symbolic inventory in their hands – scythe, colors, urns with ash and hourglass – move to the sounds of drums and remind spectators on the brevity of life and implacable approach of death. The presence of Macabre images in the Medieval art and literature is substantiated by crisis mentality caused by the Black Death and military conflicts. The conclusions on the archetypical features and authentic elements in Catalonian “Danse Macabre” are based on the research of historical-literary context, examination of the main scientific hypothesis regarding the Iberian trace in the emergence of this synthetic genre form, analysis of the circle beginning of Catalonian “Dance Macabre” under the influence of oriental presence on the peninsula. The author assesses modern approaches towards “Danse Macabre” with their sad procession of the representatives of all social classes to mass manifestations of democratic spirit of irreconcilability and resistance, democratic satire that is fighting for social equality facing death and acting against impunity of the powers that be.
Zhou Y. - Linguistic and cultural features of the "magic objects" in Russian and Chinese fairy tales pp. 144-151



Abstract: Currently, the study of the language of folklore is one of the main tasks of linguoculturology, and the lexico-semantic study of the language of fairy tales is one of the most important objects of research. The article is devoted to the linguistic and cultural analysis of the "magic objects", which is an integral part of the "miracle" in Russian and Chinese fairy tales. The magical objects characteristic of Russian and Chinese fairy tales are considered, lexico-semantic, etymological and culturological analysis of the names of these objects is carried out. The object of the research is the concept of magic objects in the linguistic picture of the world, reflected in a fairy tale. The subject of the study is the comparison of the names of magical objects in Russian and Chinese fairy tales; the comparison of their cultural meanings and connotations. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the main means of designating magical objects in Russian and Chinese fairy tales are combinations of a noun with an adjective. However, in Russian fairy tales, the semantic dominant is an adjective: an adjective denotes a function, indicates a characteristic feature of the subject. In Chinese fairy tales, the emphasis is placed on the very name of the subject. If in Russian fairy tales magic objects are repeated from fairy tale to fairy tale, then in Chinese fairy tales magic objects are always different. The appearance of certain magical objects in both Russian and Chinese fairy tales is associated with the primitive beliefs of ancient people, with fetishism. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the linguistic analysis of the names of magical objects as a representation of the "miracle" concept sphere in Russian and Chinese fairy tales. Russian and Chinese languages study and comparison of magic objects, as well as methods of their nomination, allows to identify similarities and differences in national ideas about the concept of "magic objects" in Russian and Chinese linguistic cultures. The results of the analysis can be used to study the folklore and linguistic pictures of the world of the two nations.
Alchinova G.R. - To the question on Bashkir superstitions of anthropological orientation (on the example of evil eye) pp. 147-153


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Bashkir superstitions of anthropological orientation. Superstitious beliefs are a complex, insufficiently studied genre of folklore. Using the example of Bashkir folklore, the author examine the widespread in multiple cultures superstition – the evil eye – a malevolent glance upon something or someone. Envy and admiration are considered the main reasons for evil eye curse. The article uses the examples of Bashkir superstitious beliefs related to evil eye and protection against it. For achieving the set tasks and goals, the author conducted questionnaire-based survey among informants from various districts of the republic analyzes the accumulated material and compares with the previously collected folklore of Kurgan and Orenburg Bashkirs. Relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by the fact that a person, often subconsciously, believes in superstition, which causes anxiety and behavioral pattern aimed at protecting himself and loved ones against the evil eye. The author comes to the conclusion that in the folklore there are multiple methods of protection against admiring or malevolent glances. Window tracery, ornaments, drawings, embroideries, décor items, silver (Bashkir women always carried silver coins) served as protective amulets. Protection power is also attributable to the Holy Book of Quran, cutlery (knife and scissors), object of flora (rowan and juniper) and animal nature (bear of wolf tooth, claw of golden eagle). Evil eye is also often mentioned in Bashkir literature, particularly in the novel of Z. Biiesheva.
Li H. - Conceptualization of Nature in Chinese and Russian Folklore Tales pp. 160-169



Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyze nature as a basic linguistic and cultural concept in Chinese and Russian folklore tales, to identify common and different in its verbalization and perception in folklore tales of two linguistic cultures. The object of the study is Russian and Chinese folklore fairy tales. The subject is a comparative analysis of linguistic means of conceptualizing nature in Russian and Chinese fairy tales. The author examines the descriptions of nature in Chinese and Russian folk tales, the relationship of the heroes of fairy tales with nature. Particular attention is paid to the linguo-axiological aspect of nature and the identification of differences in the linguistic representation of nature and attitudes towards it in the two linguistic cultures. The scientific novelty of the work is due to the lack of research on the concept of nature in a comparative aspect in Chinese and Russian linguistic cultures. As a result, it was found that in Chinese and Russian folklore tales nature is described as a basic value a source of kindness and harmony. The author comes to the conclusion that the main differences in the conceptualization of nature in Chinese and Russian folklore tales are in the expression of the idea of fighting nature. The heroes of Chinese fairy tales resist the challenges of nature, while Russian fairy-tale characters use nature as a source of magical powers, with the help of which they subsequently achieve success.
Lepeshkina L. - Image of the future life in ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region pp. 177-187


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region of the XIX – early XX centuries. The goal lies in constructing image of the future based on ritual texts, as well as finding common motives and themes therein. Leaning on the archival materials, the author determines the key concepts of the regional folklore: desire of happiness, acquisition/loss of freedom, and loneliness. The content analysis is conducted on ritual lamentations and songs, as well as the most meaningful motives that unite all the rituals of the life cycle. The article employs culturological methods of research that allow identifying the spiritual and moral values and representations of the life cycle in the ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region. The scientific novelty consists in interpretation of the ritual texts of the population of the region as basic elements essential for constructing image of the future life. The conclusion is made that ritual texts of the inhabitants of the region feature similar theme: admiration of children, desire of happiness and freedom in the context of sending for military service and consummation of marriage, leaving home, and fear of loneliness. Shared outlook upon life created a predictable picture of the future with uniform requirements to a person as a bearer of the traditional culture. Such requirements implied the idea of the importance of reproduction of healthy generation and unification of family.
Illarionov V.V., Illarionova T.V. - Suntarsky District Epic Tradition: History of Olonkho Collections pp. 194-200


Abstract: The subject of the research is the history of collecting olonkho in Suntarsky district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The object of the study is the epic tradition of the Yakut heroic epos olonkho. This article analyzes the stages of collecting olonkho materials in the Suntarsky district. Chronologically, the study covers the period from the middle of the XIX century and XX century. For the first time the plot of the olonkho of the Suntarsky district was recorded by R.K. Maak in the XIX century. In the 20th century, folklorists A. Savin and V. Illarionov made a significant contribution to the collection of folklore. The main research methodology is related to analytics of existing scientific works. A comparative historical research method was used, the review was made using the chronology of scientific publications about the olonkho in the Suntarsky district. Compilation of the olonkho records compared to other ulus in general was conducted satisfactorily. However, the absence of necessary materials on olonkho of the first half of the XXth century demonstrates the nonsystemic nature of investigative activity. At the moment, only three texts of olonkho suntars of narrators have been published, and archival materials are inaccessible to a wide readership. This creates certain difficulties in the study of the epic of the area. 
Bakanova A.V., Terentieva E.D. - Collections of Spanish paremias of the XVI century and their influence
on the development of folklore tradition
pp. 199-210



Abstract: The article examines the works of folklore scientists who laid the foundations of Spanish paremiology. The subject of the study are collections of proverbs, sayings and other small genre forms published in Spain in the XVI century. The focus of attention is the famous apophthegmata of Melchor de Santa Cruz "Floresta española de apotegmas o sentencias, sabia y graciosamente dichas, de algunos españoles" (1574), which collected about a thousand texts and covers all aspects of the life of Spanish society. Along with other famous folklore collections of the XVI century by such authors as Juan de Timoneda, Juan de Mal Lara, Pedro Mejía, the work of Melchor de Santa Cruz influenced the formation of a scientific approach in Spanish folklore studies. The article provides a comparative analysis of collections of folklore texts of this period and emphasizes their influence on the development of Spanish folklore studies of subsequent centuries. The XVI century caused in Spain the rise of national consciousness, which is accompanied by an increase in scientific interest in the Spanish language, its lexical richness and grammatical system. Following the discovery of the New World, Spain is experiencing not only the rapid development of the science of folklore, but also the flowering of linguistic thought, based on the small genres of folklore in the issue of exemplification. The combination of short form and capacious content makes this group of genres attractive to linguists, folklorists, and Spanish writers of the Golden Age.
Alekseeva A. - The Sisinnios' Legend in Codex Sturdzanus: the Text and the Language pp. 228-237



Abstract: The article presents the results of a study of two South Slavic redactions of the St. Sisinnios legend (the Prayer of the Archangel Michael and the Prayer of St. Sisinnios) in the manuscript known as the Codex Sturdzanus (Library of the Romanian Academy, Ms. rom. 447). The Prayer of the Archangel Michael and the Prayer of St. Sisinnios are considered in the context of the South Slavic and Greek tradition of Sisinnios legend. The using of linguistic and textual methods of the investigation made it possible to describe the redactions as stylistic. The complex of orthographic, phonetic and morphological features of the Prayer of the Archangel Michael and the Prayer of St. Sisinnios in the Codex Sturdzanus (reflexes *ȩ, *ě, *dj, transition *y > [i], spelling of syllabic consonants, declension of nouns and adjectives) allows to describe the language of the texts as the Middle Bulgarian redaction of the Church Slavonic language, used as a written language in the principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania.
Kuzmina A.A. - The system of epic characters of olonkho "Bogatyr Tong Saar" by S. N. Karataev pp. 269-276



Abstract: The subject of the article is the semantics, structure and plot functioning of the character system in the Yakut heroic epic. The object of the study is the olonkho "Bogatyr Tong Saar" by Semyon Nikolaevich Karataev, which is one of the exemplary texts of the Vilyuisk epic tradition, recorded during the Vilyuisk expedition of 1938. The relevance of the work is due to the need for a detailed study of the system of characters of the Yakut heroic epic, determining their role in the development of the Olonkho plot, identifying new images. The purpose of the article is to reveal the system of epic characters of the Yakut heroic epic "Bogatyr Tong Saar" by S. N. Karataev. The results obtained can be applied in the field of folklore studies in the development of issues of poetics of an epic text, in the compilation of educational and methodological manuals on Yakut folklore.Structural and functional analysis developed by the famous Russian folklorist V. Ya. Propp is used as the main research method. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the system of characters of this legend is studied using the methodology of V. Y. Propp. As a result, it was concluded that the olonkho "Bogatyr Tong Saar" by S. N. Karataev presents a whole system of character images. It was determined that in addition to the characters conditioned by the two parts of the olonkho narrative, images of antagonists heroes, women-abaasi, rivals play an essential role in the unfolding of the plot. It was revealed that in this text a significant place is occupied by the hero's assistants, the wrecker / kidnapper of the hero's wife (the Tunguska bogatyr). Girls / women are passive, but they play a role in motivating the departure of the hero. In the plot of olonkho, there are images of the parents of the bride / wife, a messenger, an old woman adviser Simekhsin, a victim servant, a blacksmith donor, which are not of great importance in the development of the plot, but complement the main images and contribute to their disclosure.
Gabysheva L.L. - Cultural connotations of landscape terms in the Yakut epos Olonkho pp. 284-290


Abstract: The subject of this research is the metaphorical meanings of landscape terms as the fragment of mythopoetic worldview of the Yakut epos Olonkho. The words denoting marsh, tundra, gully, ravine, snag, windthrow, etc. in the texts of Yakut epos attain connotations of an unclean place and opposed to the words signifying an open even terrain. The latter have positive attitudinal epithets. Special attention is given to the functions of landscape terms, which served as the so-called framing markers between the worlds, as well as comprise full names of the characters of Olonkho, demarcating Aiy and Abasy. Referring to the semantics of landscape terms, the article applies the structural-semantic method, contextual analysis, lexicographic sources and comparative-historical linguistic data. The author is first to establish connotative meanings and functions of words in the Yakut epos Olonkho designating open even terrain on the one hand, and marsh, tundra, gully, ravine, snag, windthrow, etc. on the other. Semantic opposition even/uneven dates back to the myths and melodies of the ancient Yakut dance Osuokhai usually performed in celebration of New Year. Incorporation of the terms of land and steppe in one multivalent word dojdu produces associations with the prototype of historic original homeland of the Turkic peoples, possibly preserved in the language and memory of people.
Egorova O. - Actualisation of Mythological Concepts in Folklore (Based on the Analysis of Russian and British Fairy-Tales) pp. 296-303


Abstract: The subject of this research is the specifics of the actualization of mythological representations in folklore works. The aim of the work is to trace the transformation of animism and totemism as the first most important beliefs of people in Russian and British fairy tales. Comparative analysis allows to determine the genesis of the historical development of the fairy-tale genre, the evolution of its moral, moral and aesthetic attitudes, as well as the influence of the mythological tradition on the fantastic images and motifs of folklore works. The corpus of texts selected from collections of Russian and British fairy tales served as the research material. The methodological basis of the article consists of a complex cultural-cultural method of system analysis in the form of a comparative comparative study, historical-genetic and historical-typological comparisons. The integrated approach used by the author allows to determine the originality and evolution of mythological representations in two folklore traditions as well as to reveal the influence of myths on fiction, the plot composition and the system of characters of Russian and British fairy tales. The scientific novelty of the work is caused by the fact that for the first time an analysis of the genesis of mythological views in folklore was carried out on the basis of Russian and British fairy tales. The author of the article concludes that mythological beliefs in folklore works are creatively rethought and serve as the means of transmitting socially important information and values.   
Kostoeva A.M. - Genre features of historical legends of the Ingush pp. 431-438



Abstract: The author examines in detail the features of the variety of Ingush prose historical legends. In the analysis of the genre features of oral folk tales about historical legends based on certain historical facts, it is demonstrated that, despite the hype and the presence of elements of exaggeration, embellishment, they are mainly dominated by the attitude of authenticity. The Ingush have a rich history and a unique colorful culture. Studying the folk traditions and history of Ingushetia is an important way to preserve the historical heritage, the ancient roots of which are associated with the Scythians and tribes of the North Caucasus. Today, the Ingush preserve their traditions and culture. Taking into account the peculiarities of the historical traditions of the Ingush people, the groups of historical legends reflecting the historical past of the people are analyzed. The study also provides a brief description of the most important texts of historical legends. The research methodology is based on textual analysis using comparative typology, comparative history and variational methods. The author's special contribution to the study of the topic is the fact that the idealization of the heroes of historical legends has undergone significant changes over time. The almost fabulous heroes were replaced by characters close to reality. There is an obvious trend in the artistic work of storytellers, who sought to depict the events of the heroic-historical plan with a focus on authenticity. In modern conditions, when the desire for the formation of culture is extremely increasing in society, the appeal to the historical memory of ancestors acquires special importance. The historical traditions of Ingushetia, written by different collectors of folklore and recorded in different eras, are valuable not only for researchers of oral creativity, but also for historians. These are stories about important events that have happened, about people with illustrated biographies or about those who played a memorable role in the fate of the people.
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