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Literary criticism
Tsendrovskiy O. - Philosophy of Antoine de Saint-Exupery: Experience in Reconstruction pp. 1-33


Abstract: The article is devoted to the philosophy expressed by Antoine de Saint-Exupery in his books. This topic is often underestimated and very scarcely described in research literature. By analyzing Exupery's book 'Citadelle' (titled in English as The Wisdom of the Sands) and more famous Exupery's works, the author of the present article shows the wholeness of Exupery's teaching and the acuteness of the humanistic, existential and moral issues in Exupery's philosophy. The author also underlines that Exupery's philosophy can be classified as the West European philosophy of late Art Nouveau because Exupery discusses such typical late Art Nouveau topics as the transvaluation of values, understanding of the place of human after the death of God and fight against nihilism. In the course of a detailed analysis and from the point of view of systematic interpretation, the author of the article describes Exupery's views on a number of fundamental philosophical issues such as the existence of God and the meaning of life, measure of value and the essence of the truth. The main emphasis is made on the so called 'ethical pathos' of Exupery's creative work. The author of the article in detail analyzes the 'heroic ideal' offered by Exupery as well as the system of values and basic ethical principles that are now deduced from the essence of a mortal man but not the divine reality. The result of the author's research is the creation of an integrated concept of Exupery's philosophy which is new in both Russian and Western scientific literature. The author shows that Exupery's views were very close to Nietzsche's teaching and gravitated towards the radical politics. The author also provides quite an interesting description of Exupery's psychological and cultural views. 
Naumenko G. - The Wanderer pp. 1-49


Abstract: The object of the research is a poem “The Wanderer” by A.S.Pushkin The subject of the research is Mickiewicz’s implication as a key to the poem’s understanding. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that the poem was written in the dialogue with the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, to find Mickiewicz’s implication and to perform the literary analysis of Pushkin’s poem by comparing it with the sixth poem “The Passage” from the poem “The Dziady” III and with an extract from “The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come” by Bunyan to which Pushkin referred to. (The poem “Oleszkiewicz” and Mickiewicz’s implication are the sources and impulses for Pushkin’s word and the first part of Bunyan’s poem is a canvas, the language of the generally accepted religious schemes). The research is based on the method of “careful reading” of “The Wanderer” in the context of Pushkin’s work in 1833-1836 as well as an intertextual analysis of the texts by Pushkin, Mickiewicz and Bunyan. The research includes references to well-known interpretations and analysis of Pushkin’s poem.  The dialogue between Pushkin and Mickiewicz, and wider – a talk to the West, resulted in the fact the the theme of Christianity in Pushkin’s work of the last years became key in the conflict between the East (Russia) and the West. That conflict was shown by Mickiewicz in his “Passage” from the Christian punitive point of view. The poem “The Wanderer” (1835) became is a poetic reply on the theme of “reading the Book” (the Holy Scripture) that we can find in Mickiewicz’s work and also the first part of Pyshkin’s “Reading the Book” about the way from slavery to the Liberty. Pushkin showed a wrong way to the Liberty which contradicts his understanding of the New Testament. It is proved by the constructive division of the poem into five parts (the Pentateuch model). He showed “the right way” in his “evangelic” Kamennoostrovskij cycle (1836) which was created in the tight connection with “The Wanderer”. In “The Wanderer” the poet was not ready for “the Court”, but in the poem number VI “From Pindemonte” he appears at the Court with his speech.
Rostovtseva Y.A. - Reception of Ekaterina the Second's Laws in V. Levshin's Utopia 'Newest Travel or Written in the City of Belev' pp. 1-21


Abstract: Article is devoted to V. A. Levshin's utopia "The latest travel composed in the city of Belev" (1784). Work was published in the XIII-XVI parts of the "Interlocutor of Fans of the Russian Word" magazine. Researchers, as a rule, focused interest on its first part representing the ideal city on the Moon. The city-state has a primitive political system, in it there are no written laws. Life of lunatist is compared with legendary "a golden eyelid". Levshin's composition was considered in scientific literature, first of all, in the context of a subject of a freemasonry, motives of air travel. In the first key researches N. K. Piksanova, V. I. Sakharova, L. V. Omelko, in J. Breyllar's researches are written, T.V. Artemyeva consecrated an aeronautics subject. Laws of the utopian state were described in S. L. Baer's works and some other scientists, however a subject of separate research didn't become. Meanwhile, the end of "The latest travel" represents a panegyric of Ekaterina's Russia in which the paramount place is allocated for the wise laws "Monarchess's velikiya". It should be noted that not only reception of laws of Catherine II, but also an image of Ekaterina's Russia in Levshin's utopia I didn't become a subject of studying earlier. The author of article considers a literary utopia in an unusual context of legislative reforms of Ekaterina the Second. The basis of a scientific method is made by textual comparisons and motivny communications between Levshin's composition and group of texts of the Ekaterina's legislation.On the basis of "A big order of the empress" (1767), "The charter of deanery, or the police officer" (1782) and a number of manifestos, charters and maxims of different years attempt to reveal becomes, the laws of the ideal state which are how described on "The latest travel" correspond modern to it reality.
Simush P.I. - Geniuses and Russia: mutual cognition pp. 1-44


Abstract: The author of the article examines Gogol’s works through the prism of the phenomenon of genius. He shows that Orthodoxy had a great influence on the writer’s personality. In many respects it changed his internal world, influenced literary works. The writer believed that Orthodoxy could reform Russian reality. In particular, he was aware of an enormous resource of freedom. But Gogol realized that freedom could not only enrich an individual but also «enchant» him with a possibility of enrichment, clinging to a particular religion and loosing faith in free creativity. The author also points to the comprehensive influence of Orthodoxy on reforms in Russian life. At the same time he turns to present-day reality, showing the prophetic gift of the writer.The author employs traditional methods of literary criticism. He uses the comparativist method to show the influence of tradition on Gogol’s works. He also leans on philosophical methods of analysis of literary texts. The article presents the works of Gogol as a founder of ironic narration in Russian literature. The writer constantly employs laughter and irony as ways to uncover the absurdism of social projects. The writer views Russia as a country of unseen paradoxes. Gogol has raised a question that turns us to philosophical reflection about human nature. He tries to oppose the fascination with riches. His special attention is paid to philistinism. Later, this theme in Russian literature will be taken up by many authors. A. Herzen will give an interpretation of «philistinism»; K. Leontiev will establish a relation between «pettiness» and «philistinism»; D. Merezhkovsky will identify pettiness with ignorance, banality, mediocrity; M. Gorky will furiously attack complacent petty bourgeosie. Meaning the opposition between good and evil, between love and hatred, A.P. Chekhov, as the author shows, has chosen ethical wisdom capable of counteracting evil by force of love.
Faritov V.T. - Philosophical aspects of time and space in the work of A.S. Pushkin pp. 1-30


Abstract: This article discusses the philosophical aspects of space and time in the poetry of A.S. Pushkin. On a material analysis of poems of the poet author explicates the direction of the dynamics of lyrical chronotop Pushkin. Reveals connection between artistic representation of space and time in Pushkin's poetry with the fundamental problems of metaphysics. Carried out a comparative analysis of the lyrical chronotop Pushkin with chronotope F.I. Tyutchev and M. Voloshin. Reveals the closeness of the poetic world of Pushkin and philosophical ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche. We use the methods of comparative literature and methodological orientations of metaphysics Russian literature. Partially used the principles of hermeneutics and deconstruction. The main result of the study is to identify two types of rhythmic organization of space and time in the poetry of Pushkin and explication of their philosophical aspects. It is shown that the lyrical chronotop Pushkin tends to surpass the limits of the classical metaphysical oppositions towards anticipating the conceptual development of non-classical philosophy.
Perevalov V.P. - History illustrated in the images of the A. S. Pushkin’s “The Stationmaster” pp. 1-61


Abstract: This article researches the issues of history manifested in creative images. The subject of the analysis is the novel by Alexander Pushkin “The Stationmaster”, which represents a great example in this case. With thin the ever-increasing number of various interpretations of Pushkin’s work on the story of the life of Samson Vyrin, the phenomenon of time is strangely under-studied. The strange fact is that within the existing interpretations there is a predominant factor of abstract time (past-present-future) that calls for transition towards perception of specific time. This is the starting task of the observations and reasoning presented in the article. The article reconstructs precise time of events and the timespan of the story.  The “calendar-overlay” timeline correlates with the biographical data of Pushkin and his (close) acquaintances, and plays the role of a reliable compass in establishing the complicated relation between the image fabric of Pushkin’s novel and the reality that served as the source of the story. In fact, the biographical image of “The Stationmaster” is the relations between Pushkin, Karamzin, and the “young Jacobins” (Decembrists) during 1816-1826/27. The main result of the analysis of this creative work in the mirror of precise time is the discovery of paradoxical impression in the image of the main character of the hero of the story and the persona of N. M. Karamzin, who loved paradoxes. The discovery of an unknown Karamzin in the renowned novel of Pushkin enriches the possibility of a deeper understanding of the historical continuity between them within the development of Russian spiritual culture.
Nilogov A.S., Varava V.V. - Russian Literature Versus Russian Philosophy (Conversation of A. Nilogov with V. Varava) pp. 1-10


Abstract: The phenomenon of the Russian classical literature is considered to be internationally recognized. However recently even in Russia it was repeatedly called into question including taking into account constantly falling interest in reading as such. Alternative views on the Russian classical literature gradually get into Russian literary criticism, thus restricting the developed representations. Modern Russian literature can hardly already apply for "the ruler of thoughts" as in the good old days. Numerous spiritual and intellectual traditions restrict it on all fronts, offering in exchange at least substantial practices. The actual Russian philosophy acts as one of them and two representatives of Russian philosophy have decided to discuss the literary topic. The following methods have been used in their conversation: analytical, hermeneutic, interview, critical, literary, synthetic, comparative, philosophical, and heuristic. According to V. Varava, modern Russian literature needs a new existential breakthrough to show efficient alternative ways out of the spiritual crisis which has covered the country. However, according to A. Nilogov, today literature as a written form of literature is technologically replaced with an electronic form that exist only on the Internet. 
Tetik K. - Valery Bryusov and Urban "Texts" in Russian Literature ("Moscow" and "Petersburg" Texts) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article deals with urban ("Moscow" and "St. Petersburg") texts in the poetry of Valery Bryusov. A lot of researches of literary critics are dedicated to this issue. In this article the image of the city is associated with two capitals Moscow and St Petersburg. The object of the research is the corpus of texts that fully represent the image of the two capitals. The poet describes these cities from the point of view of their historical and metaphysical reality. When appealing to the image of St. Petersburg, the symbolist Bryusov pays much attention to the architecture of the city. This fact raises a question about the method of ecphrasis in poetics. The methodology of this research involves the comparative analysis of Moscow and Petersburg poems by Bryusov as well as historical-functional and historical-genetic analysis methods. According to the author of the article, urban poems by Bryusov present Moscow and Petersburg texts quite fully. However, there are several very important differences between representations of these cities. For example, the image of Moscow is included in the metahistorical context but the poet keeps addressing to his contemporary epoch. Tehre are also old Moscow, the city of riot and Napoleon's war, and Soviet Moscow that is still to be understood poetically by the symbolist. The image of Petersburg (sometimes called Petrograd) is given in a very exclusive perspective and closely related to Peter the Great, an important figure for the poet. Poems that present the image of Petersburg are full of references to the city's architecture and monuments which allows to talk about the use of the ecphrasis method. However, both cities are highly spoken of by the poet both from the historical and metaphysical point of view which proves the ontological nature of Bryusov's works. 
Shchepalina V. - Sources of Alejandro Casona's Individual Author's Style pp. 1-10


Abstract: The object of the resaerch is an individual author's style of a Spanish playwright Alejandro Casona. The subject of the research is the process of Alejandro Casona developing his author's style. The author of the article analyzes the factors that influenced the process such as facts of Casona's biography (his childhood in Asturias, work as a country teacher, participation in Teachers' missions, career as a screenwriter) as well as global literary process that were ongoing back in those times (reformation of the style of the representatives of the 98s, movement of Spanish modernism and new drama, influence of impressionism on literature). In her research Schepalina applied biographical, psychological, comparative methods, stylistic analysis as well as observation, generalisation and description. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that there are no major researches devoted to Casona in Russin academic literature. The present research gives an insight into sources of the playwright's artistic style and thus makes a contribution to understanding the literary process in Spain of the 20th century. The illustrations provided by the author allow to prove theoretical concepts offered by the researcher. 
Khe F. - Rhythmic-Melodic Functions of Rhyme in Mikhail Lermontov's Lyrics (the Case Study of Parallelism in Melodic Verses) pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the research is rhythmic-melodic functions of parallelism in Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics. The object of the research is parallelism in Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the melody and music of poetry, melodic verses, 'music school' in the history of Russian poetry and the influence of the latter on Mikhail Lermontov, the use of parallelism in Russian poetry and Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics and rhythmic-melodic functions of rhyme in Lermontov's creative writing. The researcher has applied cultural historical, comparative historical methods as well as the method of compositional analysis using the creative writing of Lermontov and other Russian poets. The main conclusion of the research is the proof of rhythmic-melodic functions performed by rhyme in Lermontov's poetry as well as the role of syntactic parallelism performed by rhyme in creation of rhythmic-melodic nature and expression of the author's message. In his use of parallelism for giving special melody and intonation to his poems, Lermontov follows the poetical tradition of 'music school', however, the poet, extends opportunities and means of melodic verse writing. This research is the first one to analyze Lermontov's poetry from the point of view of rhythmic-melodic functions of rhyme, in particular, the parallelism technique and its role in Lermontov's poetry. This is what causes the novelty of the research. 
Shvets A.V. - pp. 1-10


Kharlamova S. - Rock Musician as the Author of Prose: Methodological Notes, Relation of Sound and Text Based on Michael Gira's Creative Writing pp. 6-14


Abstract: The article is devoted to the interaction between a text and music in the creative writing of a rock musician who is the author of prose and composer of songs at the same time. The subject of the research is the intermedial links between text and music and relation between text and musical composition as well as specific features of the representation of sound inside a text and its meaning in poetics of a literary piece. The research material is the collections of short stories written by an American rock musican and independent performing musician Michael Gira, studio albums and performances of the Swans rock band. The research is based on intermedial and comparative research methods. Kharlamova also makes general remarks regarding the definitino of the term 'fictional prose of rock musicians' and analysis of the verbal component of rock compositions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that intermedial connections are traced by the author from the point of view of their relation to fiction and popular music (independent experimental music in this case) as well as their opposition to the academic music. The research singularity is that the researcher analyzes the creative system of one author who writes music, texts of his songs and fictional prose. Kharlamova discovers aesthetical links between fictional prose and musical composition as well as representatino of audio and musical images in short stories and their role in the poetics of collections. The researcher also describes the general tendencies in prose and music of one author. As a conclusion, the author emphasizes the importance of sound and music in the literary world of short stories and close aesthetical connection between finctional text and musical compositions. Addressing to the interaction between a literary text and experimental music allows to significantly expand the concept of intermedial links of literature and music in particular and the concept of musicality in literature in general. 
Kravinskaya Y.Y., Khlybova N.A. - pp. 11-19


Asadov I. - pp. 11-17


Khayrulina O.I. - “King Hunger” and “Anathema” by Leonid Andreyev and “The Burghers of Calais” by Georg Kaiser: comparative analysis pp. 12-17


Abstract: Typological proximity of Leonid Andreyev’s and Georg Kaiser’s dramaturgy has repeatedly become a subject for discussion among researchers back in the early XX century, however, the comparative analysis of separate plays of the two dramaturgists has not been previously conducted. Using the example of the conditionally-allegorical plays of L. Andreyev “King Hunger” and “Anathema” and historical drama of G. Kaiser “The Burghers of Calais”, the author finds these points of intersection at the level of the system of characters, language, partially problematics, as well as authorial remarks. The author applies the comparative literary analysis that allows revealing the typological correlation between dramaturgical works of L. Andreyev and dramaturgy of the representative of German expressionism G. Kaiser. The main conclusions consist in determination of similarity between the expressionistic dramaturgy of Georg Kaiser and conditionally-allegorical plays of Leonid Andreyev, which underlines a spontaneous succession of expressive means, as well as the common aesthetic orientation of the dramaturgists.
Kiling T.V. - G. R. Derzhavin at the brink of dialogism: on the material of earlier lyrics pp. 14-26


Abstract: On the background of growing interest towards the problem of dialogism of lyrics of the XIX – XX centuries, the author highlights a small number of works dedicated to research of the phenomenon of dialogism in the lyrics of the XVIII century, including the works of G. R. Derzhavin. The forms of manifestation of dialogism in the earlier lyrics of G. R. Derzhavin served as the subject of this research. The goal of this research is to determine the paths of formation of dialogical intentions in the process of establishment of authorial mentality of Derzhavin as a lyricist. The materials for this research contain triumphal odes created by Derzhavin during the 1760’s – 1770’s. The methodology is based on the problem of the author S. N. Broytman, who leans on the concept of dialogism. The structural-semantic method allows determining the dialogical structures and forms within the lyrical text. The results yielded paths of dialogization manifested in the earlier odes of Derzhavin: from mastering the communicative function of address, formed in the preceding odic tradition, to emergence of intuitively or consciously news to the genre canon odes of this period of dialogism – change in the distance between addressor and addressee, individualization of lyrical subject, emergence of speech subjects, etc., which serve as the scientific novelty of this research.
Snigireva S.D. - pp. 14-26


Guseva N.V. - The figurative system of the story by Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope” in the axiological projection pp. 16-21


Abstract: In this article, the author conducts a comprehensive study of the value paradigm of the Mari national literature, examining the story of a Mari writer Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope”. The story is written in the Russian language, and published in 1986 in the “Friendship” almanac, dedicated to the topic of the Great Patriotic War. Great potion of attention in the story is devoted to the figurative system, which is being examined in axiological projection, as well as the characterology and symbolism, aimed at actualization of the axiological content of the story. It is proven that in the story of Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope”, which is being positioned as the object of scientific inquiry for the first time in this article, the axiological connotations in characteristics of the characters and in the image-symbols define author’s conception of the story. This article outlines and describes the creative concepts of such notions as human life, love, faith and hope, which comprise the value foundation of all subjects of consciousness and speech (the narrator, his father, mother, Faith).
Paramonova M.K. - The Genre of the Funeral Sermon in Russian Oratorical Prose of the Second Half of the XVIIIth Century pp. 17-23


Abstract: The object of the research is the genre of the funeral sermon as one of the most ancient rhetoric genres that was popular in Russian oratorica prose of the 18th century. The funeral sermon was actively developed during Peter's time and back in those times the aforesaid genre performed not only religious but also political functions. In the second half of the century the funeral sermon acquired the moral and didactic nature. The style of the word was changed, too. Long periods and numerous quotations from the Holy Bible were replaced by a shorter text and simple understandable vocabulary. The main research method used by the author of the present article is the comparative historical method: the genre is viewed in terms of the literary, cultural and historical environment of those times. As an example of the funeral sermon the author carries out a philological analysis of the text from Ekaterina's times 'The Speech for the Funeral of the Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna' written by the metropolitan Platon (Levshin). Never before in the academic literature funeral sermons of the second half of the 18th century was chosen as an object of an independent research since researchers usually pay attention to funeral sermons of Peter's time. However, the second half of the 18th century was the most beneficial for the development of the genre because it was the time when funeral sermons were actively written and published, the circle of people those funeral sermons were devoted to expanded and the genre was firmly established as the genre of religious oratorical prose. 
Kotova A.V. - Concerning the Sources of Comparison: V. Fl. 6. 609–612 pp. 17-22


Abstract: Comparisons play an important role in the system of expressive means used in a poetic text. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of lexical-stylistic features of ancient epic poems written by Roman writers who based their plots on mythology. The purpose of this article is to analyze comparison as a stylistic device of the Roman epic poetry in I century of Christian era. The subject of the research is individual artistic features of comparing the main hero Yason to the Caucasus Mountain in Valerius Flaccus' poem 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). In her research Kotova applies both general research methods and special philological methods of interpretation of ancient texts. As a result of the research, the author makes the following conclusions: comparison of man to mountain in ancient epos ascends to Hom. I1.13.754–755. In Latin epos the brightest comparison of man to mountain can be found in the passage from Aeneis (12. 697–703) that is based on verses from the Iliad and serves as a source for comparison in 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). Using the description of Apennines, Valerius Flaccus adopted the lexical content and tertium comparationis. At the same time, the poet added the epithet 'hibernus' and reference to the previous comparison (6. 604–608) of the peak of Yason's helmet to maleficent Sirius. By doing so, the poet emphasized the fatality of Yason for Medea. Thus, Kotova analyzes how Valerius Flaccus reviewed the work of his predecessors and used comparison in his own writings. The results of the research extend our knowledge about Valerius Flaccus' writings and can be used in following researches of stylistic features of 'Argonautica'.   
Volkhovskaia A. - The Pushkinian Theme in Montserrat Roig's Writings pp. 17-25


Abstract: In her article Volkhovskaya analyzes the book 'Golden Spire' written by the Catalonian writer Montserrat Roig and devoted to the biography and creative writing of Alexander Pushkin. The book was published in Barcelona in 1985 and included the main materials collected by Montserrat Roig about the Russian poet. The author of the article tries to trace back the process of Montserrat Roig's developing her interest in Alexander Pushkin as well as to view new aspects of the Spanish writer's perception of Pushkin's creative writing which she added to those that already existed at the moment. In the course of writing her book, Montserrat Roig has used Henri Troyat's research 'Pushkin' as well as translations of Pushkin's works into the Spanish language. All quotations from Montserrat Roig's book are given by the author of the article in Spanish. The article is based on the analysis of two works written by Montserrat Roig, Golden Spire and 'My Travel to Blockade' in which she studied and described Pushkin's biography and creative life. Volkhovskaya also considers the cultural and historical background of these works, the moments the writer focused on, and the choice of literary and other sources that she used to write her work. According to the author, the following aspects of Montserrat Roig's writings should be noted: - Montserrat Roig makes the reader to create an association link between the image of Pushkin and the image of St. Petersburg; - for the first time in the history of Spanish studies of Pushkin, Alexander Pushkin's creative works are perceived from the point of view of realism; - Montserrat Roig analyzes the poet's relations with his wife from the point of view of feminist ideology.
Anisimova O.V. - Allusions in the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny (Corwin Cycle) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The object of the study is the intertextuality of Corwin cycle. The subject of the research is made up by allusions of first five parts of the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny. In particular, the article touches upon numerous allusions to different fiction texts and myths, among which are the works by English classics as well as Celtic and Bible legends. The study material is constituted by such parts of the cycle as Nine Princes in Amber, The Guns of Avalon, Sign of the Unicorn, The Hand of Oberon, and The Courts of Chaos. The methods used in the study are: the method of intertextual analysis, textual method, and the method of comparative analysis. Scientific novelty of the given research is in the first ever attepmt to track the regularities of Zelazny's use of allusions and reminiscences in his works, and in his most famous novel the Chronicles of Amber in particular; to understand the way the intertext functions in the text corpus by the American fantasy writer. The main findings of the research undertaken are as follows: each part of Corwin cycle can be referred to a particular piece of world literature, or regarded in the context of this or that mythology system; allusions to mythology used by Zelazny play the plotforming function thus helping the writer to create the fantasy basis of the cycle's secondary world; distinctive literature allusions aim at revealing the main character's inner world, showing his psychological evolution, and also at making fictional characters comprehensible to modern readers; allusions to the Book of Revelation, in their turn, are used by the writer to create the key image of the whole cycle - the image of Apocalypse.
Guan' L. - Tragic motifs of the Great Patriotic War. Interpretation of Vasil Bykov pp. 18-25


Abstract: This article analyzes the reconstruction of tragic moments of the Great Patriotic War in two novellas by Vasil Bykov “The Ordeals” and “In the Fog”. The author notes that vigilant attention to the tragic in science and depiction of tragic heroes and situations in art did not always align with the time describe in the texts. Emphasis is made on the fact that the tragic perception of the world or tragic tonality are inherent to Russian literature in different periods of its existence, and thus, the comprehension of essence of the tragic and its theory require further examination by the philologists, sociologists and philosophers. The relevance and novelty are substantiated by the following aspects: need for further comprehension of the essence of the importance for literary studies phenomenon and concept of “tragic”; selection of the indicative for the literature of 1920’s, and 1960’s – 1970’a works and representative from the perspective of interpretation of tragic moments of the Russian life of 1940’s therein; as well as need to thoughtfully and analytically explain the essence of the tragic characters and situation, and how they were perceived in real life and Russian literature of the XX century.
Grechushkina N.V. - pp. 20-29


Kuzmin G. - 'Morki Text' in Mari Prose (on the Problem Statement) pp. 22-27


Abstract: In his research Kuzmin brings forth the problem of the local (regional) text, in particular, 'Morki text' in Mari folk literature. In his research Kuzmin gives a definition of 'Morki text' in terms of existing definitions of 'St. Petersburg text', 'Moscow text', 'Northern text', etc. and defines the key factors that contributed to the origin and development of Morki text. In his research Kuzmin pays special attention to the geographical factor in the development of Morki text and describes the main features of the message, problem, topic, narration and style unity of all Morki texts. This article is of theoretical and methodological nature. Therein the author applies analytical, systems and comparative methods of literary analysis. Kuzmin analyzes Russian academic approaches to analyzing the origin, development and current state of local supertexts from the point of view of their importance and possibility to be used to describe the term 'Morki text' in Mari folk prose. 
Semenova A. - The Historical Basis of the Epic Poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov pp. 23-37


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical component of the epic poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov. The poem on the theme of Russian history presupposes references to historical sources and processing of historical material. At the same time, the poem did not have to be authentic, the author was free to interpret historical events in accordance with the idea of the work. It is also necessary to consider the genre features of the epic poem which requires the author to emphasize the scope and significance of the events described. A few works are devoted to "Vladimir", the historical basis of the work is not studied, which determines the relevance of this research. The author of the article attempts to reveal the correlation of history and fiction in the poem by Kheraskov. Comparison of the poem by Kheraskov with historical sources allows to determine in which cases the poet more or less freely interprets the historical material or contributes fictional details to the work. Kheraskov in "Vladimir" stands heroic pathos, and creates the image of a strong enemy, accentuates the exploits of the protagonist, thickens the paint creating a full battle canvas, and fills in the gaps in the testimonies of historians with bright details. Historicity in the poem recedes into the background, but it remains the foundation on which the plot of the poem is built.
Krotovskaya N.G. - Vladimir Nabokov. Lectures on Foreign Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson pp. 24-66


Abstract: The article is based on the lecture course called 'Masters of European Prose' that was prepared for students of Cornell University. These lectures describe Vladimir Nabokov as a thoughtful, penetrating and, at the same time, biased researcher who taught his audience a wonderful lesson of 'thorough reading' when a reader pays special attention at details and style of writing of the great authors. Based on the example of a well-known novel 'Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde', Vladimir Nabokov analyzes a wonderful style and writing methods used by Stevenson to make his fantastic story sound rather true and real. Special attention is paid at the problem of difficult relations between the Good and the Evil, their struggle and interaction.
Guseva N.V., Kudryavtseva R.A. - Artistic Manifestation of the Axiological Problematics in the Mari Novel about the Great Patriotic War in the Second Half of the 1940s - Early 1980s (Genre-Style Tendencies) pp. 26-34


Abstract: This article is devoted to the artistic manifestation of the axiological problematics in the Mari novel about the Great Patriotic War of the second half 1940s - early 1980s as part of the study of the value-based paradigm of Mari national literature. The authors focus on the genre-style solutions found by writers (genre subspecies of 'military' novel as well as stylistic dominants, in particular, forms and techniques of psychologism used by writers) aimed at actualisatino of the axiological content of their works. The methodological basis of the research includes historico-typological and structural-semantic analysis of writings wich demonstrates not only value-based aspects of the problematics of a 'military novel' but also manifestates poetological aspects of the genre. The authors of the article prove that axiological problematics is most brightly expressed in such subspecies of Mari 'military' novel as lyrico-dramatic, lyrico-philosophical and documentally biographic novels and the aforesaid problematics helped to develop such stylistic dominants of Mari flash fiction as psychologism, dramatism and narrative philosophization. 
Li A. - Analysis of Chinese Studies of Lu Xun's Novel 'Notes of the Madman' in Terms of the Influence of Nikolai Gogol's Same-Named Novel pp. 26-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is Chinese research articles and books devoted to Lu Xun's writings. The article is devoted not only to the description of the main historical and literary issues related to wrtings of a Chinese author Lu Xun but also proof of the connection between scientists of different eras. The author of the article provides a detailed analysis of Chinese philological researches and traces back the main trends in the creative writing of Lu Xun focusing on the influence of Nikolay Gogol's influence on Chinese writer's works. The researcher has achieved the research goals by using the following research methods: cultural historical, biographical, comparative historical and comparative analytical methods. The methodological basis of the research includes publications of Chinese researchers who studied Nikolay Gogol's influence on Lu Xun's works as well as a basic Chinese research 'Three questions about Notes of the Madman' written by Shao Bojou in which the researcher emphasized the importance of studying the story behind Lu Xun's novel. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author of the article analyzes the stody behind creation of aforesaid two works as well as demonstrates succession and differences in the views of scientists at different stages of Lu Xun studies in China. Summarizing views of Chinese literary researches, the researcher demonstrates that Lu Xun did not just borrow Gogol's Notes of the Madman but created a unique work which was in many ways innovatory for Chinese literature. 
Zhornikova M.N., Berezkina E.P. - Christian motifs and images in A. G. Rumyantsev lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” pp. 27-33


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of Christian imagery in lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” by the Buryat poet A.G. Rumyantsev. The subject of this research is semantic correlation of the key images and motifs of the cycle with the Christian values. The object of this research is literary comprehension of Christian symbolism in a lyrical text. The central theme in the cycle – tragedy of a father who lost his son – is reflected in the motif pairs “darkness – light”, “curse – forgiveness”, as well as theme of apocalypses and reference to the images of natural world. Methodology is based on the axiological principle, according to which the defining in artistic consciousness of the poet is his personal values and priorities. For determination of Cristian code of the images and motifs, the author applied structural-semiotic method. The scientific novelty consists in carrying out a motif and imagery analysis of A. G. Rumyantsev lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” from the perspective of Christian symbolism. A conclusion is formulated that Christian imagery encompasses a recurring for the entire cycle theme of soul revival of a lyrical character, a path he walked from personal apocalypses and inner darkness to light through acceptance and forgiveness.
Skalnaya Y. - Genre Innovation of Bernard Shaw's Play 'Saint Joan': at the Origins of a Documentary Theatre pp. 28-38


Abstract: The subject of this research is the place of an Irish playwright Bernard Shaw in the history of the documentary theatre development. Contrary to common belief that the founder of the docudrama performance was a theatre director Erwin Piscator and the founder of the docudrama methodology was Bertolt Brecht, the author of this article points out that Shaw's plays preceded them. As the proof of her thesis, Skalnaya has chosen to analyze the play 'Saint Joan' (1920) written by Shaw right after the First World War. This research is structured as having three parts. The first part of the research is devoted to the analysis of the principles used by the playwright as the written evidence of that epoch demonstrate. The first part of the research proves that Shaw used a lot of verbatim (paraphrase and direct quotes from historical sources). The second part of the article is intended to extend the interpretation of 'document' in docudrama and provide examples of how the images of Joan of Arc and her contemporaries in fine arts and sculpture impacted the appearance of Shaw's play characters. In the final part of the research the author appeals to the comparison of the present and previous experience of the documentary theatre and traces back the performance of 'Saint Joan'. In the process of the research the author has used the historical literary method that involves analysis of the biographical, historical and cultural contexts of creation of a play, as well as the comparative method that allows to compare different points of view on the matter of the research. The author has also used some elements of the close reading technique. The results of the research demonstrate that Shaw's play 'Saint Joan' has all the typical features of the docudrama which proves the innovative nature of the play and explains why the play was not accepted by Shaw's contemporaries. Generally speaking, the conclusions made by Skalnaya in her research, create grounds for reviewing the current chronology of docudrama and tribunal theatre development.  
Snigireva S.D. - Khlystovshchina in the context of F. M. Dostoevsky’s ideology of pochvennichestvo pp. 28-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the themes of F. M. Dostoevsky’s writings on Khlystovshchina (Christ Faith), as well as his views on this sect. The object of this research is the articles “A Writer’s Diary”, novel “The Idiot”, draft notes to the poem “The Life of a Great Sinner”, main idea of the novel “Atheism”, as well as articles in the periodicals of the 1860’s dedicated to Khlystov heresy. The goal of this work consist in determination of the writer’s opinion on Khlystov heresy in the contexts of the ideology of pochvennichestvo (return to the native soil). Using the philological and historical methods, the author describes correlation of the core ideas of Dostoevsky’s writings with the history of non-Orthodox religious movements in Russia if the XIX century. The article generalizes the experience of studying the theme of Khlystovshchina in Dostoevsky’s works, and persuasively argues that Dostoevsky’s perception of the phenomenon of Khlystovshchina is justified by his ideology of pochvennichestvo, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. It is concluded that the writer’s interests to the sect is explained by the fact that he saw a unique, soil phenomenon that represents man’s cognitive activity. The research underlines that the pursued by Dostoyevsky parallel between the doctrine of the Lord Radstock and Stundism (alien to a Russian person due to protestant origin), Tatarinova Society, and Khlystovshchina reflects a profound idea of the writer on spiritual crisis emerged due to disintegration of intelligentsia and people.
Antonova M.S. - Nikolay Gogol's Note in M. Vlasova's Album: the Dating Problem pp. 31-36


Abstract: The subject of the research is Nikolay Gogol's note left in M. Vlasova's (sister's of Z. Volkonskaya) album. This is the note that demnstrates the writer's gift in literary 'trifles'. Antonova analyses the main themes of V. Arutyunova's and R. Yakobson's article 'An unknown album page by Nikolaj Gogol'. The author raises a question about the dating of Gogol's note as well as analyzes intertextual links to other works written by Gogol, in particular, common motifs and references to the second volume of Dead Souls. The main research method used by the author is the structural analysis of the text as well as analysis of information about the owner of the album and dating of the note. The main outcome of the research is the systematization of information about M. Vlasova and her relationship with Gogol. By discovering intertextual links to other Gogol's writings, for example, missing chapters to the second volume of Dead Souls, plays 'Theatre Trip' and 'Extract' and Rome letters, the author of the article extends the borders of possible dating of the aforesaid album note. 
Efimov A.S. - The novella “Fatal Sacrifice” by A. A. Dyakov (A. Nezlobin) and motif of the “counsel of the wicked” pp. 34-40


Abstract: This article explores the impact of the elements and techniques of romantic and gothic literatures of the XVIII – XIX centuries upon anti-nihilistic novella “The Fatal Sacrifice” (1876) by A. A. Dyakov (A. Nezlobin). Attention is focused on the gothic-romantic motif of the “counsel of the wicked” and its adaptation to the relevant sociopolitical context of Russia and Russian émigré of the 1870’s. It is demonstrated that a mythological image of “witches’ sabbath” and characteristic to it motifs of “sacrifice”, “veneration of idols”, etc. become the techniques for depicting in the “Fatal Sacrifice” of a Swiss “club” of nihilists, revolutionists-socialists, and Narodniks. The author applies the biographical, comparative and historical methods of research, motif analysis, as well as analysis of storyline and characterology. The ideological component of nihilistically oriented Russian society of the 1860’s – 1870’s is taken into account.  The novella “Fatal Sacrifice”, which is included into the cycle “Kruzhkovschina” (1876-1879) is being analyzed for the first time, since there is no special scientific literature on these works within the Russian or foreign literary studies. The novelty of this research also consists in raising a question of the influence of romantic and gothic prose upon the works of A. A. Dyakov. Such influence is related to the two common to Russian anti-nihilistic literature semantic lines: eschatological and prophetic.
Seredina A.O. - Interior Details in Apollon Grigoriev's Narrative Literature pp. 35-45


Abstract: The article is devoted to the topic that has never been studied before which is the interior details and development of the interior details in Apollon Grigoriev's fiction. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the perception and description of the surrounding space by the hero of the memoirs 'My literary and moral wandering' (1862, 1864). Seredina traces back how the interior in Apollon Grigoriev's house and the writer's attitude to the external world (the world of objects) were reflected in the poetics of Grigoriev's early prose of mid 1840s. In addition, the author sets a task to demonstrate the connection between the interior and psychological portraits of the main heroes. The basis for the comparative analysis of Apollon Grigoriev's prose is the first theoretical research of the interior performed by I. Sudoeva. Despite the fact that in the majority of cases the description of the interior in Grigoriev's prose is pointing out individual elements of the interior (lighting, bed and door) and gives an insight into the internal world of the heroes. The universality of the description achieved through the absence of details helps to create the portrait type. The dreaminess of the hero of the memoirs, fed by the evenings spent on a bed without light, in early prose is embodied in the type of hero-dreamers the description of which is accompanied by a bed and the light of a burning candle. The audio perception of space, characteristic of the hero of the memoirs, turns into an aggravated attention to the sounds of wanderers in early prose which helps to expand the space of the room and give an idea of its structure.
Ge J. - Dragon Changes His Style: New Image of China's Regional Television pp. 35-42


Abstract: The subject of this research is peculiarities of China's regional television. The author proves that over the last decade regional television stations have been developing new media resources, creating new content, and using new forms. They have also performed major reforms as a result of rapidly developing digital multimedia technologies which brought bright special effects to television programs. Specific national environment of China influences the process of telling the news and forming social opinion, this is the phenomenon of television industry which needs to be studied further. The author of the article underlines that in order to follow the principles of individuation and specialisation in their TV programs, television must actively study interests and preferences of different sectors of society, make assertive policy of rado- and TV broadcasting and reinforce their unique advantages in touch regional competition of mass media. The article is based on general research methods such as cultural historical analysis, generalisation, synthesis, etc. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this article is the first attempt to describe and classify unique and varied development of China's television at different stages and in different regions of the country. The article demonstrates that there is a bilateral interactive communication beween TV broadcasters and audience which have important effect for both parties. The main conclusions of the research are the following: press, television, Internet and radio, i.e. all available means of communication, are viewed by the current government of China as the channels for developing certain state ideology and political views. Therefore, China news give an insight into positive changes inside China. 
Morozov S.V. - Lara: sources, antecedents and prototypes of the main female figure in the “Doctor Zhivago” novel pp. 35-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the figure of Lara Guichard in the novel by Boris Pasternak “Doctor Zhivago”. The subject of this research in the formation of the character of Lara in the work of the author, including the extraliterary sources (letters of Boris Pasternak). The aim of this research is to determine the key sources for formation of her character, as well as her antecedents and biographical prototypes. Special attention is allocated to the manifestation of the creative concept and axiological intentions of Boris Pasternak in the character of Lara Guichard, establishing the connections between them in the context of author’s perception on culturological, aesthetic and literary situation of the “Silver Age”. The main conclusions of the conducted research consists in establishing the sources of formation of Lara’s character, as well as her antecedents and biographical prototypes in the context of the creative concepts and axiological intentions of Boris Pasternak, substantiated by the affiliation to the authors of the Silver Age, creating after the Civil War. The novelty of this research also consists in establishing the facts of formation of Lara’s character on the various stages of functionality of its sources and prototypes in the work of Boris Pasternak, as well as the character of the materials used, being primarily his letters.
Vorobyova O. - The History of Cooperation of Fyodor Dostoevsky with the Journal 'Russkoye Slovo' (the Case Study of his Correspondence with Contemporaries) pp. 36-44


Abstract: The object of the present research is the journal The Russian Word published by Grigory Kushelyov-Bezborodko. The subject of the research of Fyodor Dostoevsky's participation in that journal project. Based on the analysis of the epistolary material of the writer with his contemporaries, Vorobieva step-by-step develops the history of Fyodor Dostoevky's cooperation with the Russkoye Slovo Journal. In this article Vorobieva focuses on the writer's attempts to return to literature: on the one hand, Dostoevsky published his novel 'Uncle's Dream' which he had written after the forced-labor camp in a journal of little promise 'Russkoye Slovo'. On the other hand, despite his difficult situation, Dostoevsky dictates his own terms to editors. In her research Vorobieva uses the psychobiographical method to define for which reasons and in what manner Fyodor Dostoevsky tried to affect people his creative fate depended on. The historical comparative method used by the author also helps to compare other writers' attitudes to the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' and outline differences in the principles followed by the journal editors. The main conclusions of the research are as follows: the editors of Russkoye Slovo helped Dostoevsky in his difficult times by publishing his novel but not vice versa as literary experts used to believe. Despite the fact that Dostoevsky's participation in that jornal was forced and his novel 'Uncle's Dream' was not approved by critics, Fyodor Dostoevsky's cooperation with Russkoye Slovo gave impulse to Fyodor Dostoevskyt to return to the literary community of St. Petersburg. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he uses historical reconstructions that allows to cover gaps in a number of successive facts. When such approach is applied, reconstructions inevitably attains a hypothetic nature, however, they allow to describe the history of the writer's cooperation with the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' in a wider sense without just limiting to the comments made in the 30-volume 'Complete Set of Fyodor Dostoevsky's Works'. In her research Vorobieva has used materials from the Russian State Historical Archive and the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library. 
Volkhovskaia A. - Life and Creative Writing of Alexandr Pushkin in the Eyes of Spanish Writers of the Generation 98 pp. 39-45


Abstract: The article is devoted to rare episodes of Spanish writers of the Generation 98 referring to the creative legacy of Alexandr Pushkin. In her research Volkhovskaya gives several extracts from Pio Baroja's, Miguel de Unamuno's and Antonio Machado's texts in which they either quoted or analyzed Alexandr Pushkin's stories. All quotations are published and translated by the author of the article for the first time. The article is ended with the conclusions about new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's creative writing by the aforesaid Spanish writers. In her research Volkhovskaya applies the method of comparative historical analysis and analyzes extracts from texts written by Spanish writers of the Generation 98 that contained mentioning biographical facts or references to Alexandr Pushkin's writings. The author's special contribution to the topic is the discovery and translation of all available Spanish extracts by the writers of the Generation 98 about Pushkin. The main result of the research is the discovery of new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's biography and creative writing by Spanish readers.
Gorelova O.O. - pp. 39-49


Popova V. - Concerning the Role of a Revolutionary Writer in a New Society: Waldo Frank at Writers' Congresses of 1935 pp. 45-50


Abstract: In her research Popova focuses on two speeches made by an American writer Waldo Frank (1889–1967) at the First Convention of the League of American Writers (held in New York, 1935) and International Congress for the Defense of Culture (held in Paris, 1935) during the period of intensive cooperation with the USSR. The author also analyzes views of Waldo Frank on the role of a writer in a new society. Popova studies sources from the funds of The Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts which allows to cover unpublished materials of the writers' congresses that hadn't been published in the USSR. The author applies the historical literary method that implies analysis of biographical and historical sources, and text analysis method to analyze different versions of Waldo Frank's speeches at the Congress for the Defense of Culture in Paris as well as different publications thereof in the Russian language and extracts from the texts of his speeches. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Waldo Frank's creative writing and his relatons with the USSR are left practically understudied by the Russian literary studies. Analysis of Frank's relations with the Soviet Union allows to define the relationship between his literary interests and public position: strong cooperation with the USSR in 1930s coincided with Frank's active participation in the activity of American and European left and anti-fascist organizations. When he broke up his relations with the Soviet Union after 1937, his public activity declined, he withdrew from the USA Communist Party and left the League of American Writers. 
Demicheva N. - The Problem of Historical Literary Analysis of The Capture of Pskov Tale pp. 46-56


Abstract: This article is devoted to The Capture of Pskov Tale from the Pskov First Chronicle and Sofia First Chronicle. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of The Capture of Pskov Tale and the late introduction thereto. In her research Demicheva emphasizes the fact that the system of expressive means used correlates to the message of the author (or editor). The Capture of Pskov Tale is viewed by the author of the article in terms of traditions of Russian chronicle writing. In particular, Demicheva analyzes transformation of the extract 'Slovo' by Serapion of Vladimir therein. In her research Demicheva uses the method of historical literary analysis of Old Russian literature developed by V. Adrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, and A. Pautkin. The author of the article concludes that The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle conveys the point of view of Pskov citizens who were loyal towards the reign of the great Muscovite prince and very negative towards Muscovite governors of Pskov. The introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale of the Pskov First Chronicle and The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Sofia First Chronicle express a more negative attitude to the capture of Pskov to Moscow than in The Capture of Pskov Tale itself as part of the Pskov First Chronicle Tale. Therein the author of the introduction emphasized the fact that Pskov was an independent city before the events of 1509 - 1510 took place. Based on the analysis of chronicles, the author of the article disputes a point of view that the introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle was written in Novgorod.  
Eremina E. - Miguel de Unamuno and His Tragic Sense of Life pp. 50-67


Abstract: The present article is devoted to studying the 'agonic' philosophy of a Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. His philosophy was formed under the influence of the historical and social environment and particular facts from the writer's personal biography. All works written by Miguel de Unamuno after the crisis of the 1987th are full of thoughts about faith and lack of faith, death and immortality and a certain tragic tone. For Unamuno life is an 'agony', constant doubts and struggle against death. According to Miguel de Unamuno, feelings, reason, faith and science are struggling in human's soul and this 'agony' is the true life. Unamuno's philosophical searches go beyound the scope of an essay and take the form of narrative experiments. His philosophy evolves around the problem of individual immortality. The desire to live forever and the reason telling that this desire will never come true literally tore Unamuno apart. Trying to to understand the nature of relations between Human and his Creator, Unamuno appeals to imagination as the last method of knowledge and uses a novel as a model of reality. 
Drobinin G.D. - The Concept of Youth in Ilya Kormiltsev's Creative Writing pp. 50-61


Abstract: The subject of the research is specific features of representation of youth in Ilya Kormiltsev's poetry from the point of view of its reference to rock music culture in general. The research is based on the analysis of the concept of youth in so-called 'rock poetry' texts of Ilya Kormiltsev, particularly, Nautilus Pompilius songs. The aim of this research is to compare two points of view on Russian rock, as a major cultural phenomenon and platform for modernist poery, from the one part, and sub-culture that has a secondary role for art, from the other part. The methodological basis of the research is the analysis of plots and characters of Ilya Kormiltsev's lyrics and discovering hedonistic features there which is viewed as an element of rock culture by social sciences. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is an understudied topic and the author offers a systemic description of 'rock music' poetry from the point of view of social researches of Russian rock culture. As a result, the author proves that the concept of youth is based on a single structure of plots which includes the first love experience, the situation of revelation and psychological trauma which, as a rule, devalues the rest of the life of a hero. 
Kirimov T.N. - Semiotic and linguistic-stylistic aspects of poems by H. Chergeyev
«Listen to what the dead man says!», «Fate»
pp. 50-67


Abstract: The work examines little-known facts from the life and creative heritage Hasan Chergeyev – one of the most reputable Crimean Tatar poets-populists in the beginning of the 20th century. In order to reveal the semantic and linguistic-stylistic features of the author’s works, in particular the poems “Listen to what the dead man says!” (“Eşit, mevta ne sevleyur!”, 1909), “Fate” (“Taqdir”, 1917) a comparative typological, semiotic and textological analysis of the original texts is done. The strategic approaches of depicting by the poet of authentic, dramatic episodes from the life of the people and the clergy are conceptualized. The phenomenon of the influence of an idea, theme and story-line on the construction of his poems is revealed. Thanks to lateral thinking, specially selected methods of representing vital material, the lyrist's poetic works turn into living canvases. They reflect the depth of the internal emotional experiences of the title characters, reveal the natural flavor of the national language, and demonstrate the energy, power of his pen. At the same time, the article defines the prospects for studying journalistic activities in the pre-war and wartime Crimean Tatar Soviet periodicals.
Kudryavtseva R.A. - The World Topos in Terms of European Axiology of Modern Mari Poetry pp. 51-69


Abstract: In her article, Kudryavtseva analyzes Vasily Pekteev's lyrics as part of analysis of modern Mari national poetry, in particular, poems from his poetic series 'Man from the Kingdom of Bees' (2018). Until now these poems have never been the matter of analysis. The research grounds include analysis of the artistic space of Mari poetry. The main attention is paid to the multicomponent and multi-value topos 'world' that most brightly reflect the author's artistic axiology. The methodological basis of the research involves historical typological and structured semantic analysis of works which has allowed to define and describe structural semantic levels of the 'world' topos actualizing the author axiology in Vasiliy Pekteyev's lyrics. The researcher proves that spacial elements of the 'world' topos including archetypes, fully reveal the spirit of a lyrical hero, demonstrate the writer's values and the nature of artistic axiology of modern Mari poetry. She also shows that modern Mari lyrics confirm personal freedom, life and nature beauty, creativity as well as nature-orientation and spirituality of the Mari world. Everything which is aimed at destruction and supression of the aforesaid is viewed as anti-values.  
Melnichuk E.P. - “Precursor” – poetry readings at the Mayakovsky square in the sociocultural context of the 1950-1960s pp. 52-62


Abstract: This article explores the poetry readings at the Mayakovsky square in Moscow as a separate “episode”, which played an important role in the cultural live of the 1950s and 60s, and deserves closer attention that it has previously received. Through the prism of the history of the gatherings, it can be seen how pendulum swings from thaw to freezing, how tolerance changes to animosity towards the “Mayakovians” from the authorities. The research on the creative groups that form on the Mayakovsky square and the brightest routines at the square allowed tracing the changes in the mood and views of the intelligentsia. Most of the poets viewed their poetry as part of a political or civil struggle. They fought with the experiences of the past, the cult of personality of Stalin, at the same time, the reading sounded in unison with the ideas of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Separate attention is given to the analysis of the samizdat magazine “Phoenix”, which published poetry and prose of the “Mayakovians”. The analysis reveals that anti-Soviet orientation of the magazine consisted not so much in the lunges against the Soviet authorities, as in the attempts to defend the right to choose independent creative form and path, which fell outside the rules of the Socialist regime.
Shi Y. - Lexical means of the comic in humorous stories of N. N. Nosov pp. 53-63


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of lexical means of the comic in humorous stories of Nikolay Nosov. The article conducts systemic analysis, examines the achievement of comic potential in writer’s approaches via specific examples: irony, paradox, personification, tautology, and words formed in accordance with children etymology. The question is raised on the distinctness of Nosov’s humor and its lexical expression. Special attention is given to the analysis of psychology and behavior of the characters in particular situations, as well as determination of the original child’s way of thinking that differs from the adults. The scientific novelty is defined by an attempt of systemic analysis of lexical means for creating comic effect in the humorous stories of Nikolay Nosov. The relevance of this work on the one hand is substantiated by continued interest of the Russian and foreign researchers to the works of N. Nosov, and on the other – consists in comprehension of the insufficiently studied lexical means of the comic in his stories. The conducted analysis demonstrates the peculiarity of Nosov’s humor in creating comic effect, revelation of character of the heroes, and specificities of the children’s way of thinking.
Razgulina L. - Free Labour and Free Dance: Aesthetical Ideology of Avant-Garde in Charles Olson's Version pp. 56-67


Abstract: The subject matter of this article is the first volume of The Maximus Poems (1960) which Charles Olson wrote at The Black Mountain College where he was a teacher and then a rector. Razgulina tries to demonstrate the connection between the nature and directivity of Olson's search the field of poetic form with his efforts to embody in the word, syllable the orders of human sociality. In connection with the interdisciplinary nature of the stated subject, the research approach used in the article is synthetic and combines historical, cultural, poetic, mediological methods of analysis. Charles Olson (1910-1970) is an influential figure of the American poetic neo-avant-garde, practically unknown in Russia and not studied at all. Also, the interaction of the theory and practice of free labor and free dance in the avant-garde works of Charles Olson has not been studied either in Russian or in foreign science. This article is meant to begin to fill these lacunae. In this article, the authors conclude that the aesthetics of writing Olson likens the aesthetics of craftwork and the aesthetics of dance. In the first, it is important for him to feel the natural material as well as the continuity of labor effort, imperceptibly creating history. In the second, it is important to enjoy coordinated movement. Olson is trying to write his experimental epic based on these two premises. According to the authors, Self-Maximus, the epic hero of Charles Olson, has two hypostases: he lives / works in history and he lives / dances in language, in the practice of reflective speech use.
Gavrilova N. - The Date When Chekhov Wrote His Play 'Uncle Vanya': Analysis of the Main Points of View pp. 59-65


Abstract: This article is devoted to the main points of view on possible dates for Anton Chekhov writing his play 'Uncle Vanya'. The aim of the research is to analyze existing theories about the date when Chekhov wrote his play and carry out a detailed analysis of their proof. In the course of her research Gavrilova has referred to a lot of researches devoted to the transformation of the play 'The Wood Demon' to the play 'Uncle Vanya'. Checkhov left very contradictory information about the exact date when the play was written, therefore there are several groups of researchers with different views on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written. The research is based on such literary methods as comparative, analytical, critical, biographical, and cultural historical. As a result of the research, Gavrilova describes the main views of researchers who studied Ckekhov's creative writing on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written and analyzes relevant arguments. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that in her research Gavrilova extends a general scope of views on the date when Chekhov wrote his play analyzing not only classical but also contemporary approaches to the problem. As a result of her analysis of the aforesaid theories, the author of the article concludes that despite the fact that the matter is widely studied, the question when Anton Chekhov wrote his play 'Uncle Vanya' still remains. However, due to the great interest of modern researchers to the play 'Uncle Vanya', it is quite likely that future studies of Chekhov's creative writing will cast a light on the exact date of creation of 'Uncle Vanya'. 
Chernov A.V. - Francisco Sa de Miranda: Two Traditions of Perception pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of the research is the two traditions of perceiving the image and style of the Portugese Renaisance poet Francisco Sa de Miranda that offered two approaches to historical interpretation of the poet's legacy. The first tradition was developed by the younger contemporaries of Sa de Miranda and the second was offered by the researchers of the XIXth, XXth and XXIst centuries. The author of the article analyzes the points where the aforesaid two traditions contradict. The main goal of the article is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the above mentioned contradictions. The key method used by the author of the article is the comparitive analysis of texts. As a result of the comparison of two approaches to perceiving the image and style of Francisco Sa de Miranda, the author has discovered principal differences of these two traditions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the comparative analysis of texts that describe characteristics of the image and style of Sa de Miranda may be also referred to the works of the younger contemporaries of the poet and thus covers texts dated the XVIth, XIXth, XXth and XXIst centries. The author focuses on different interpretations of the poet's style according to two traditions, Renaissance tradition (the XVIth century) and modern tradition (XIX, XX and XXI). This is the first research in the academic literature that states and provides a detailed analysis of the ideological differences of aforesaid traditions which comprises the novelty of the research. The conclusions made by the author may be of great use for further researches on Portuguese Renaissance literature. 
Zhirkova M.A. - pp. 68-78


Grigorian G. - Ivan Turgenev as Perceived by Heroes of Anton Chekhov's Early Works pp. 70-78


Abstract: The article is devoted to references to Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories. Being the closest predecessor, Turgenev had always been in the center of Chekhov's attention. Numerous remarks about Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories prove the great influence of Turgenev on Chekhov and how Chekhov's perception of Turgenev's literary legacy had been changing at different stages of Chekhov's creative path. Turgenev's image is always there in Chekhov's literary works. The heroes of Chekhov's early stories speak of him and so do the heroes of his late novels and plays. Thus, matter under research is Chekhov's early stories as the most representational within the framework of the research. The aim of the research is to define the role of references to Turgenev in Chekhov's works. In the course of his analysis, Grigoryan has used the following research methods: systems approach, description and comparison involving interpretation techniques. As a result of the research, Grigoryan states that in his early stories Chekhov described characters who either demonstrated their ignorance about the writer or assertedly defended Turgenev but were still unable to understand the important contribution of the writer. 
Okulova T.N. - Chapters of Russian Journalism History of the Last Third of the XVIIth Century: On the Way to the XIXth Century pp. 76-85


Abstract: In her research Okulova analyzes selected chapters of the journalism history of the last third of the XVIIIth century. She provides a general description of several 'passing-through' journalistic themes that help to better understand what caused the shift in the public conscience that happened in 1770 - 1780 and was vividly expressed in the new Russian literature that was going from European influences to the true historical and cultural independency. In her research Okulova has also made an attempt to outline the effect of a number of national ideas that could be found in Russian journals of the last third of the XVIIIth century and the Patriotic War of 1812. The research methods used by the author include historicism, multi-faceted approach to evaluation of the historical literary process, socio-cultural method, and dialectical principle of research that views research subjects in process. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes a number of national ideas and Russian journalism themes of the last third of the XVIIIth century which allows a better view of the process of the new Russian literature of those times becoming mature and ideological. The peculiarity of this article is also the fact that it presents an attempt to trace back the ideas of Russian journalism of the last third of the XVIIIth century and Russian literature of the first fourth of the XIXth century that played a significant rolefor the formation of the Russian national identity. For many years this historical and literary aspect (as well as a great number of terms and definitions presented in this article) has been left without research. The results of this research create a more complete view of the Russian journalism history and Russian literature of the XVIIIth - XIXth centuries in general. 
Mohammadi Z. - Lermontov’s “Death of the Poet” in Persian language: extralinguistic difficulties of translation and level of equivalence with the original pp. 78-83


Abstract: The goal of this article is the analysis of Persian translation of Lermontov’s poem “Death of the Poet” and assessment of the level of equivalence of translation with the original. Based on the Theory of Translation Equivalence Level developed by V. N. Komissarov, the author explores extralinguistic (mainly cultural) difficulties occurred in the process of translating Lermontov’s poem into Persian language. It is hard to convey an idea of cultural events and realities of the Russian literary life to the Iranian audience. Social and public life of Russia of the XIX century is also inscrutable and unfamiliar for an Iranian reader. Non-acquaintance with the history of literary life of the XIX century also complicates the task of a translator of Lermontov’s poetry. The article explores the Persian translation of Lermontov’s poem from the perspective of the theory of equivalence, and analyzes the extralinguistic difficulties occurred in the process of translating to Persian language. Despite all difficulties, which first and foremost relate to the cultural concepts and social events, the linguistic capabilities of Persian language and command of the Russian and Persian languages the translator allows reaching high level of translation equivalence with the original. It may be said that Persian translation of “Death of the Poet” is equivalent with the Russian version on the level of message, and at times, on the level of linguistic signs.
Kikteva K.D. - The Myth about Don Juan in Jose Zorrilla's Legends pp. 86-94


Abstract: The subject of the research is the myth about Don Juan in the legends of a Spanish writer Jose Zorrilla. The aim of the article is to prove that the image of a mocker and seducer who stands above the society appeared in Zorrilla's creative writing before the drama 'Don Juan Tenorio' was staged (1844), in particular, in the legends 'El capitán Montoya' and 'Margarita la tornera' (1840-1841) in which Kikteva finds obvious parallels to Don Juan Tenorio. These works demonstrate the writer's reflection over the image and is an important milestone in the history of myth interpretation in Spanish literature. The research methodology is based on the comparative anlaysis of texts created as part of a single writing tradition. To explain the changes of the image within different literary schools (in this research the author mentions Spanish romanticism and Baroque), the researcher has applied the method of historical and cultural researsch. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher refers to the interpretations of the myth of Don Juan that are understudied in Russian literary studied. The main conclusion of the research is the continuity between the figure of Don Juan Tenorio outlined in Zoprrilla's religious fantastic drama and images of seducers that had appeared in the creative writing of a playwright few years earlier. Establishing his own formula to describe components of the myth about Don Juan, the author proves that the relation of this myth to the images of mockers from Zorrilla's legends.  
Poulaki P. - Analysis of Translations of Mikhail Sholokhov's Novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian Language (the Case Study of Behazin's and A. Shamlu's Texts) pp. 87-96


Abstract: This is the first article to tell the story of translation of Mikhail Sholokov's novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian language and give a comparative analysis of two main translations of the novel, by M. Etemadzade (Behazin) and A. Shamlu who presented two opposite approaches to translation, ideological and linguistic. The author of the article analyzes the first translation of the novel The Silent Don in Farsi made by a major Iranian translator Behazin in 1965 against the Iran socio-political situation of the 1960s and describes pluses and minuses of his translation. Special attention is paid to the translation of 'The Silent Don' in the translation of a famous translator and poet A. Shamlu and response of the Iranian readers to it. Following the 'domestication' translation strategy and trying to demonstrate the treasure of the Persian language, Shamlu devoted seven years to the translation and wrote a true master-piece of Persian literature. 
Spivakovsky P. - The Tragic in Russian Metamodernism Literature pp. 95-102


Abstract: The article is devoted to the tragic metanarration in modern Russian metamodern literature and the theoretical substantiation of the new understanding of tragedy in the culture of recent decades, partly connected with postmodern epistemology and at the same time based on overcoming the limitations imposed by orthodox postmodern theory. The statements of a number of contemporary cultural researchers associated with the criticism of the shortcomings of the theory of postmodernism are considered. The article analyzes the works of Victor Pelevin and Vladimir Sorokin, and provides an interdisciplinary analysis metamodernistskogo tragedy on the material of the Viennese production of the opera by Giuseppe Verdi's "La Traviata" at the Salzburg Festival 2005 Special attention is paid to the relation between classical postmodern theory and more modern metamodernistskoy theoretical system as a phenomenon of the postmodern era . Thanks to the use of metamodern theory, it becomes clear that many works of modern Russian literature that were considered postmodernist are more reasonable to be understood in a metamodernist context that removes postmodernist bans on seriousness, depth and tragedy. This makes it possible to discover in the works of recent times new semantic layers that remained outside the field of view of researchers.
Demicheva N. - The Novel of Special Structure 'The Capture of Pskov': Problematics, Textology, Style pp. 95-100


Abstract: The article is devoted to the novel of special structure 'The Capture of Pskov' which can be found in two manuscript collections at State Public Research Library and Russian State Library. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov. Demicheva analyzes this text as an old Russian writing devoted to Novgorod and Pskov joining the Moscovite state. The researcher focuses on the genetic and ideological diversity as well as composition, structure of images and style of The Capture of Pskov. In her research Demicheva applies the method historical and literary analysis of old Russian writings as these have been offered by such researchers as V. Andrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, A. Pauktin, and N. Trofimova. The author of the article concludes that the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov has both markers of the negative attitude to Pskov joining Moscow and literary solutions that speak of the writer's Moscovite position in relation to the events of 1509 - 1510. Demicheva also suggests a hypothesis that The Capture of Pskov is not the original version of the text which explains the conflict of different points of view within one novel.  
Pakhtusova V. - Genre Syncretism in Yury Nagibin's Story 'Fiery Protopope': on the Question about Leskov's Tradition in the Russian Prose of the Second Half of the XXth Century pp. 97-102


Abstract: The article is devoted to the literary parallel between Leskov and Nagibin, the topic that has never been viewed before in earlier critical research despite the obvious existence of that parallel which was proved by confessions of Nagibin himself. The creativity of two writers is analyzed by the author of the article from the point of view of genre traditions. They prove that Nagibin often used Leskov's principles of genre syncretism. Based on the analysis of Nagibin's story 'Fiery Protopope', the author demonstrates how the writer worked with Leskov's genre model presented, in particular, in his novel 'One-Track Minded Person'. The methodological basis of the research includes theoretical research of M. Bakhtin, N. Leyderman, N. Tamarchenko, Yu. Tynyanov, V. Khalizev, L. Chernets and other researchers who viewed genre-related issues and touched upon the questions related to genre traditions. The author concludes that just like Leskov, Nagibin's story combined the features of a biographical essay, feuilleton, hagiography, and anecdote. Developing Leskov's genre model and expanding opportunities of the genre form, Nagibin brings a number of changes at the level of the genre content. The genre syncretism shown in Nagibin's texts generally reflects the trends typical for the literature of the second half of the XXth century and the reference to Leskov's texts reveals the sources of this tradition in the Russian literature and importance of the genre model that is based on the synthesis of different genre forms. 
Poletaeva E.A. - The Main Grounds for the Artistic Picture of the World Shared by the Poets of the Literary Association 'Moscow Time' pp. 97-108


Abstract: The subject of the research is the general grounds for the artistic picture of the world shared by the poets of the literary association 'Moscow time'. In particular, Poletaeva focuses on creative writing of the leading members, S. Gandlevsky, B. Kenjeev, A. Soprovsky, A. Tsvetkov, T. Poletaeva, and A. Kazintsev from the point of view of the main lines of their artistic picture of the world. These include their views on the place and mission of human and his system of values (which involves such aspects as human and society, relationship of an individual and government, etc.), relationship between human and nature; relation between artistic and scientific pictures of the world. The research methodology is based on views of B. Meylakh about the main lines of the artistic picture of the world. Such picture of the world was offered by the Moscow Time poets as an opposition to the Soviet (atheistic and materialistic) point of view; it was idealistic as it was and related to the picture of the world in the Russian classical literature. However, some authors changed their worldviews with time. Nevertheless, there were certain topics that continued to play an important role throughout their creative life. Those included self-denying difficult creative work; search for full and bright life; perception of nature as alive and spirited; Biblian allusions and images (in particular, relation of an poet to Adam as those who give names to God's creatures); the motif of miracle; estrangement of a lyrical hero rooted in romantic traditions; ethical component of their creative writing; and view of literature as an important part of human life, abilities of literature to predict the future and preserve the past. 
Lisitsin M. - The Phenomenon of Data Journalism in Foreign Mass Media (the Case Study of Works by Data Journalism Awards Winners) pp. 102-115


Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign data journalism projects and the analysis of works by Data Journalism Awards winners of 2014 - 2017. Despite the fact that the term 'data journalism' was first mentioned only in 2010, similar researches had been made long before it. The aim of this article is do define the main aspects of the phenomenon from the point of view of foreign mass media. The author focuses on stylistic features of the phenomenon and technical peculiarities of the content generation process. By using the content analysis and induction as the research methods, the author has come to the conclusion that data journalism requires two conditions, the data base as the source of contents and data visualisation as the means of 'telling the story'. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines general features and peculiarities of projects which enables an comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of data journalism that still has a rather uncertain status in Russia. The author also describes the key differences between the terms 'infographics', 'investigative journalism' and 'data journalism'. 
Zhitenev A. - Sensory and Affective Codes in Sergey Popov's Poetry pp. 103-112


Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the principles of the formation of the artistic world in the lyrics of the Voronezh poet Sergei Popov. The subject of the research is sensory and affective motifs in a poetic text. It is established that the principles of reflection of sensual and emotional memory in the structure of the artistic world of Sergey Popov are determined by the desire to overcome the chaotic state of the world. The work of memory has a “therapeutic” character, but it is not connected with the restoration of a torn personal history, but with the irrational introduction to the creative forces of being. The main tool of analysis is a motivational analysis in conjunction with elements of the approaches developed in the “history of emotions” and the practice of analyzing representations of corporeality. In the lyrics of Sergey Popov, memory restores subjectivity through the intensity of sensual detail, when the “Self” experiences its dissolution in the natural world, by replacing the “reverse” view with the “childish” sight. The most important thing in this experience is the collision with the language outside the language, with the experience of “fire” or “river” as statements, in which the sign and thing are not separated. Sensual contemplation, always associated with memory, is portrayed “ecstatically,” as a state that presupposes a bodily renewal of “Self.”
Oktyabr'skaya O.S. - The genre of Kievan Rus' annals and its manifestation in the poem of N. P. Konchalovskaya “Our Ancient Capital” pp. 109-115


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of genre elements of the annals realized in the historical poem by Natalya Konchalovskaya, continuity of Konchalovskaya’s poem to the traditions of Kievan Rus' annals and determination of the timeless character of the moral values proclaimed by this XX century poet, determination in Konchalovskaya’s poem characteristic to the annals factographic foundation of the poem, chronological principal of expression with partial retardation, bright portraiture, mosaic character of coupling of multifaceted episodes and simultaneous reproduction of unified historical process of development of Russian statehood, culture, economy, etc.. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the need for renewed examination of the poem “Our Old Capital”, which remains an important component of moral upbringing of modern child and teenager, and continues the best traditions of Russian literature. The author concludes that there is a solid factographic foundation to Konchalovskaya’s poem, its polygenre structure, most precise and complete reproduction of historical coloration of every particular era, as well as complex portraiture and eventive painting.
Alkhlavova I.K., Akamov A.T. - Sufi traditions in the later poetic works of Dzhaminat Kerimova pp. 111-123


Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic specificities of the poetic texts of religious-philosophical content of the modern Kumyk poetess of the late XX – early XXI century Dzhaminat Kerimova. The object of this research is her later poetic works. Relevance of this topic is substantiated by the need for creating a holistic picture of the final period of creative path of the poetess, which marks prevalence of the religious-philosophical aspects. Based on philological analysis of the poems, the author determines the religious-philosophical motifs; as well as explores the problem of person’s stance on religion, material world, and children’s view of their parents. The main conclusions consist in revelation of the religious-ethical motifs in later period of poetry (1990-2000). The author’s special contribution to this research lies in the analysis of language peculiarities of Kerimova’s poetic texts of religious-philosophical nature that give insight into the specificity of Sufi factor. The author was able to determine that the theme of religion, which most vividly depicts the specificities of the use and functionality of Sufi lexicon, is dominant in the later poetic texts. The scientific novelty consists in reference to the later period of poetry of Dzhaminat Kerimova, as her literary heritage and religious texts in particular, remain insufficiently studied in the context of religious literatures of the peoples of Dagestan. The author believes that the research of this topic would allow filling the gap in the modern Kumyk poetry, and thus, enrich not only Kumyk, but also Dagestani literature.
Kim L. - Theoretical Literary Analysis of the Term 'Network Literature' pp. 112-118


Abstract: The subject of the research is the theoretical literary structure of the phenomenon of network literature, important literary fact of the contemporary history. In the course of the research Kim analyzes and denies as insufficient several theories of network literature that are based on the search of necessary and sufficient grounds. In particular, Kim criticises post-modernist theory of network literature as a hypertext and historical theory of a network text placed on the Internet and created using technical means of the Internet environment. These theories, however, are not fully denied, the author uses elements of these theories in his integral theory of network literature that is based on the theory of an open concept. The research methodology includes the conceptual and logical analysis of relevant literary terms, theories of language games of late L. Wittgenstein and anti-essentialism of Ziff and Weitz, structural and post-structural reflection over the historico-literature definition of 'network literature'. The result of the research is the theoretical description of the intensional of the term 'network literature' that combines conceptual, historical, post-modernist and Wittgenstein's approaches. The results of the research can be used in theoretical literary and  historico-literary research as well as teaching. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author establishes the grounds for the theoretical and methodological research framework of network vocabulary. 
Poletaeva E.A. - Lyrics to Friends in a Literary Group 'The Moscow Time' pp. 118-125


Abstract: The subject of the research is the main trends in lyrics to friends created by a literary group The Moscow Time. The object of the research is the poems written by the poets who were the members of The Moscow Time devoted to friends or related to friendship. Lyrics to friends of The Moscow Time writers have never been a matter of special research in literary studies before. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the main patterns discovered in the poems devoted by The Moscow Time poets to their friends. The researcher focuses on intertextual references as part of friendship lyrics created by the literary group. The research is based on the comparative historical and analytical methyods. The author has also used theoretical provisions of L. Ginzburg's researches. The singularity of The Moscow Time group is their desire to unite and create the image of a fellowship like Pushkin's circle or Duma's three musketeers. The features of their fellowship is the opposition to the other world, jokes, friendly notes, discussions of politics, religion and philosophy. The poets also share memories about their young years spent together and commemorate dead friends. 
Yan' K. - Imagination and Reality: Mirror Symmetry in Gazdanov's Novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' pp. 118-127


Abstract: In his novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' Gaito Gazdanov criticizes the double world perception of Russian immigrants whose imagination and memories about the past prevailed over the reality. In order to express the relationship between two worlds, imaginatory and real, the writer uses the mirror symmetry as the main principle of plot creation, characters' and main hero's features making. As the final, the writer 'broke' the mirror of three aforesaid aspects at the story line 'the main hero kills his counterpart'. Thus, the meaning of the mirror structure and destruction thereof make the matter under research. In his research Yan uses the semiotic method and the method of intertextuality to view the relationship between the author's mind and artistic space the author has created. Detailed analysis carried out by the author allows to note that at the moment when the mirror symmetry was destroyed, the mirror relationship between the past based on the memory and imagination and the actual world disappeared, too. The author demonstrates the danger of close relation between the subjective and objectived world and invasion of the reality with the past or imagined present. The writer suggests to come back to the reality through self-realisation of an individual in the real world. 
Greshilova A. - The Myths About Peter the Great and Lenin in Tatyana Tolstaya's Prose pp. 119-124


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical myths in the prose of Tatyana Tolstaya: the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin are central to the artistic mythology of the writer, their functioning in the text is the object of research. In her article Greshilova discusses the motive structure of each of the myths, their author's interpretation and the relationship between them. Particular attention is paid to the image of St. Petersburg, because, first of all, within the framework of St. Petersburg space, parallels are built between Peter the Great and Lenin. In the process of analysis the author has applied the comparative and cultural-historical methods since it is necessary to actualize the “Petersburg text” of Russian literature, and the biographical context is also used. As a result of the work, the axiological and ontological status of the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin is revealed, which is the scientific novelty of the article. It is concluded that the key to interpreting the myth of Peter I is the “fractal” myth of St. Petersburg which Tolstoy presents in the stories one-centrically and literature-centrically. Another important conclusion is that both historical myths make an important part of the national concept of Tolstaya. Despite all its mystic and contradictory nature, the myth about Peter the First is has the constructive national beginning while the mythological image of Lenin, on the contrary, performs the destructive tendency. 
Seredina A.O. - Ekphrasis as the Expressive Means of Appolon Grigoreiv's Religious Views pp. 122-135


Abstract: In her research Seredina considers religious and aesthetic views of Apollon Grigoriev reflected on the poetics of his fiction and epistolary heritage. The focus is on religious ecphrasis, that is, descriptions of icons, images of the Madonna, frescoes, temples and monasteries. An extensive material is drawn such as texts of Grigoriev’s early prose of the mid-1840s, essays and letters of the turn of the 1850s-1860s, as well as the final work of the writer, the memoirs "My Literary and Moral Wanderings". The theoretical basis for the immanent comparative analysis is the works of N.V. Braginskaya, N.G. Morozova, E.V. Yatsenko on ecphrasis. The study found that Appolon Grigoriev put forward different requirements in evaluating a secular work of art and a work claiming to be sacred. The author of the article also traces the peculiarities of interaction between the categories of nationality and sacredness in the concepts of Appolon Grigoriev. In this article Seredina continues her analysis of the theme of ecphrasis in the prosaic heritage of Appolon Grigorieva who had not previously attracted the special attention of literary critics.
Efimov A.S. - “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” of V. P. Meshchersky and “The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” of V. P. Titov and A. S. Pushkin pp. 124-134


Abstract: This article examines the influence of the romantic-gothic novel The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” (1829) by V. P. Titov and A. S. Pushkin upon the anti-nihilistic novel “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” (1877) by . P. Meshchersky. In the limelight is the evolution and sociopolitical adaptation of the romantic-gothic themes “invitation of evil spirits into the house” and “evil spirits obsessed with romantic passion towards a human”. The article demonstrates how the religious-mythological image of “evil spirits” (destructive beginning) undergoes “ideological transformation”, and in the conditions of development of realistic art in the middle XIX century “blends” at the artistic level of anti-nihilistic level with the image of a “nihilist”. The research is based on biographical, comparative and historical methods, as well as motif analysis. The sociopolitical context of the 1870’s is being considered. Problematic of the continuity of Pushkin’s storyline, characterology, and system of themes in the works of V. P. Meshchersky is an unexplored area. The study of influence of the narrative “The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” upon anti-nihilistic novel “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” along with their comparative analysis have not been previously conducted. The article also comments on the historiosophical ides, which led Meshchersky to reconsideration of Pushkin’s storyline and its adaptation to the relevant sociopolitical realities of the 1870’s.
Alkhlavova I.K. - Gender-Specific Featurs of Jaminat Kerimova's Poetry (the Case Study of her Love Lyrics) pp. 126-136


Abstract: The subject of the research is the gender-specific features of the poetry of of a modern Kumyk female poet of the late XXth - early XXIst century Jaminat Kerimova. The object of the research is her love lyrics. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as 'female poetry', masculine world view, difference between 'male' and 'female' poetry. For example, unlike men women tend to give a more emotional and pathetic description of their surroundings, love and family life because women usually depict the sphere of life that is close and clear for them themselves. The researcher also covers important motives in female poetry such as the motif of one-way love, destroyed illusions, unhappy family life, unrealized dreams of being a mother, etc. In the course of the research the author has used such research methods as comparison, psychological analysis and description. The main results of the research include: descripton of 'female' features of creative writing, typical featurse being pathetics and listening to one's heart, as well as description of the ideological features, genre and structure of images used by Kerimova. The author's special contribution to the topic is her analysis of specific features of female poetry which gives a better insight into gender-related issues. The dominating motif in female lyrics is love that demonstrates gender-specific style most brightly. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes creative writing of Jaminat Kerimova whose literary legacy is still understudied as part of Kumyk and Dagestan literature. 
Dulova S.A., Nikolaev N.I. - Gaito Gazdanov's Prose in Terms of Changing Worldview in Literature pp. 128-134


Abstract: Modern literary studies view the first wave of the Russian Immigration of the XXth century as a heterogeneous phenomenon. Traditionally, researchers describe two generations of the Russian Immigration, the 'seniors' (Bunin, Shmelev, Zaitsev, Gippius and others) and 'juniors' (Nabokov, Varshavsky, Yanovsky and Gazdanov). Peculiarities of each writer's creative style still need to be clarified. Description of experimental and innovatory searches of each junior and analysis of the influence of modern European literature on them have not allowed to make conclusions about general trends in their writing. The question about the changing worldview in literature has been partly covered in researches of Gaito Gazdanov's creative legacy and era. The most famous modern approach to this problem is an attempt to describe changes in the worldview by focusing on particular aspects (the feeling of upcoming catastrophe, crisis, loneliness, etc.). These observations prove extension, clarification, and explicitation of a traditional worldview, however, they do not always mean a qualitative change. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author views the initial cause of changes in the worldview in litrature as the search for a principally new position towards the world that would allow to model the world as one whole. 
Shestakova I. - Peculiarities of a Motive Organization of Mikhail Shishkin's Novel 'The Hair of Venus' pp. 135-142


Abstract: In her article Shestakova analyzes the motive structure of Mikhail Shishkin's novel The Hair of Venus. Based on the analysis of particular images and motifs, the researcher proves her statement that these motifs and images are not just conjunctive narration elements but integrators of a whole range of symbolic meanings acquired by an image in the process of transferring between narration lines. Such dynamics in the development of invariants, transparent motifs and 'wandering' plots demonstrate their ontological perspective and potential for constant development and transformation. This feature marks overcoming of death as one of the key themes in the novel. The researcher has used description as a research method as well as comparison which allows to define intertextual basis of the novel under study. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author discovers implicit isomorphism of poetic and prosaic structures in the novel The Hair of Venus as well as analyzes the main features of Mikhail Shishkin's individual style. For this purpose, the researcher analyzes sound motifs and rhythmic-accoustic effects of the novel that bring close the prosaic structure of the text and poetry. 
Lushnikova G., Chibireva E. - Two Naples in the literary text: contrasting image of the city pp. 135-149


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of representation of the city of Naples in “Neapolitan Novels” by Elena Ferrante. The object of this research is the tetralogy of the Italian writer Elena Ferrante “The Neapolitan Novels”. The goal of this article consists in description, analysis, and revelation of a controversial image of Naples in the works of Elena Ferrante “The Neapolitan Novels” compared with the text of other Russian and foreign writers of various times. Special attention is paid to the negative characteristics of the city reflecting the secular chronotope, daily image of the city through the eyes of female protagonists of the novel. Methodology is based on intertextual method, since the analysis suggest comparison of the image of Naples in specific works; and comparative method, which allows noticing the commonalities and differences in the image of Naples. The following conclusions are made: 1) the opposite interpretations of the city – positive and negative – depend on a particular observer, whether he is a tourist or a local; 2) Naples of Elena Ferrante is presented as a source of ethical and spiritual decay; this is the “second” Naples representing dehumanized, backstage image, the inside of a beautiful city. The novelty of this article lies in viewing the dualistic nature of Naples, as well as analysis of Elena Ferrante’s work “The Neapolitan Novels”, which did not previously fall under the spotlight of literary scholars.
Borozdina M. - Nikolay Chaev's Poem 'Nadya'. On the Question about Transformation of the Poem Genre in the Russian Literature of the 1870s pp. 136-142


Abstract: This article is devoted to the question of the transformation of the genre of the poem in Russian literature of the 1870s. The object of the research is the poem “Nadya” by Nikolay Chaev, a Russian writer who in the literary environment is mostly known as the author of historical dramas and chronicles from ancient Russian history. The purpose of our study is to confirm the idea that in the 1870s, writers try to peculiarly revive the seemingly outdated genre of the poem, essentially transforming it. In the course of the analysis of the stated theme, the author of the work relies on the following literary methods: cultural-historical, comparative, genre-historical. As a result, the author of this study establishes that Nikolay Chaev, while writing 'Nadya', crosses two lines of the Russian poem of the 19th century, the manor and the folk, thus creating in the second half of the 1870s a new type of poem that best meets the requirements of the times.
Efimov A.S. - Anti-Nihilistic Novel and Gothic Novel: Raising a Question pp. 137-152


Abstract: The article is devoted to an understudied issue, the relation of Russian anti-nihilistic novel (1860 - 1880) to gothic novel or, in a wide sense, European and Russian gothic literature. The scope of the research covers a number of Russian and foreign researches directly or indirectly discussing the relation 'anti-nihilistic - gothic novel'. In accordance with the research objectives and targets, the author provides an insight into the matter and describes the areas for his research. The main research methods used by the author include bibliographical, biographical, motif and plot analysis, comparison and historical literary research. The  main issues related to the Russian nihilism - gothics relation include the question about whether there was a gothic plot in an anti-nihilist novel; the influence of gothic literature on the creative method of particular authors in anti-nihilistic novel, goals of gothic poetics in Russian anti-nihilistic novel, the influence of gothic poetics on the development of eschatological motifs of Apocalypse in Russian anti-nihilistic novels. Trying to describe the general meaning of addressing of anti-nihilistic authors to the poetics of gothic novel, the author of the article comes to the concept of the 'highest analytical meaning' of anti-nihilistic novel when conclusions are mystical prophesy and discovers the need in an anagogic interpretation of a text. Thus, references  to gothics in an anti-nihilistic novel are not limited to the borrowing of expressive means but relate to the Russian eschatology issue.  
Popkova A. - 'Chinese Text' in Soviet Literature of the 1920s (the Case Study of Sergei Tretyakov's Creative Writing) pp. 143-152


Abstract: The subject of this research is the views and positions of Soviet writers of the 1920s. Based on the example of novels written by a futurist writer Sergei Tretyakov (his play and poem 'Roar China!', collection of essays 'Jungo', The Autobiography of Tan Shih-hua, and Lee Yan Stubborn novels) who knew China very well, the author of the article describes features of Chinese text of the 1920s. The object o fthe research is Chinese text in Russian literature and the image of China there. The researcher carries out a brief analysis of a number of Soviet literature works of the 1920s that described China in general. Chinese text in Soviet literature of the the 1920s performed certain objectives of those times. Works written by Sergei Tretyakov demonstrate deep understanding of Chinese culture as well as awareness of Cinese realities of the early 1920s and provide an accurate description of historical facts and documentaries. The fact that Tretyakov combined general principles of creative writing and analytical principles of historical research allowed the author to solve ideological tasks of his time in a literary form. Writers of the 1920s all tried to perform 'social order' and at the same time tell the reader truth about the neighboring country. 
Folimonov S.S. - Folklore Beginnings in Poetics of Novel by V. F. Tendryakov «Pure Waters of Kitezh» pp. 149-158


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the folklore foundations of poetics of novel by V. F. Tendryakov «Pure waters of Kitezh». The subject of research interest is the identification of features of the functioning of the genre of oral and unsophisticated prose in artistic environment.The appeal of the well-known Russian prose writer to the socially-utopian legend about the wanted city is due to the need of searching for a kind of symbolic form, «Aesop language», without which it is impossible to imagine a true representation of Soviet reality in the 1970-s–1980-s. However, the urgent need for such an instrument in conditions of total censorship opened up great opportunities for the writer to solve artistic problem, connected with the formation of a unique author’s style. The methodology of the research is based on ideas put forward in the works of P. S. Vykhodtsev, A. A. Gorelov, D. N. Medrish, I. A. Ossowiecki, J. A. Trykova, and others and is a complex analysis of folklore-literary interactions at all levels of the literary text. The conducted research allows to assert, that the genre specificity of the folk utopia enabled the author to freely interpret the legend, using it as a semantic core, around which precedent texts from the world of oral poetry and prose are accumulated. The model of creative interaction of the borrowed material, chosen by the writer, was reflected in all levels of the story, defining the features of the composition structure, the methods of creating character images, the rhythm of the narrative. In addition, a detailed study of the folklorism of this work lays the methodological prerequisites for a deeper reading of the Tendryakov literary heritage as a whole.
Kirimov T.N. - The specificities of artistic way of thinking of Mehmet Nuzhet pp. 150-159


Abstract:  The goal of this article consists in determination of peculiarities and origins of artistic thinking of the Crimean Tatar writer of the XX century M. Nuzhet. Methodological and theoretical basis of the research is comprised of the works of U. Ipchi, E. Shemizade, J. Bekirov, A. Altanly, I. Kerimov, Y. Kandymov, and others. The aforementioned authors made an indisputable contribution to the development of Crimean Tatar literature and literary criticism. The creative heritage of M. Nuzhet is versatile and peculiar. His poetic, prosaic and translation works are fused with national spirit. The actions and feelings of the central characters of the artist’s lyrical works directly reflect his psychological state. Special attention is given to the psychological type of the lyricist. Comparative and textual analysis allow viewing the published and original manuscripts of M. Nuzhet. It is established that the writer systematically worked on studying feelings, emotions and ways of their expression. Using the traditional folk poetic forms, genres and images, he creates new patterns for affecting the audience. Speaking of the eternal anthropological topics, he transforms into a wise folk storyteller and preacher. For depicting the everyday reality, the writer assumes the masks of an old beggar or street drunkard. The poetic alliterations and assonances enliven the poet’s images even more. In the process of declamation of such poems, the audience actively uses various mimic emotions anticipated by the context. 
Kuryanova V.V. - The Biographical Myth of Tolstoy in the Creative Writing of Vladmir Mayakovsky pp. 152-167


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of the biographical myth in the creative writing of Vladimir Mayakovsky. The analysis of the biographical myth is one of the most important and least studied problems in contemporary literary studies. This article is also devoted to the theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. It is aimed at analysing the genesis and development of the biographical myth of Tolstoy in the creative writing of Vladimir Mayakovsky. The biographical myth of Tolstoy is a complex phenomenon of the Russian literature and culture of the XXth century represented differently by writers. In this research Kurianova applies methodological principles that were developed in the works devoted to supertext and its mythological basis. Lev Tolstoy is one of the most mythogenic personalities that was a legend when he was alive and after his death. The 'Tolstoy' myth was mythologized by many poets and writers of the XXth - XXIst centuries. In his creative writing Vladimir Mayakovsky mythologized Lev Tolstoy, his personality and his teaching but not his works or heroes. 
Zhitenev A. - On the Literariness in the Theory of Russian Formalism: Viktor Shklovsky about the Writers of the XVIIIth Century pp. 159-167


Abstract: The theory of Russian formalism views literariness as a set of features that distinguish a literary text from all other texts and has always been the topic of acute discussion. Viktor Shklovsky's researches of the 1920s-1930s were focused on literariness as a result of his interest in the marginal forms of the literary process in the XVIIIth century as well as the phenomenon of mass literature. Noteworthy that his ideas closely related to the realities of that period and involved discussions about the 'social order' and 'literary life', thus presenting the writer's views on the creative writing, status of a writer and creative goals. The methodology of the research combines various methods such as comparative history, hermeneutical and phenomenological approaches as well as individual provisions of the 'history of terms' concept. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the author's attempt to view Viktor Shkolvsky's works on the literature of the XVIIIth century and such authors as M. Koramov, V. Levshin and M. Chulkov as a specific form of self-reflection aimed at overcoming the author's creative crisis and creating opportunities for using the methodology of the Russian formalism in the analysis of the literary life of different eras. 
Mikheeva G.V. - Specific Features of the Art Space in Stepan Pisakhov's Fairy-Tales pp. 168-174


Abstract: The subject of the research is the art space in the fairy-tales of Stepan Pisakhov who writes about the Russian North. In her research Mikheeva analyzes such aspects of the topic as the art space structure, methods of creation of space images on the basis of combined reality and fantastic world, peculiarity pf space locuses, and interaction between the symbolic meaning of space images and the writer's worldview. Mikheeva focuses on the description of the closed space locuses, the Uyma Village and the house of the main hero as well as the 'friend-alien' opposition that represents moral messages. The research is based on the structure-semiotic approach to the analysis of the art space of a literary work. The theoretical basis of the research is the works of Yury Lotman, in particular, his thesis that in a text the space is the means of creating messages. The main conclusions of the research are the following: the structure of the single art space in Stepan Pisakhov's fairy-tales has two spatial levels: reality and fantastic world, which do not have a border but even penetrate. Such organisation of the space brings a particular meaning into the text. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author analyzes the art space of Stepan Pisakhov's fairy-tales.  
Bakula V.B. - The Narrative and Compositional Structure of N. Bolshakova's Novel 'Alkhalalalai' pp. 168-175


Abstract: The research is devoted to the novel written by a Sami writer N. Bolshakova 'Alkhalalalai'. The aim of the research is to define peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel. This novel is the first one in the literature of Russian Sami created in the period of the origin of their written language (the last third of the XXth century). Eastern Sami literature relates to the literature of Finno-Ugric literature and is one of the earliest and least studied types thereof. This is what causes the rationale of this research. The main research methods used by the author included structural descriptive and formal methods as the best methods to analyze the narrative and compositional structure of a text. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is the first research to analyze the plot and narrative structure of a novel. The research results demonstrate such peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of a novel as the lyrical plot, expressive introductory events, free narration, and multi-functionalitiy of the landscape. The main expressive means used by the writer to convey her message is the narrative parallelism technique and a great number of extra-plot elements (myths, legends, lyrical digressions) and delayed exposition. The novel has bright ethnic folklore features. The writer enriches her novel with ethnographical material and gives an insight into the culture of Sami and Itelmes. The peculiarity of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel is revealed through the features of the author's singular style and her picture of the world. 
Belyaeva T.N. - Axiological Problematics of Yuri Bajgusa's Plays pp. 171-177


Abstract: The subject of the research is the value components of the problematics in the dramatic works of the Mari writer Yuri Baiguza. The study allows to see the basic semantic concepts of being and the individual human personality of the “post-perestroika generation”. The analysis of the plays “The Golden Duck” presented in the article was written in collaboration with Vasily Pekteyev), Silk Swings, Dawn over the Abyss, Today is the Birthday, which are mainly philosophically oriented, shows that the most important components of their perspective are value characteristics of society, people and man. The author of the article applies structural-semantic and historical-genetic methods of research which allow to reveal both the value aspects of the problems of the plays and the poetological aspects of the texts that implement them. The article shows for the first time the axiological aspects of the key dramatic works of Yuri Baigusa in their universal, folk-world outlook, religious, and individual-creative expression; revealed the artistic specificity of the author’s value concept in each of the texts; the manifestation of the axiosphere in the ideological world of works and the character system is analyzed.
Tatarinova L.N., Tatarinov A.V. - The Phenomenon of Old Age in William Faulkner's Literary World pp. 175-181


Abstract: Based on the material of the prose of William Folkner (first of all, the novels “Sartoris” and “Go Down, Moses”), the phenomenon of old age is investigated as a literary problem. The object of the research is the philosophical aspects of the gerontological story in Falkner's prose. The subject of the research is the literary world created by the author, individual aesthetic movements in the creation of the images of elderly people. The authors analyze Faulkner's concept versus the concept of Ernest Hemingway who used the present moment as the narrative time. Not only young heroes of his early writings but also such characters as Santiago in his novel 'The Old Man and the Sea' live in the presence. The methodological basis of the research is the principles of philosophical literary studies that allow to evaluate the artistic world of the writer as an element of his worldview. The authors conclude that Faulkner views old age not only as an age but a certain state of mind, emotional memory, balance and wisdom combined with kindness. Faulnker relates memory and old age to such categories as eternity, while he relates young age and blindness to the categories of temporality and accident. 
Arstanova V. - The Motif of the Love Between Close Relatives in Mikhail Lermontov's Early Writings pp. 176-184


Abstract: The subject of the research is the motif of the love between close relatives in the early period of Mikhail Lermontov's creative writing (since 1829 till 1834). This motif can be found in the following works: a newly found novel thought to be written by Lermontov, his Eugene, The Spanish, Menschen und Leidenschaften and incomplete novel Vadim. The motif of the love between close relatives is one of the main motifs in the early writings of Lermontov and has roots not only in the romantic tradition but also the biography of the writer himself. In her article Arstanova compares the motif of the love between close relations in Lermontov's early writings to French and English literature (François-René de Chateaubriand and George Gordon Byron). She also draws the parallel to the development of the motif in the XXth century. The main result of the research is the author's statement that the above mentioned motif was caused by the influence of the literary tradition and biographical prerequisites. The researcher also describes how the motif developed and faded in Lermontov's creative writing. Lermontov did not raise that motif in his works created after 1834 because it was no more important for him. 
Levitskaia T.V. - Fairy Tale and Parabolic Motifs in Nadezhda Lukhmanova's Essays During the Russo-Japanese War pp. 184-193


Abstract: In her research Levitskaya discusses the work of Nadezhda Alexandrovna Lukhmanova (1841-1907) during the Russian-Japanese war. To date, there is no complete review of the creative heritage of the writer, which, despite its richness and diversity, is almost unfamiliar to the modern reader. At the age of 64, the writer took part in the Russian-Japanese war as a war correspondent. During her tenure in the war and later in Japan, Lukhmanova wrote not only travel notes and articles for newspapers, but also created short plays for soldiers (“Batman Kuzmenko”), stories based on real events (“Shaman”, “Black Band” , “The Yolka in the Chizakuin Palace”), several Chinese and Japanese fairy tales (“The Only Language Understood by a Woman”, “The Soul of a Man”, “A Typhoon”, “The Golden Chanterelle”). The works of Lukhmanova acquire a wider and ambiguous meaning due to the fabulous and parabolic form of expression. The writer resorts to allegories to more clearly illustrate her concerns, expansion and generalization of the meanings embedded in the image. The article is an analysis of several works of the Russian-Japanese Lukhmanov period. The novelty of the research lies in the attempt to analyze the creativity of N.A. Lukhmanova, which today is virtually unknown. The article deals with journalistic works that have not been republished since the time of the first publication, as well as stories that are in the archive. Appeal to such rare material allows us to consider the identity of the author in a different way.
Gasharova A.R. - Dagestan folklore motifs in the works of A. A. Beztuzhev-Marlinsky pp. 185-196


Abstract: The subject of this research is the prose works of A. A. Beztuzhev-Marlinsky related to Dagestan folklore and ethnography. The author attempts to demonstrate the reflection and transformation of Dagestan folklore in the Russian literature using the writer’s work as an example. The power and distinctness of Marlinsky’s talent consists in application of various means of artistic representation, including folklore, and translates hem in his manner and style. Using the descriptive, comparative and hermeneutic methods of analysis the author characterizes the moments in Marlynsky’s prose associated with the Dagestan folklore motifs and even some artifacts of folk art. This allowed revealing the semantic and expressive-visual function of folklore and ethnography in prose works of the writer. The “Dagestan” compositions of Marlinsky serve as a vivid example of cross-pollination through interaction between Russian literature and Dagestan folklore back in the early XIX century. The writer’s interest to Dagestan folklore and ethnography contributed to delving into the history of North-Caucasian peoples, peculiarities of their worldview and customs unfamiliar to the Russian readers. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive analysis of Marlinsky’s Dagestan novels, which contributed to determination of specificities of expressing folklore origins and the principles of authorial interpretation.
Semenova A. - Internal Chronology in M. Kheraskov's Poem 'Vladimir' pp. 194-210


Abstract: The subject of research is the internal chronology in the poem "Vladimir". The author of the article analyzes the text of the poem by Kheraskov in order to determine how much time in Vladimir corresponds to the historical time. The first clear time reference point in the work is the appearance and death of the Varangian Christians, a record of this is given in The Tale of Bygone Years under 983, this is followed by the choice of faith in 986 and a march on Kherson, where Vladimir receives baptism in 988. In this time range, the main events of the poem unfold. In her study Semenova compares M. Kheraskov's poem to historical sources known to the poet. Tracing the internal chronology of the work, resorting to the method of Yu.M. Lotman, used in the analysis and commenting of "Eugene Onegin", we can determine by what time the author refers to the events described in the "Vladimir". This study found that the sequence of events in the poem "Vladimir" coincides with the testimony of historians. At the same time, the internal time in the work does not correspond to the historical time. Kheraskov smoothes the chronological holes characteristic of the chronicles, compressing the narration. Even taking into account several gaps in time, everything that happens in Kiev since the beginning of the narration (983), i.e. the campaign and the conquest of Kherson, Vladimir's baptism and marriage, does not stretch for 5-6 years, as in the sources.
Tatarinov A.V., Tatarinova L.N. - Modern menippea as a didactic gesture (On the novel “Lincoln in the Bardo” by George Saunders) pp. 197-203


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of modern menippea, and analysis of the novel by the American writer George Saunders in the context of the indicated genre tradition. The object of this research is the moral-didactical intentions of modern menippean satire. The subject is the combination of ideological and artistic characteristics that allow speaking of menippea of the XXI century. The study is based on the G. Saunders’ novel “Lincoln in Bardo” that is the winner of the Man Booker Prize 2017. The goal consists in the unity of two analytical movements. Firstly, menippea is interpreted as a genre, which blends in the apophatic and cataphatic platforms of poetics, combines sacral and secular contexts, and creates cathartic effects in the grotesque speech on death and ways of its overcoming. Secondly, the author’s strategy and actual didactic material of the novel “Lincoln in Bardo” is subject to analysis. The key research method becomes the analysis of literary text that allows revealing manippean characteristics of Saunders’ novel “Lincoln in Bardo” and expressing substantiated comments on the didactic potential of the modern American novel that blends in the “word on Lincoln” and the “grotesque death”. The conclusion is made on the system of didactic gestures of the novel “Lincoln in Bardo”. These are the anti-totalitarian gestures against political Trumpism and classical theology; the gesture for boundless rhetorical freedom enabling the use of offensive language; gesture of liberation from fear of death through philosophical statement on its hollowness; and emotional gesture for tolerance of diversified ethical actions (“depth of Lincoln” and “emptiness of the dead”).
Rakhmatova A.M. - Bodily Fragmentation as an Expression of Non-Integrity of a Lyrical Hero/Character in Non-Classical Lyrics pp. 209-219


Abstract: The scope of the research covers bodily images presented in the lyrics of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality (the end of the XIX - XX centuries). The subject of the research is the body of a lyrical subject or character depicted in fragmentation in poems relating to this stage of poetics. The article is aimed at identifying certain artistic meanings expressed in the works of non-classical lyric images of physical fragmentation. In the article, the phenomenon of corporeal fragmentation in the lyrics of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality is examined on the material of D. Merezhkovsky, I. Brodsky, and S. Plat. The phenomenon of bodily fragmentation is discussed in this article from the standpoint of historical poetics. The main methods of research are the method of immanent analysis of the figurative structure of the work, aimed at identifying the meaning of specific images, as well as the comparative method associated with identifying and describing similar features of the poetics of works related to the non-classical stage of artistic modality poetics. The scientific novelty of the research is determined, firstly, by the fact that the semantics of bodily images in the works of non-classical lyricism remains insufficiently studied; secondly, by the fact that the artistic specificity of images of bodily fragmentation in the lyric works of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality remains unexplained. The article first identifies and describes the semantic parameters of images of bodily fragmentation in non-classical lyrics.
Safarova Z.A. - Narrative Strategies in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Novel 'The Scarlett Letter' pp. 211-216


Abstract: The author considers such aspects as the features of Nathaniel Hawthorne's creativity, namely his novel "The Scarlet Letter". Also, the object of research is the synthetic structure of the novel, its historical and psychological content. Characteristics of the main characters, their goals and actions, peculiarities of the narration, such as the brevity and conciseness of the events described, the "sliding" author's position, manifested in the inconstancy of the depicted events, in terms of ratings, the main goals of the main characters, the degree of impact on the reader are given. The research methodology consisted of biographical, formal and historical-theoretical methods, as well as contextual and culturological principles of research. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is an attempt to analyze the narrative strategies of Nathaniel Hawthorne, their display in the novel "The Scarlet Letter". The conclusions reached by the author are the brevity of the style of the writer, his (writer) ambiguous subjective attitude to the heroes of his novel, the historical and psychological nature of the novel.
Vasileva T.N. - Artistic Features of the Tanka Genre Form in Ilya Baishev's Creative Writing pp. 237-243


Abstract: The subject of the research is the poems written by a poet and member of the Union of Yakurian Poets, Ilya Baishev, in a Japanese genre form 'tanka'. In her research Vasilieva examines such aspects of the topic as the correspondence to the canons of Japanese poetry, i.e. observation of the main rules and traditions (in style, verse and composition), aesthetic principles and categories. Vasilieva also analyzes national specific features of the genre form which may have been expressed in images, sound pattern, national worldview. The main research methods used by the researcher include descriptive and comparative analysis of tanka poems. The main results of the research are the peculiarities of tanka in Yakut poetry based on the comparison of the original's features (formal and compositional principles, themes and range of problems) and individual writer's singularity. Based on the author, the common feature of Yakut tanka and Japanese poetry is that both are based on the same aesthetic principles (yugen, siori, engo), use seasonal words, innuendo and allegory. The difference is that Yakut poetry has a special kind of rhyming, role of alliteration and national interpretation of images.  
Raevskaia M.M. - The Phenomenology of Iberian Space in George Borrow's Book The Bible in Spain pp. 266-279


Abstract: The article is devoted to the phenomenology of Iberian space in Britich travel literature, in particular, George Borrow's The Bible in Spain (1842). Raevskaya has a purpose to analyze peculiarities of the writer's technique which he used to describe the Iberian landscape and reality for the British reader who knew very little about it back in those times. As a reference position, the author of the article also presents a consideration of the travel genre as a collective multi-level literary form that has multidimensional specificity and is the result of the subjective knowledge of images existing in certain geographical boundaries of space. The inclusion of epistemological and historical perspectives in the research methodology, in addition to traditional biographical, comparative methods, stylistic analysis, synthesis and description, allows a more extensive assessment of the author’s idea, which represents the Iberian geoculture using certain observation procedures. The scientific novelty of the article is caused by the lack of research in the Russian philological tradition devoted to the Iberian travelogue. The approach to the study of the spatial image of the Iberian civilization in travel literature is also new and allows evaluate its features not only from literary, but also epistemological aspects. The author of the article discusses various areas of space exploration from the point of view of their typological elaboration in the domestic and foreign humanitarian tradition, shows the specificity of the interpretation of the Iberian reality related to the author’s understanding of reality.
Zav'yalova A.I. - The Literary Topography of The Kazan Chronicle and Derzhavin's Opera 'Ivan the Terrible, or Conquering of Kazan' pp. 280-286


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the texts of the opera “The Terrible, or Conquering of Kazan” by G. R. Derzhavin and an old Russian monument, "Kazan History". Unknown scribe of the XVI century tells the history of different lands and the Kazan region, in his work contains many toponyms. Following the author of Kazan History, Derzhavin in his opera creates a bright literary image of Kazan in the 16th century. One of the objectives of this work is to consider how the writer worked with the source to build the opera plot. The method of research in the article is a comparative analysis of the opera "The Terrible, or the Conquest of Kazan" and "Kazan History". As a result of the comparative characteristics of the two works, it was concluded that Kazan History can rightly be considered one of the main literary sources of the Derzhavin opera. The writer borrows from the Old Russian text a story about the foundation of Kazan and processes it in his own way, and this tradition becomes the plot basis of his dramatic composition.
Bochkina M.V. - Trends of Modern Literature in Yu. Polyakov's Novel 'Love in the Time of Change' pp. 287-292


Abstract: The author of the article explores the issue of traditions and innovations in understanding the phenomenon of time in the novel by Y. Polyakov “Love in the Time of Change”. The novel traces not only the realistic method in depicting events but also the influence of the postmodern and neo-modern directions, primarily on the ideological and substantive level. The author of the paper analyzes the motive of a gap in time as a result of a cultural trauma, as well as a motive of ontological emptiness, reflecting the nature of the era of change, described in the novel. The method of research of this work is the cultural-historical approach. The theoretical basis of this study is the work of M. Lipovetsky, A. Schopenhauer, and M. Bakhtin. Thus, the researcher discovers such features of Yu. Polyakov's novel “Love in the Time of Change” as polyphony, the prevalence of laughter, elements of the language game, and the mask of the author-narrator characteristic of modern literature. At the substantive level of the novel,  the researcher analyzes the opposition between historical contingence and time fragmentation that unites a number of non-modernist novels. 
Romanova K.S. - Development of Gaito Gazdanov's Existential Views (the Case Study of his 'Constantinople' Prose) pp. 293-299


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the texts of Gaito Gazdanov recreating the picture of the life of Russian emigration in Constantinople. Gazdanov's "Constantinople" prose describes the border situation in which existential questions are especially acute: he reflects on the purpose of human existence, the boundaries of the individual "Self", the relationship between natural and cultural principles in human nature, the possibility of finding a foothold in a situation of total alienation. In the "Constantinople" fragment of the story "The Story of a Journey," the writer denies the possibility of building happiness rooted in external being. The feeling of happiness is extremely subjective and consists of individual spiritual experiences, momentary insights, the acuteness and intensity of which depend on the individual degree of sensitivity to beauty. In the story “Weak Heart”, the Gazdanov narrator is at first captured by the aesthetic charm of the city. However, his focus soon shifted: from the panoramic “sparkling view of the Bosporus and cool nights above the mosques” to close-up situations of domestic deprivation and psychological dramas of the Russian émigré, which lead him to existential generalizations about the essence of human existence in general. The article uses descriptive and biographical methods of research, as well as a comparative comparative method in the analysis of the prose of Gazdanov and J.P. Sartre. The author comes to the conclusion that the writer's observations of the hard life of the Russian emigration in Constantinople became the most important impetus for the formation of his existential views. The harsh Constantinople reality helped Gazdanov to discover that fatal “wormhole” of life, which, from his point of view, causes the inescapable tragedy of human life.
Kononova A.V. - Common European Tradition in Seamus Heaney's Creative Writing: Dialogue with Ancient Literature pp. 300-305


Abstract: The subject of the research is the work of the Irish poet Shaymas Heaney, one of the largest representatives of modern English-language poetry. The purpose of the article is to study the role and functions of ancient literature both in prose and in Heeney's poetry. The author of the article refers to the works, critical articles, interviews of the poet himself, as well as theoretical works of the world's leading researchers on the problems of tradition in literature, as well as scholars who study directly the life and work of Heaney. The methodology of the article is determined by the guidelines of comparative literature. The author of the article uses such methods as comparative historical, contextual, textual analysis, etc. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that, despite the growing interest in Heaney's poetry, there is practically no research on this literature on this aspect of the poet’s work. The author of the article concludes that the antique literature becomes an important link in the development of the creative path of Heeney and an indispensable material for understanding Heeni’s work in the aspect of its interaction with the literary heritage of previous eras. The study of this phenomenon, not only in the context of other works by Heaney, but also in the broad context of European literature, makes it possible to examine the work of the Irish poet in “big time” and to reveal the features of his interaction with the common European literary tradition.
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