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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Literary criticism"
Literary criticism
Tsendrovskiy O. - Philosophy of Antoine de Saint-Exupery: Experience in Reconstruction pp. 1-33


Abstract: The article is devoted to the philosophy expressed by Antoine de Saint-Exupery in his books. This topic is often underestimated and very scarcely described in research literature. By analyzing Exupery's book 'Citadelle' (titled in English as The Wisdom of the Sands) and more famous Exupery's works, the author of the present article shows the wholeness of Exupery's teaching and the acuteness of the humanistic, existential and moral issues in Exupery's philosophy. The author also underlines that Exupery's philosophy can be classified as the West European philosophy of late Art Nouveau because Exupery discusses such typical late Art Nouveau topics as the transvaluation of values, understanding of the place of human after the death of God and fight against nihilism. In the course of a detailed analysis and from the point of view of systematic interpretation, the author of the article describes Exupery's views on a number of fundamental philosophical issues such as the existence of God and the meaning of life, measure of value and the essence of the truth. The main emphasis is made on the so called 'ethical pathos' of Exupery's creative work. The author of the article in detail analyzes the 'heroic ideal' offered by Exupery as well as the system of values and basic ethical principles that are now deduced from the essence of a mortal man but not the divine reality. The result of the author's research is the creation of an integrated concept of Exupery's philosophy which is new in both Russian and Western scientific literature. The author shows that Exupery's views were very close to Nietzsche's teaching and gravitated towards the radical politics. The author also provides quite an interesting description of Exupery's psychological and cultural views. 
Naumenko G. - The Wanderer pp. 1-49


Abstract: The object of the research is a poem “The Wanderer” by A.S.Pushkin The subject of the research is Mickiewicz’s implication as a key to the poem’s understanding. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that the poem was written in the dialogue with the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, to find Mickiewicz’s implication and to perform the literary analysis of Pushkin’s poem by comparing it with the sixth poem “The Passage” from the poem “The Dziady” III and with an extract from “The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come” by Bunyan to which Pushkin referred to. (The poem “Oleszkiewicz” and Mickiewicz’s implication are the sources and impulses for Pushkin’s word and the first part of Bunyan’s poem is a canvas, the language of the generally accepted religious schemes). The research is based on the method of “careful reading” of “The Wanderer” in the context of Pushkin’s work in 1833-1836 as well as an intertextual analysis of the texts by Pushkin, Mickiewicz and Bunyan. The research includes references to well-known interpretations and analysis of Pushkin’s poem.  The dialogue between Pushkin and Mickiewicz, and wider – a talk to the West, resulted in the fact the the theme of Christianity in Pushkin’s work of the last years became key in the conflict between the East (Russia) and the West. That conflict was shown by Mickiewicz in his “Passage” from the Christian punitive point of view. The poem “The Wanderer” (1835) became is a poetic reply on the theme of “reading the Book” (the Holy Scripture) that we can find in Mickiewicz’s work and also the first part of Pyshkin’s “Reading the Book” about the way from slavery to the Liberty. Pushkin showed a wrong way to the Liberty which contradicts his understanding of the New Testament. It is proved by the constructive division of the poem into five parts (the Pentateuch model). He showed “the right way” in his “evangelic” Kamennoostrovskij cycle (1836) which was created in the tight connection with “The Wanderer”. In “The Wanderer” the poet was not ready for “the Court”, but in the poem number VI “From Pindemonte” he appears at the Court with his speech.
Rostovtseva Y.A. - Reception of Ekaterina the Second's Laws in V. Levshin's Utopia 'Newest Travel or Written in the City of Belev' pp. 1-21


Abstract: Article is devoted to V. A. Levshin's utopia "The latest travel composed in the city of Belev" (1784). Work was published in the XIII-XVI parts of the "Interlocutor of Fans of the Russian Word" magazine. Researchers, as a rule, focused interest on its first part representing the ideal city on the Moon. The city-state has a primitive political system, in it there are no written laws. Life of lunatist is compared with legendary "a golden eyelid". Levshin's composition was considered in scientific literature, first of all, in the context of a subject of a freemasonry, motives of air travel. In the first key researches N. K. Piksanova, V. I. Sakharova, L. V. Omelko, in J. Breyllar's researches are written, T.V. Artemyeva consecrated an aeronautics subject. Laws of the utopian state were described in S. L. Baer's works and some other scientists, however a subject of separate research didn't become. Meanwhile, the end of "The latest travel" represents a panegyric of Ekaterina's Russia in which the paramount place is allocated for the wise laws "Monarchess's velikiya". It should be noted that not only reception of laws of Catherine II, but also an image of Ekaterina's Russia in Levshin's utopia I didn't become a subject of studying earlier. The author of article considers a literary utopia in an unusual context of legislative reforms of Ekaterina the Second. The basis of a scientific method is made by textual comparisons and motivny communications between Levshin's composition and group of texts of the Ekaterina's legislation.On the basis of "A big order of the empress" (1767), "The charter of deanery, or the police officer" (1782) and a number of manifestos, charters and maxims of different years attempt to reveal becomes, the laws of the ideal state which are how described on "The latest travel" correspond modern to it reality.
Simush P.I. - Geniuses and Russia: mutual cognition pp. 1-44


Abstract: The author of the article examines Gogol’s works through the prism of the phenomenon of genius. He shows that Orthodoxy had a great influence on the writer’s personality. In many respects it changed his internal world, influenced literary works. The writer believed that Orthodoxy could reform Russian reality. In particular, he was aware of an enormous resource of freedom. But Gogol realized that freedom could not only enrich an individual but also «enchant» him with a possibility of enrichment, clinging to a particular religion and loosing faith in free creativity. The author also points to the comprehensive influence of Orthodoxy on reforms in Russian life. At the same time he turns to present-day reality, showing the prophetic gift of the writer.The author employs traditional methods of literary criticism. He uses the comparativist method to show the influence of tradition on Gogol’s works. He also leans on philosophical methods of analysis of literary texts. The article presents the works of Gogol as a founder of ironic narration in Russian literature. The writer constantly employs laughter and irony as ways to uncover the absurdism of social projects. The writer views Russia as a country of unseen paradoxes. Gogol has raised a question that turns us to philosophical reflection about human nature. He tries to oppose the fascination with riches. His special attention is paid to philistinism. Later, this theme in Russian literature will be taken up by many authors. A. Herzen will give an interpretation of «philistinism»; K. Leontiev will establish a relation between «pettiness» and «philistinism»; D. Merezhkovsky will identify pettiness with ignorance, banality, mediocrity; M. Gorky will furiously attack complacent petty bourgeosie. Meaning the opposition between good and evil, between love and hatred, A.P. Chekhov, as the author shows, has chosen ethical wisdom capable of counteracting evil by force of love.
Faritov V.T. - Philosophical aspects of time and space in the work of A.S. Pushkin pp. 1-30


Abstract: This article discusses the philosophical aspects of space and time in the poetry of A.S. Pushkin. On a material analysis of poems of the poet author explicates the direction of the dynamics of lyrical chronotop Pushkin. Reveals connection between artistic representation of space and time in Pushkin's poetry with the fundamental problems of metaphysics. Carried out a comparative analysis of the lyrical chronotop Pushkin with chronotope F.I. Tyutchev and M. Voloshin. Reveals the closeness of the poetic world of Pushkin and philosophical ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche. We use the methods of comparative literature and methodological orientations of metaphysics Russian literature. Partially used the principles of hermeneutics and deconstruction. The main result of the study is to identify two types of rhythmic organization of space and time in the poetry of Pushkin and explication of their philosophical aspects. It is shown that the lyrical chronotop Pushkin tends to surpass the limits of the classical metaphysical oppositions towards anticipating the conceptual development of non-classical philosophy.
Perevalov V.P. - History illustrated in the images of the A. S. Pushkins The Stationmaster pp. 1-61


Abstract: This article researches the issues of history manifested in creative images. The subject of the analysis is the novel by Alexander Pushkin “The Stationmaster”, which represents a great example in this case. With thin the ever-increasing number of various interpretations of Pushkin’s work on the story of the life of Samson Vyrin, the phenomenon of time is strangely under-studied. The strange fact is that within the existing interpretations there is a predominant factor of abstract time (past-present-future) that calls for transition towards perception of specific time. This is the starting task of the observations and reasoning presented in the article. The article reconstructs precise time of events and the timespan of the story.  The “calendar-overlay” timeline correlates with the biographical data of Pushkin and his (close) acquaintances, and plays the role of a reliable compass in establishing the complicated relation between the image fabric of Pushkin’s novel and the reality that served as the source of the story. In fact, the biographical image of “The Stationmaster” is the relations between Pushkin, Karamzin, and the “young Jacobins” (Decembrists) during 1816-1826/27. The main result of the analysis of this creative work in the mirror of precise time is the discovery of paradoxical impression in the image of the main character of the hero of the story and the persona of N. M. Karamzin, who loved paradoxes. The discovery of an unknown Karamzin in the renowned novel of Pushkin enriches the possibility of a deeper understanding of the historical continuity between them within the development of Russian spiritual culture.
Nilogov A.S., Varava V.V. - Russian Literature Versus Russian Philosophy (Conversation of A. Nilogov with V. Varava) pp. 1-10


Abstract: The phenomenon of the Russian classical literature is considered to be internationally recognized. However recently even in Russia it was repeatedly called into question including taking into account constantly falling interest in reading as such. Alternative views on the Russian classical literature gradually get into Russian literary criticism, thus restricting the developed representations. Modern Russian literature can hardly already apply for "the ruler of thoughts" as in the good old days. Numerous spiritual and intellectual traditions restrict it on all fronts, offering in exchange at least substantial practices. The actual Russian philosophy acts as one of them and two representatives of Russian philosophy have decided to discuss the literary topic. The following methods have been used in their conversation: analytical, hermeneutic, interview, critical, literary, synthetic, comparative, philosophical, and heuristic. According to V. Varava, modern Russian literature needs a new existential breakthrough to show efficient alternative ways out of the spiritual crisis which has covered the country. However, according to A. Nilogov, today literature as a written form of literature is technologically replaced with an electronic form that exist only on the Internet. 
Tetik K. - Valery Bryusov and Urban "Texts" in Russian Literature ("Moscow" and "Petersburg" Texts) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article deals with urban ("Moscow" and "St. Petersburg") texts in the poetry of Valery Bryusov. A lot of researches of literary critics are dedicated to this issue. In this article the image of the city is associated with two capitals Moscow and St Petersburg. The object of the research is the corpus of texts that fully represent the image of the two capitals. The poet describes these cities from the point of view of their historical and metaphysical reality. When appealing to the image of St. Petersburg, the symbolist Bryusov pays much attention to the architecture of the city. This fact raises a question about the method of ecphrasis in poetics. The methodology of this research involves the comparative analysis of Moscow and Petersburg poems by Bryusov as well as historical-functional and historical-genetic analysis methods. According to the author of the article, urban poems by Bryusov present Moscow and Petersburg texts quite fully. However, there are several very important differences between representations of these cities. For example, the image of Moscow is included in the metahistorical context but the poet keeps addressing to his contemporary epoch. Tehre are also old Moscow, the city of riot and Napoleon's war, and Soviet Moscow that is still to be understood poetically by the symbolist. The image of Petersburg (sometimes called Petrograd) is given in a very exclusive perspective and closely related to Peter the Great, an important figure for the poet. Poems that present the image of Petersburg are full of references to the city's architecture and monuments which allows to talk about the use of the ecphrasis method. However, both cities are highly spoken of by the poet both from the historical and metaphysical point of view which proves the ontological nature of Bryusov's works. 
Shchepalina V. - Sources of Alejandro Casona's Individual Author's Style pp. 1-10


Abstract: The object of the resaerch is an individual author's style of a Spanish playwright Alejandro Casona. The subject of the research is the process of Alejandro Casona developing his author's style. The author of the article analyzes the factors that influenced the process such as facts of Casona's biography (his childhood in Asturias, work as a country teacher, participation in Teachers' missions, career as a screenwriter) as well as global literary process that were ongoing back in those times (reformation of the style of the representatives of the 98s, movement of Spanish modernism and new drama, influence of impressionism on literature). In her research Schepalina applied biographical, psychological, comparative methods, stylistic analysis as well as observation, generalisation and description. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that there are no major researches devoted to Casona in Russin academic literature. The present research gives an insight into sources of the playwright's artistic style and thus makes a contribution to understanding the literary process in Spain of the 20th century. The illustrations provided by the author allow to prove theoretical concepts offered by the researcher. 
Khe F. - pp. 1-10


Kharlamova S. - Rock Musician as the Author of Prose: Methodological Notes, Relation of Sound and Text Based on Michael Gira's Creative Writing pp. 6-14


Abstract: The article is devoted to the interaction between a text and music in the creative writing of a rock musician who is the author of prose and composer of songs at the same time. The subject of the research is the intermedial links between text and music and relation between text and musical composition as well as specific features of the representation of sound inside a text and its meaning in poetics of a literary piece. The research material is the collections of short stories written by an American rock musican and independent performing musician Michael Gira, studio albums and performances of the Swans rock band. The research is based on intermedial and comparative research methods. Kharlamova also makes general remarks regarding the definitino of the term 'fictional prose of rock musicians' and analysis of the verbal component of rock compositions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that intermedial connections are traced by the author from the point of view of their relation to fiction and popular music (independent experimental music in this case) as well as their opposition to the academic music. The research singularity is that the researcher analyzes the creative system of one author who writes music, texts of his songs and fictional prose. Kharlamova discovers aesthetical links between fictional prose and musical composition as well as representatino of audio and musical images in short stories and their role in the poetics of collections. The researcher also describes the general tendencies in prose and music of one author. As a conclusion, the author emphasizes the importance of sound and music in the literary world of short stories and close aesthetical connection between finctional text and musical compositions. Addressing to the interaction between a literary text and experimental music allows to significantly expand the concept of intermedial links of literature and music in particular and the concept of musicality in literature in general. 
Paramonova M.K. - The Genre of the Funeral Sermon in Russian Oratorical Prose of the Second Half of the XVIIIth Century pp. 17-23


Abstract: The object of the research is the genre of the funeral sermon as one of the most ancient rhetoric genres that was popular in Russian oratorica prose of the 18th century. The funeral sermon was actively developed during Peter's time and back in those times the aforesaid genre performed not only religious but also political functions. In the second half of the century the funeral sermon acquired the moral and didactic nature. The style of the word was changed, too. Long periods and numerous quotations from the Holy Bible were replaced by a shorter text and simple understandable vocabulary. The main research method used by the author of the present article is the comparative historical method: the genre is viewed in terms of the literary, cultural and historical environment of those times. As an example of the funeral sermon the author carries out a philological analysis of the text from Ekaterina's times 'The Speech for the Funeral of the Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna' written by the metropolitan Platon (Levshin). Never before in the academic literature funeral sermons of the second half of the 18th century was chosen as an object of an independent research since researchers usually pay attention to funeral sermons of Peter's time. However, the second half of the 18th century was the most beneficial for the development of the genre because it was the time when funeral sermons were actively written and published, the circle of people those funeral sermons were devoted to expanded and the genre was firmly established as the genre of religious oratorical prose. 
Kotova A.V. - Concerning the Sources of Comparison: V. Fl. 6. 609612 pp. 17-22


Abstract: Comparisons play an important role in the system of expressive means used in a poetic text. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of lexical-stylistic features of ancient epic poems written by Roman writers who based their plots on mythology. The purpose of this article is to analyze comparison as a stylistic device of the Roman epic poetry in I century of Christian era. The subject of the research is individual artistic features of comparing the main hero Yason to the Caucasus Mountain in Valerius Flaccus' poem 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). In her research Kotova applies both general research methods and special philological methods of interpretation of ancient texts. As a result of the research, the author makes the following conclusions: comparison of man to mountain in ancient epos ascends to Hom. I1.13.754–755. In Latin epos the brightest comparison of man to mountain can be found in the passage from Aeneis (12. 697–703) that is based on verses from the Iliad and serves as a source for comparison in 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). Using the description of Apennines, Valerius Flaccus adopted the lexical content and tertium comparationis. At the same time, the poet added the epithet 'hibernus' and reference to the previous comparison (6. 604–608) of the peak of Yason's helmet to maleficent Sirius. By doing so, the poet emphasized the fatality of Yason for Medea. Thus, Kotova analyzes how Valerius Flaccus reviewed the work of his predecessors and used comparison in his own writings. The results of the research extend our knowledge about Valerius Flaccus' writings and can be used in following researches of stylistic features of 'Argonautica'.   
Volkhovskaia A. - The Pushkinian Theme in Montserrat Roig's Writings pp. 17-25


Abstract: In her article Volkhovskaya analyzes the book 'Golden Spire' written by the Catalonian writer Montserrat Roig and devoted to the biography and creative writing of Alexander Pushkin. The book was published in Barcelona in 1985 and included the main materials collected by Montserrat Roig about the Russian poet. The author of the article tries to trace back the process of Montserrat Roig's developing her interest in Alexander Pushkin as well as to view new aspects of the Spanish writer's perception of Pushkin's creative writing which she added to those that already existed at the moment. In the course of writing her book, Montserrat Roig has used Henri Troyat's research 'Pushkin' as well as translations of Pushkin's works into the Spanish language. All quotations from Montserrat Roig's book are given by the author of the article in Spanish. The article is based on the analysis of two works written by Montserrat Roig, Golden Spire and 'My Travel to Blockade' in which she studied and described Pushkin's biography and creative life. Volkhovskaya also considers the cultural and historical background of these works, the moments the writer focused on, and the choice of literary and other sources that she used to write her work. According to the author, the following aspects of Montserrat Roig's writings should be noted: - Montserrat Roig makes the reader to create an association link between the image of Pushkin and the image of St. Petersburg; - for the first time in the history of Spanish studies of Pushkin, Alexander Pushkin's creative works are perceived from the point of view of realism; - Montserrat Roig analyzes the poet's relations with his wife from the point of view of feminist ideology.
Anisimova O.V. - Allusions in the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny (Corwin Cycle) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The object of the study is the intertextuality of Corwin cycle. The subject of the research is made up by allusions of first five parts of the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny. In particular, the article touches upon numerous allusions to different fiction texts and myths, among which are the works by English classics as well as Celtic and Bible legends. The study material is constituted by such parts of the cycle as Nine Princes in Amber, The Guns of Avalon, Sign of the Unicorn, The Hand of Oberon, and The Courts of Chaos. The methods used in the study are: the method of intertextual analysis, textual method, and the method of comparative analysis. Scientific novelty of the given research is in the first ever attepmt to track the regularities of Zelazny's use of allusions and reminiscences in his works, and in his most famous novel the Chronicles of Amber in particular; to understand the way the intertext functions in the text corpus by the American fantasy writer. The main findings of the research undertaken are as follows: each part of Corwin cycle can be referred to a particular piece of world literature, or regarded in the context of this or that mythology system; allusions to mythology used by Zelazny play the plotforming function thus helping the writer to create the fantasy basis of the cycle's secondary world; distinctive literature allusions aim at revealing the main character's inner world, showing his psychological evolution, and also at making fictional characters comprehensible to modern readers; allusions to the Book of Revelation, in their turn, are used by the writer to create the key image of the whole cycle - the image of Apocalypse.
Kuzmin G. - 'Morki Text' in Mari Prose (on the Problem Statement) pp. 22-27


Abstract: In his research Kuzmin brings forth the problem of the local (regional) text, in particular, 'Morki text' in Mari folk literature. In his research Kuzmin gives a definition of 'Morki text' in terms of existing definitions of 'St. Petersburg text', 'Moscow text', 'Northern text', etc. and defines the key factors that contributed to the origin and development of Morki text. In his research Kuzmin pays special attention to the geographical factor in the development of Morki text and describes the main features of the message, problem, topic, narration and style unity of all Morki texts. This article is of theoretical and methodological nature. Therein the author applies analytical, systems and comparative methods of literary analysis. Kuzmin analyzes Russian academic approaches to analyzing the origin, development and current state of local supertexts from the point of view of their importance and possibility to be used to describe the term 'Morki text' in Mari folk prose. 
Semenova A. - The Historical Basis of the Epic Poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov pp. 23-37


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical component of the epic poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov. The poem on the theme of Russian history presupposes references to historical sources and processing of historical material. At the same time, the poem did not have to be authentic, the author was free to interpret historical events in accordance with the idea of the work. It is also necessary to consider the genre features of the epic poem which requires the author to emphasize the scope and significance of the events described. A few works are devoted to "Vladimir", the historical basis of the work is not studied, which determines the relevance of this research. The author of the article attempts to reveal the correlation of history and fiction in the poem by Kheraskov. Comparison of the poem by Kheraskov with historical sources allows to determine in which cases the poet more or less freely interprets the historical material or contributes fictional details to the work. Kheraskov in "Vladimir" stands heroic pathos, and creates the image of a strong enemy, accentuates the exploits of the protagonist, thickens the paint creating a full battle canvas, and fills in the gaps in the testimonies of historians with bright details. Historicity in the poem recedes into the background, but it remains the foundation on which the plot of the poem is built.
Krotovskaya N.G. - Vladimir Nabokov. Lectures on Foreign Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson pp. 24-66


Abstract: The article is based on the lecture course called 'Masters of European Prose' that was prepared for students of Cornell University. These lectures describe Vladimir Nabokov as a thoughtful, penetrating and, at the same time, biased researcher who taught his audience a wonderful lesson of 'thorough reading' when a reader pays special attention at details and style of writing of the great authors. Based on the example of a well-known novel 'Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde', Vladimir Nabokov analyzes a wonderful style and writing methods used by Stevenson to make his fantastic story sound rather true and real. Special attention is paid at the problem of difficult relations between the Good and the Evil, their struggle and interaction.
Guseva N.V., Kudryavtseva R.A. - Artistic Manifestation of the Axiological Problematics in the Mari Novel about the Great Patriotic War in the Second Half of the 1940s - Early 1980s (Genre-Style Tendencies) pp. 26-34


Abstract: This article is devoted to the artistic manifestation of the axiological problematics in the Mari novel about the Great Patriotic War of the second half 1940s - early 1980s as part of the study of the value-based paradigm of Mari national literature. The authors focus on the genre-style solutions found by writers (genre subspecies of 'military' novel as well as stylistic dominants, in particular, forms and techniques of psychologism used by writers) aimed at actualisatino of the axiological content of their works. The methodological basis of the research includes historico-typological and structural-semantic analysis of writings wich demonstrates not only value-based aspects of the problematics of a 'military novel' but also manifestates poetological aspects of the genre. The authors of the article prove that axiological problematics is most brightly expressed in such subspecies of Mari 'military' novel as lyrico-dramatic, lyrico-philosophical and documentally biographic novels and the aforesaid problematics helped to develop such stylistic dominants of Mari flash fiction as psychologism, dramatism and narrative philosophization. 
Li A. - pp. 26-34


Skalnaya Y. - Genre Innovation of Bernard Shaw's Play 'Saint Joan': at the Origins of a Documentary Theatre pp. 28-38


Abstract: The subject of this research is the place of an Irish playwright Bernard Shaw in the history of the documentary theatre development. Contrary to common belief that the founder of the docudrama performance was a theatre director Erwin Piscator and the founder of the docudrama methodology was Bertolt Brecht, the author of this article points out that Shaw's plays preceded them. As the proof of her thesis, Skalnaya has chosen to analyze the play 'Saint Joan' (1920) written by Shaw right after the First World War. This research is structured as having three parts. The first part of the research is devoted to the analysis of the principles used by the playwright as the written evidence of that epoch demonstrate. The first part of the research proves that Shaw used a lot of verbatim (paraphrase and direct quotes from historical sources). The second part of the article is intended to extend the interpretation of 'document' in docudrama and provide examples of how the images of Joan of Arc and her contemporaries in fine arts and sculpture impacted the appearance of Shaw's play characters. In the final part of the research the author appeals to the comparison of the present and previous experience of the documentary theatre and traces back the performance of 'Saint Joan'. In the process of the research the author has used the historical literary method that involves analysis of the biographical, historical and cultural contexts of creation of a play, as well as the comparative method that allows to compare different points of view on the matter of the research. The author has also used some elements of the close reading technique. The results of the research demonstrate that Shaw's play 'Saint Joan' has all the typical features of the docudrama which proves the innovative nature of the play and explains why the play was not accepted by Shaw's contemporaries. Generally speaking, the conclusions made by Skalnaya in her research, create grounds for reviewing the current chronology of docudrama and tribunal theatre development.  
Antonova M.S. - Nikolay Gogol's Note in M. Vlasova's Album: the Dating Problem pp. 31-36


Abstract: The subject of the research is Nikolay Gogol's note left in M. Vlasova's (sister's of Z. Volkonskaya) album. This is the note that demnstrates the writer's gift in literary 'trifles'. Antonova analyses the main themes of V. Arutyunova's and R. Yakobson's article 'An unknown album page by Nikolaj Gogol'. The author raises a question about the dating of Gogol's note as well as analyzes intertextual links to other works written by Gogol, in particular, common motifs and references to the second volume of Dead Souls. The main research method used by the author is the structural analysis of the text as well as analysis of information about the owner of the album and dating of the note. The main outcome of the research is the systematization of information about M. Vlasova and her relationship with Gogol. By discovering intertextual links to other Gogol's writings, for example, missing chapters to the second volume of Dead Souls, plays 'Theatre Trip' and 'Extract' and Rome letters, the author of the article extends the borders of possible dating of the aforesaid album note. 
Seredina A.O. - Interior Details in Apollon Grigoriev's Narrative Literature pp. 35-45


Abstract: The article is devoted to the topic that has never been studied before which is the interior details and development of the interior details in Apollon Grigoriev's fiction. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the perception and description of the surrounding space by the hero of the memoirs 'My literary and moral wandering' (1862, 1864). Seredina traces back how the interior in Apollon Grigoriev's house and the writer's attitude to the external world (the world of objects) were reflected in the poetics of Grigoriev's early prose of mid 1840s. In addition, the author sets a task to demonstrate the connection between the interior and psychological portraits of the main heroes. The basis for the comparative analysis of Apollon Grigoriev's prose is the first theoretical research of the interior performed by I. Sudoeva. Despite the fact that in the majority of cases the description of the interior in Grigoriev's prose is pointing out individual elements of the interior (lighting, bed and door) and gives an insight into the internal world of the heroes. The universality of the description achieved through the absence of details helps to create the portrait type. The dreaminess of the hero of the memoirs, fed by the evenings spent on a bed without light, in early prose is embodied in the type of hero-dreamers the description of which is accompanied by a bed and the light of a burning candle. The audio perception of space, characteristic of the hero of the memoirs, turns into an aggravated attention to the sounds of wanderers in early prose which helps to expand the space of the room and give an idea of its structure.
Ge J. - pp. 35-42


Vorobyova O. - The History of Cooperation of Fyodor Dostoevsky with the Journal 'Russkoye Slovo' (the Case Study of his Correspondence with Contemporaries) pp. 36-44


Abstract: The object of the present research is the journal The Russian Word published by Grigory Kushelyov-Bezborodko. The subject of the research of Fyodor Dostoevsky's participation in that journal project. Based on the analysis of the epistolary material of the writer with his contemporaries, Vorobieva step-by-step develops the history of Fyodor Dostoevky's cooperation with the Russkoye Slovo Journal. In this article Vorobieva focuses on the writer's attempts to return to literature: on the one hand, Dostoevsky published his novel 'Uncle's Dream' which he had written after the forced-labor camp in a journal of little promise 'Russkoye Slovo'. On the other hand, despite his difficult situation, Dostoevsky dictates his own terms to editors. In her research Vorobieva uses the psychobiographical method to define for which reasons and in what manner Fyodor Dostoevsky tried to affect people his creative fate depended on. The historical comparative method used by the author also helps to compare other writers' attitudes to the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' and outline differences in the principles followed by the journal editors. The main conclusions of the research are as follows: the editors of Russkoye Slovo helped Dostoevsky in his difficult times by publishing his novel but not vice versa as literary experts used to believe. Despite the fact that Dostoevsky's participation in that jornal was forced and his novel 'Uncle's Dream' was not approved by critics, Fyodor Dostoevsky's cooperation with Russkoye Slovo gave impulse to Fyodor Dostoevskyt to return to the literary community of St. Petersburg. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he uses historical reconstructions that allows to cover gaps in a number of successive facts. When such approach is applied, reconstructions inevitably attains a hypothetic nature, however, they allow to describe the history of the writer's cooperation with the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' in a wider sense without just limiting to the comments made in the 30-volume 'Complete Set of Fyodor Dostoevsky's Works'. In her research Vorobieva has used materials from the Russian State Historical Archive and the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library. 
Volkhovskaia A. - Life and Creative Writing of Alexandr Pushkin in the Eyes of Spanish Writers of the Generation 98 pp. 39-45


Abstract: The article is devoted to rare episodes of Spanish writers of the Generation 98 referring to the creative legacy of Alexandr Pushkin. In her research Volkhovskaya gives several extracts from Pio Baroja's, Miguel de Unamuno's and Antonio Machado's texts in which they either quoted or analyzed Alexandr Pushkin's stories. All quotations are published and translated by the author of the article for the first time. The article is ended with the conclusions about new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's creative writing by the aforesaid Spanish writers. In her research Volkhovskaya applies the method of comparative historical analysis and analyzes extracts from texts written by Spanish writers of the Generation 98 that contained mentioning biographical facts or references to Alexandr Pushkin's writings. The author's special contribution to the topic is the discovery and translation of all available Spanish extracts by the writers of the Generation 98 about Pushkin. The main result of the research is the discovery of new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's biography and creative writing by Spanish readers.
Popova V. - Concerning the Role of a Revolutionary Writer in a New Society: Waldo Frank at Writers' Congresses of 1935 pp. 45-50


Abstract: In her research Popova focuses on two speeches made by an American writer Waldo Frank (1889–1967) at the First Convention of the League of American Writers (held in New York, 1935) and International Congress for the Defense of Culture (held in Paris, 1935) during the period of intensive cooperation with the USSR. The author also analyzes views of Waldo Frank on the role of a writer in a new society. Popova studies sources from the funds of The Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts which allows to cover unpublished materials of the writers' congresses that hadn't been published in the USSR. The author applies the historical literary method that implies analysis of biographical and historical sources, and text analysis method to analyze different versions of Waldo Frank's speeches at the Congress for the Defense of Culture in Paris as well as different publications thereof in the Russian language and extracts from the texts of his speeches. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Waldo Frank's creative writing and his relatons with the USSR are left practically understudied by the Russian literary studies. Analysis of Frank's relations with the Soviet Union allows to define the relationship between his literary interests and public position: strong cooperation with the USSR in 1930s coincided with Frank's active participation in the activity of American and European left and anti-fascist organizations. When he broke up his relations with the Soviet Union after 1937, his public activity declined, he withdrew from the USA Communist Party and left the League of American Writers. 
Demicheva N. - The Problem of Historical Literary Analysis of The Capture of Pskov Tale pp. 46-56


Abstract: This article is devoted to The Capture of Pskov Tale from the Pskov First Chronicle and Sofia First Chronicle. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of The Capture of Pskov Tale and the late introduction thereto. In her research Demicheva emphasizes the fact that the system of expressive means used correlates to the message of the author (or editor). The Capture of Pskov Tale is viewed by the author of the article in terms of traditions of Russian chronicle writing. In particular, Demicheva analyzes transformation of the extract 'Slovo' by Serapion of Vladimir therein. In her research Demicheva uses the method of historical literary analysis of Old Russian literature developed by V. Adrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, and A. Pautkin. The author of the article concludes that The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle conveys the point of view of Pskov citizens who were loyal towards the reign of the great Muscovite prince and very negative towards Muscovite governors of Pskov. The introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale of the Pskov First Chronicle and The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Sofia First Chronicle express a more negative attitude to the capture of Pskov to Moscow than in The Capture of Pskov Tale itself as part of the Pskov First Chronicle Tale. Therein the author of the introduction emphasized the fact that Pskov was an independent city before the events of 1509 - 1510 took place. Based on the analysis of chronicles, the author of the article disputes a point of view that the introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle was written in Novgorod.  
Eremina E. - Miguel de Unamuno and His Tragic Sense of Life pp. 50-67


Abstract: The present article is devoted to studying the 'agonic' philosophy of a Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. His philosophy was formed under the influence of the historical and social environment and particular facts from the writer's personal biography. All works written by Miguel de Unamuno after the crisis of the 1987th are full of thoughts about faith and lack of faith, death and immortality and a certain tragic tone. For Unamuno life is an 'agony', constant doubts and struggle against death. According to Miguel de Unamuno, feelings, reason, faith and science are struggling in human's soul and this 'agony' is the true life. Unamuno's philosophical searches go beyound the scope of an essay and take the form of narrative experiments. His philosophy evolves around the problem of individual immortality. The desire to live forever and the reason telling that this desire will never come true literally tore Unamuno apart. Trying to to understand the nature of relations between Human and his Creator, Unamuno appeals to imagination as the last method of knowledge and uses a novel as a model of reality. 
Drobinin G.D. - pp. 50-61


Kudryavtseva R.A. - pp. 51-69


Razgulina L. - Free Labour and Free Dance: Aesthetical Ideology of Avant-Garde in Charles Olson's Version pp. 56-67


Abstract: The subject matter of this article is the first volume of The Maximus Poems (1960) which Charles Olson wrote at The Black Mountain College where he was a teacher and then a rector. Razgulina tries to demonstrate the connection between the nature and directivity of Olson's search the field of poetic form with his efforts to embody in the word, syllable the orders of human sociality. In connection with the interdisciplinary nature of the stated subject, the research approach used in the article is synthetic and combines historical, cultural, poetic, mediological methods of analysis. Charles Olson (1910-1970) is an influential figure of the American poetic neo-avant-garde, practically unknown in Russia and not studied at all. Also, the interaction of the theory and practice of free labor and free dance in the avant-garde works of Charles Olson has not been studied either in Russian or in foreign science. This article is meant to begin to fill these lacunae. In this article, the authors conclude that the aesthetics of writing Olson likens the aesthetics of craftwork and the aesthetics of dance. In the first, it is important for him to feel the natural material as well as the continuity of labor effort, imperceptibly creating history. In the second, it is important to enjoy coordinated movement. Olson is trying to write his experimental epic based on these two premises. According to the authors, Self-Maximus, the epic hero of Charles Olson, has two hypostases: he lives / works in history and he lives / dances in language, in the practice of reflective speech use.
Gavrilova N. - The Date When Chekhov Wrote His Play 'Uncle Vanya': Analysis of the Main Points of View pp. 59-65


Abstract: This article is devoted to the main points of view on possible dates for Anton Chekhov writing his play 'Uncle Vanya'. The aim of the research is to analyze existing theories about the date when Chekhov wrote his play and carry out a detailed analysis of their proof. In the course of her research Gavrilova has referred to a lot of researches devoted to the transformation of the play 'The Wood Demon' to the play 'Uncle Vanya'. Checkhov left very contradictory information about the exact date when the play was written, therefore there are several groups of researchers with different views on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written. The research is based on such literary methods as comparative, analytical, critical, biographical, and cultural historical. As a result of the research, Gavrilova describes the main views of researchers who studied Ckekhov's creative writing on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written and analyzes relevant arguments. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that in her research Gavrilova extends a general scope of views on the date when Chekhov wrote his play analyzing not only classical but also contemporary approaches to the problem. As a result of her analysis of the aforesaid theories, the author of the article concludes that despite the fact that the matter is widely studied, the question when Anton Chekhov wrote his play 'Uncle Vanya' still remains. However, due to the great interest of modern researchers to the play 'Uncle Vanya', it is quite likely that future studies of Chekhov's creative writing will cast a light on the exact date of creation of 'Uncle Vanya'. 
Chernov A.V. - Francisco Sa de Miranda: Two Traditions of Perception pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of the research is the two traditions of perceiving the image and style of the Portugese Renaisance poet Francisco Sa de Miranda that offered two approaches to historical interpretation of the poet's legacy. The first tradition was developed by the younger contemporaries of Sa de Miranda and the second was offered by the researchers of the XIXth, XXth and XXIst centuries. The author of the article analyzes the points where the aforesaid two traditions contradict. The main goal of the article is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the above mentioned contradictions. The key method used by the author of the article is the comparitive analysis of texts. As a result of the comparison of two approaches to perceiving the image and style of Francisco Sa de Miranda, the author has discovered principal differences of these two traditions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the comparative analysis of texts that describe characteristics of the image and style of Sa de Miranda may be also referred to the works of the younger contemporaries of the poet and thus covers texts dated the XVIth, XIXth, XXth and XXIst centries. The author focuses on different interpretations of the poet's style according to two traditions, Renaissance tradition (the XVIth century) and modern tradition (XIX, XX and XXI). This is the first research in the academic literature that states and provides a detailed analysis of the ideological differences of aforesaid traditions which comprises the novelty of the research. The conclusions made by the author may be of great use for further researches on Portuguese Renaissance literature. 
Grigorian G. - pp. 70-78


Okulova T.N. - Chapters of Russian Journalism History of the Last Third of the XVIIth Century: On the Way to the XIXth Century pp. 76-85


Abstract: In her research Okulova analyzes selected chapters of the journalism history of the last third of the XVIIIth century. She provides a general description of several 'passing-through' journalistic themes that help to better understand what caused the shift in the public conscience that happened in 1770 - 1780 and was vividly expressed in the new Russian literature that was going from European influences to the true historical and cultural independency. In her research Okulova has also made an attempt to outline the effect of a number of national ideas that could be found in Russian journals of the last third of the XVIIIth century and the Patriotic War of 1812. The research methods used by the author include historicism, multi-faceted approach to evaluation of the historical literary process, socio-cultural method, and dialectical principle of research that views research subjects in process. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes a number of national ideas and Russian journalism themes of the last third of the XVIIIth century which allows a better view of the process of the new Russian literature of those times becoming mature and ideological. The peculiarity of this article is also the fact that it presents an attempt to trace back the ideas of Russian journalism of the last third of the XVIIIth century and Russian literature of the first fourth of the XIXth century that played a significant rolefor the formation of the Russian national identity. For many years this historical and literary aspect (as well as a great number of terms and definitions presented in this article) has been left without research. The results of this research create a more complete view of the Russian journalism history and Russian literature of the XVIIIth - XIXth centuries in general. 
Kikteva K.D. - The Myth about Don Juan in Jose Zorrilla's Legends pp. 86-94


Abstract: The subject of the research is the myth about Don Juan in the legends of a Spanish writer Jose Zorrilla. The aim of the article is to prove that the image of a mocker and seducer who stands above the society appeared in Zorrilla's creative writing before the drama 'Don Juan Tenorio' was staged (1844), in particular, in the legends 'El capitán Montoya' and 'Margarita la tornera' (1840-1841) in which Kikteva finds obvious parallels to Don Juan Tenorio. These works demonstrate the writer's reflection over the image and is an important milestone in the history of myth interpretation in Spanish literature. The research methodology is based on the comparative anlaysis of texts created as part of a single writing tradition. To explain the changes of the image within different literary schools (in this research the author mentions Spanish romanticism and Baroque), the researcher has applied the method of historical and cultural researsch. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher refers to the interpretations of the myth of Don Juan that are understudied in Russian literary studied. The main conclusion of the research is the continuity between the figure of Don Juan Tenorio outlined in Zoprrilla's religious fantastic drama and images of seducers that had appeared in the creative writing of a playwright few years earlier. Establishing his own formula to describe components of the myth about Don Juan, the author proves that the relation of this myth to the images of mockers from Zorrilla's legends.  
Poulaki P. - pp. 87-96


Spivakovsky P. - The Tragic in Russian Metamodernism Literature pp. 95-102


Abstract: The article is devoted to the tragic metanarration in modern Russian metamodern literature and the theoretical substantiation of the new understanding of tragedy in the culture of recent decades, partly connected with postmodern epistemology and at the same time based on overcoming the limitations imposed by orthodox postmodern theory. The statements of a number of contemporary cultural researchers associated with the criticism of the shortcomings of the theory of postmodernism are considered. The article analyzes the works of Victor Pelevin and Vladimir Sorokin, and provides an interdisciplinary analysis metamodernistskogo tragedy on the material of the Viennese production of the opera by Giuseppe Verdi's "La Traviata" at the Salzburg Festival 2005 Special attention is paid to the relation between classical postmodern theory and more modern metamodernistskoy theoretical system as a phenomenon of the postmodern era . Thanks to the use of metamodern theory, it becomes clear that many works of modern Russian literature that were considered postmodernist are more reasonable to be understood in a metamodernist context that removes postmodernist bans on seriousness, depth and tragedy. This makes it possible to discover in the works of recent times new semantic layers that remained outside the field of view of researchers.
Demicheva N. - The Novel of Special Structure 'The Capture of Pskov': Problematics, Textology, Style pp. 95-100


Abstract: The article is devoted to the novel of special structure 'The Capture of Pskov' which can be found in two manuscript collections at State Public Research Library and Russian State Library. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov. Demicheva analyzes this text as an old Russian writing devoted to Novgorod and Pskov joining the Moscovite state. The researcher focuses on the genetic and ideological diversity as well as composition, structure of images and style of The Capture of Pskov. In her research Demicheva applies the method historical and literary analysis of old Russian writings as these have been offered by such researchers as V. Andrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, A. Pauktin, and N. Trofimova. The author of the article concludes that the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov has both markers of the negative attitude to Pskov joining Moscow and literary solutions that speak of the writer's Moscovite position in relation to the events of 1509 - 1510. Demicheva also suggests a hypothesis that The Capture of Pskov is not the original version of the text which explains the conflict of different points of view within one novel.  
Pakhtusova V. - Genre Syncretism in Yury Nagibin's Story 'Fiery Protopope': on the Question about Leskov's Tradition in the Russian Prose of the Second Half of the XXth Century pp. 97-102


Abstract: The article is devoted to the literary parallel between Leskov and Nagibin, the topic that has never been viewed before in earlier critical research despite the obvious existence of that parallel which was proved by confessions of Nagibin himself. The creativity of two writers is analyzed by the author of the article from the point of view of genre traditions. They prove that Nagibin often used Leskov's principles of genre syncretism. Based on the analysis of Nagibin's story 'Fiery Protopope', the author demonstrates how the writer worked with Leskov's genre model presented, in particular, in his novel 'One-Track Minded Person'. The methodological basis of the research includes theoretical research of M. Bakhtin, N. Leyderman, N. Tamarchenko, Yu. Tynyanov, V. Khalizev, L. Chernets and other researchers who viewed genre-related issues and touched upon the questions related to genre traditions. The author concludes that just like Leskov, Nagibin's story combined the features of a biographical essay, feuilleton, hagiography, and anecdote. Developing Leskov's genre model and expanding opportunities of the genre form, Nagibin brings a number of changes at the level of the genre content. The genre syncretism shown in Nagibin's texts generally reflects the trends typical for the literature of the second half of the XXth century and the reference to Leskov's texts reveals the sources of this tradition in the Russian literature and importance of the genre model that is based on the synthesis of different genre forms. 
Poletaeva E.A. - pp. 97-108


Lisitsin M. - The Phenomenon of Data Journalism in Foreign Mass Media (the Case Study of Works by Data Journalism Awards Winners) pp. 102-115


Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign data journalism projects and the analysis of works by Data Journalism Awards winners of 2014 - 2017. Despite the fact that the term 'data journalism' was first mentioned only in 2010, similar researches had been made long before it. The aim of this article is do define the main aspects of the phenomenon from the point of view of foreign mass media. The author focuses on stylistic features of the phenomenon and technical peculiarities of the content generation process. By using the content analysis and induction as the research methods, the author has come to the conclusion that data journalism requires two conditions, the data base as the source of contents and data visualisation as the means of 'telling the story'. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines general features and peculiarities of projects which enables an comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of data journalism that still has a rather uncertain status in Russia. The author also describes the key differences between the terms 'infographics', 'investigative journalism' and 'data journalism'. 
Zhitenev A. - Sensory and Affective Codes in Sergey Popov's Poetry pp. 103-112


Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the principles of the formation of the artistic world in the lyrics of the Voronezh poet Sergei Popov. The subject of the research is sensory and affective motifs in a poetic text. It is established that the principles of reflection of sensual and emotional memory in the structure of the artistic world of Sergey Popov are determined by the desire to overcome the chaotic state of the world. The work of memory has a “therapeutic” character, but it is not connected with the restoration of a torn personal history, but with the irrational introduction to the creative forces of being. The main tool of analysis is a motivational analysis in conjunction with elements of the approaches developed in the “history of emotions” and the practice of analyzing representations of corporeality. In the lyrics of Sergey Popov, memory restores subjectivity through the intensity of sensual detail, when the “Self” experiences its dissolution in the natural world, by replacing the “reverse” view with the “childish” sight. The most important thing in this experience is the collision with the language outside the language, with the experience of “fire” or “river” as statements, in which the sign and thing are not separated. Sensual contemplation, always associated with memory, is portrayed “ecstatically,” as a state that presupposes a bodily renewal of “Self.”
Kim L. - Theoretical Literary Analysis of the Term 'Network Literature' pp. 112-118


Abstract: The subject of the research is the theoretical literary structure of the phenomenon of network literature, important literary fact of the contemporary history. In the course of the research Kim analyzes and denies as insufficient several theories of network literature that are based on the search of necessary and sufficient grounds. In particular, Kim criticises post-modernist theory of network literature as a hypertext and historical theory of a network text placed on the Internet and created using technical means of the Internet environment. These theories, however, are not fully denied, the author uses elements of these theories in his integral theory of network literature that is based on the theory of an open concept. The research methodology includes the conceptual and logical analysis of relevant literary terms, theories of language games of late L. Wittgenstein and anti-essentialism of Ziff and Weitz, structural and post-structural reflection over the historico-literature definition of 'network literature'. The result of the research is the theoretical description of the intensional of the term 'network literature' that combines conceptual, historical, post-modernist and Wittgenstein's approaches. The results of the research can be used in theoretical literary and  historico-literary research as well as teaching. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author establishes the grounds for the theoretical and methodological research framework of network vocabulary. 
Poletaeva E.A. - Lyrics to Friends in a Literary Group 'The Moscow Time' pp. 118-125


Abstract: The subject of the research is the main trends in lyrics to friends created by a literary group The Moscow Time. The object of the research is the poems written by the poets who were the members of The Moscow Time devoted to friends or related to friendship. Lyrics to friends of The Moscow Time writers have never been a matter of special research in literary studies before. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the main patterns discovered in the poems devoted by The Moscow Time poets to their friends. The researcher focuses on intertextual references as part of friendship lyrics created by the literary group. The research is based on the comparative historical and analytical methyods. The author has also used theoretical provisions of L. Ginzburg's researches. The singularity of The Moscow Time group is their desire to unite and create the image of a fellowship like Pushkin's circle or Duma's three musketeers. The features of their fellowship is the opposition to the other world, jokes, friendly notes, discussions of politics, religion and philosophy. The poets also share memories about their young years spent together and commemorate dead friends. 
Yan' K. - pp. 118-127


Greshilova A. - The Myths About Peter the Great and Lenin in Tatyana Tolstaya's Prose pp. 119-124


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical myths in the prose of Tatyana Tolstaya: the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin are central to the artistic mythology of the writer, their functioning in the text is the object of research. In her article Greshilova discusses the motive structure of each of the myths, their author's interpretation and the relationship between them. Particular attention is paid to the image of St. Petersburg, because, first of all, within the framework of St. Petersburg space, parallels are built between Peter the Great and Lenin. In the process of analysis the author has applied the comparative and cultural-historical methods since it is necessary to actualize the “Petersburg text” of Russian literature, and the biographical context is also used. As a result of the work, the axiological and ontological status of the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin is revealed, which is the scientific novelty of the article. It is concluded that the key to interpreting the myth of Peter I is the “fractal” myth of St. Petersburg which Tolstoy presents in the stories one-centrically and literature-centrically. Another important conclusion is that both historical myths make an important part of the national concept of Tolstaya. Despite all its mystic and contradictory nature, the myth about Peter the First is has the constructive national beginning while the mythological image of Lenin, on the contrary, performs the destructive tendency. 
Seredina A.O. - Ekphrasis as the Expressive Means of Appolon Grigoreiv's Religious Views pp. 122-135


Abstract: In her research Seredina considers religious and aesthetic views of Apollon Grigoriev reflected on the poetics of his fiction and epistolary heritage. The focus is on religious ecphrasis, that is, descriptions of icons, images of the Madonna, frescoes, temples and monasteries. An extensive material is drawn such as texts of Grigoriev’s early prose of the mid-1840s, essays and letters of the turn of the 1850s-1860s, as well as the final work of the writer, the memoirs "My Literary and Moral Wanderings". The theoretical basis for the immanent comparative analysis is the works of N.V. Braginskaya, N.G. Morozova, E.V. Yatsenko on ecphrasis. The study found that Appolon Grigoriev put forward different requirements in evaluating a secular work of art and a work claiming to be sacred. The author of the article also traces the peculiarities of interaction between the categories of nationality and sacredness in the concepts of Appolon Grigoriev. In this article Seredina continues her analysis of the theme of ecphrasis in the prosaic heritage of Appolon Grigorieva who had not previously attracted the special attention of literary critics.
Alkhlavova I.K. - Gender-Specific Featurs of Jaminat Kerimova's Poetry (the Case Study of her Love Lyrics) pp. 126-136


Abstract: The subject of the research is the gender-specific features of the poetry of of a modern Kumyk female poet of the late XXth - early XXIst century Jaminat Kerimova. The object of the research is her love lyrics. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as 'female poetry', masculine world view, difference between 'male' and 'female' poetry. For example, unlike men women tend to give a more emotional and pathetic description of their surroundings, love and family life because women usually depict the sphere of life that is close and clear for them themselves. The researcher also covers important motives in female poetry such as the motif of one-way love, destroyed illusions, unhappy family life, unrealized dreams of being a mother, etc. In the course of the research the author has used such research methods as comparison, psychological analysis and description. The main results of the research include: descripton of 'female' features of creative writing, typical featurse being pathetics and listening to one's heart, as well as description of the ideological features, genre and structure of images used by Kerimova. The author's special contribution to the topic is her analysis of specific features of female poetry which gives a better insight into gender-related issues. The dominating motif in female lyrics is love that demonstrates gender-specific style most brightly. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes creative writing of Jaminat Kerimova whose literary legacy is still understudied as part of Kumyk and Dagestan literature. 
Dulova S.A., Nikolaev N.I. - pp. 128-134


Shestakova I. - pp. 135-142


Borozdina M. - Nikolay Chaev's Poem 'Nadya'. On the Question about Transformation of the Poem Genre in the Russian Literature of the 1870s pp. 136-142


Abstract: This article is devoted to the question of the transformation of the genre of the poem in Russian literature of the 1870s. The object of the research is the poem “Nadya” by Nikolay Chaev, a Russian writer who in the literary environment is mostly known as the author of historical dramas and chronicles from ancient Russian history. The purpose of our study is to confirm the idea that in the 1870s, writers try to peculiarly revive the seemingly outdated genre of the poem, essentially transforming it. In the course of the analysis of the stated theme, the author of the work relies on the following literary methods: cultural-historical, comparative, genre-historical. As a result, the author of this study establishes that Nikolay Chaev, while writing 'Nadya', crosses two lines of the Russian poem of the 19th century, the manor and the folk, thus creating in the second half of the 1870s a new type of poem that best meets the requirements of the times.
Efimov A.S. - Anti-Nihilistic Novel and Gothic Novel: Raising a Question pp. 137-152


Abstract: The article is devoted to an understudied issue, the relation of Russian anti-nihilistic novel (1860 - 1880) to gothic novel or, in a wide sense, European and Russian gothic literature. The scope of the research covers a number of Russian and foreign researches directly or indirectly discussing the relation 'anti-nihilistic - gothic novel'. In accordance with the research objectives and targets, the author provides an insight into the matter and describes the areas for his research. The main research methods used by the author include bibliographical, biographical, motif and plot analysis, comparison and historical literary research. The  main issues related to the Russian nihilism - gothics relation include the question about whether there was a gothic plot in an anti-nihilist novel; the influence of gothic literature on the creative method of particular authors in anti-nihilistic novel, goals of gothic poetics in Russian anti-nihilistic novel, the influence of gothic poetics on the development of eschatological motifs of Apocalypse in Russian anti-nihilistic novels. Trying to describe the general meaning of addressing of anti-nihilistic authors to the poetics of gothic novel, the author of the article comes to the concept of the 'highest analytical meaning' of anti-nihilistic novel when conclusions are mystical prophesy and discovers the need in an anagogic interpretation of a text. Thus, references  to gothics in an anti-nihilistic novel are not limited to the borrowing of expressive means but relate to the Russian eschatology issue.  
Popkova A. - pp. 143-152


Folimonov S.S. - Folklore Beginnings in Poetics of Novel by V. F. Tendryakov Pure Waters of Kitezh pp. 149-158


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the folklore foundations of poetics of novel by V. F. Tendryakov «Pure waters of Kitezh». The subject of research interest is the identification of features of the functioning of the genre of oral and unsophisticated prose in artistic environment.The appeal of the well-known Russian prose writer to the socially-utopian legend about the wanted city is due to the need of searching for a kind of symbolic form, «Aesop language», without which it is impossible to imagine a true representation of Soviet reality in the 1970-s–1980-s. However, the urgent need for such an instrument in conditions of total censorship opened up great opportunities for the writer to solve artistic problem, connected with the formation of a unique author’s style. The methodology of the research is based on ideas put forward in the works of P. S. Vykhodtsev, A. A. Gorelov, D. N. Medrish, I. A. Ossowiecki, J. A. Trykova, and others and is a complex analysis of folklore-literary interactions at all levels of the literary text. The conducted research allows to assert, that the genre specificity of the folk utopia enabled the author to freely interpret the legend, using it as a semantic core, around which precedent texts from the world of oral poetry and prose are accumulated. The model of creative interaction of the borrowed material, chosen by the writer, was reflected in all levels of the story, defining the features of the composition structure, the methods of creating character images, the rhythm of the narrative. In addition, a detailed study of the folklorism of this work lays the methodological prerequisites for a deeper reading of the Tendryakov literary heritage as a whole.
Kuryanova V.V. - The Biographical Myth of Tolstoy in the Creative Writing of Vladmir Mayakovsky pp. 152-167


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of the biographical myth in the creative writing of Vladimir Mayakovsky. The analysis of the biographical myth is one of the most important and least studied problems in contemporary literary studies. This article is also devoted to the theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. It is aimed at analysing the genesis and development of the biographical myth of Tolstoy in the creative writing of Vladimir Mayakovsky. The biographical myth of Tolstoy is a complex phenomenon of the Russian literature and culture of the XXth century represented differently by writers. In this research Kurianova applies methodological principles that were developed in the works devoted to supertext and its mythological basis. Lev Tolstoy is one of the most mythogenic personalities that was a legend when he was alive and after his death. The 'Tolstoy' myth was mythologized by many poets and writers of the XXth - XXIst centuries. In his creative writing Vladimir Mayakovsky mythologized Lev Tolstoy, his personality and his teaching but not his works or heroes. 
Zhitenev A. - On the Literariness in the Theory of Russian Formalism: Viktor Shklovsky about the Writers of the XVIIIth Century pp. 159-167


Abstract: The theory of Russian formalism views literariness as a set of features that distinguish a literary text from all other texts and has always been the topic of acute discussion. Viktor Shklovsky's researches of the 1920s-1930s were focused on literariness as a result of his interest in the marginal forms of the literary process in the XVIIIth century as well as the phenomenon of mass literature. Noteworthy that his ideas closely related to the realities of that period and involved discussions about the 'social order' and 'literary life', thus presenting the writer's views on the creative writing, status of a writer and creative goals. The methodology of the research combines various methods such as comparative history, hermeneutical and phenomenological approaches as well as individual provisions of the 'history of terms' concept. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the author's attempt to view Viktor Shkolvsky's works on the literature of the XVIIIth century and such authors as M. Koramov, V. Levshin and M. Chulkov as a specific form of self-reflection aimed at overcoming the author's creative crisis and creating opportunities for using the methodology of the Russian formalism in the analysis of the literary life of different eras. 
Mikheeva G.V. - Specific Features of the Art Space in Stepan Pisakhov's Fairy-Tales pp. 168-174


Abstract: The subject of the research is the art space in the fairy-tales of Stepan Pisakhov who writes about the Russian North. In her research Mikheeva analyzes such aspects of the topic as the art space structure, methods of creation of space images on the basis of combined reality and fantastic world, peculiarity pf space locuses, and interaction between the symbolic meaning of space images and the writer's worldview. Mikheeva focuses on the description of the closed space locuses, the Uyma Village and the house of the main hero as well as the 'friend-alien' opposition that represents moral messages. The research is based on the structure-semiotic approach to the analysis of the art space of a literary work. The theoretical basis of the research is the works of Yury Lotman, in particular, his thesis that in a text the space is the means of creating messages. The main conclusions of the research are the following: the structure of the single art space in Stepan Pisakhov's fairy-tales has two spatial levels: reality and fantastic world, which do not have a border but even penetrate. Such organisation of the space brings a particular meaning into the text. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author analyzes the art space of Stepan Pisakhov's fairy-tales.  
Bakula V.B. - The Narrative and Compositional Structure of N. Bolshakova's Novel 'Alkhalalalai' pp. 168-175


Abstract: The research is devoted to the novel written by a Sami writer N. Bolshakova 'Alkhalalalai'. The aim of the research is to define peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel. This novel is the first one in the literature of Russian Sami created in the period of the origin of their written language (the last third of the XXth century). Eastern Sami literature relates to the literature of Finno-Ugric literature and is one of the earliest and least studied types thereof. This is what causes the rationale of this research. The main research methods used by the author included structural descriptive and formal methods as the best methods to analyze the narrative and compositional structure of a text. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is the first research to analyze the plot and narrative structure of a novel. The research results demonstrate such peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of a novel as the lyrical plot, expressive introductory events, free narration, and multi-functionalitiy of the landscape. The main expressive means used by the writer to convey her message is the narrative parallelism technique and a great number of extra-plot elements (myths, legends, lyrical digressions) and delayed exposition. The novel has bright ethnic folklore features. The writer enriches her novel with ethnographical material and gives an insight into the culture of Sami and Itelmes. The peculiarity of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel is revealed through the features of the author's singular style and her picture of the world. 
Belyaeva T.N. - Axiological Problematics of Yuri Bajgusa's Plays pp. 171-177


Abstract: The subject of the research is the value components of the problematics in the dramatic works of the Mari writer Yuri Baiguza. The study allows to see the basic semantic concepts of being and the individual human personality of the “post-perestroika generation”. The analysis of the plays “The Golden Duck” presented in the article was written in collaboration with Vasily Pekteyev), Silk Swings, Dawn over the Abyss, Today is the Birthday, which are mainly philosophically oriented, shows that the most important components of their perspective are value characteristics of society, people and man. The author of the article applies structural-semantic and historical-genetic methods of research which allow to reveal both the value aspects of the problems of the plays and the poetological aspects of the texts that implement them. The article shows for the first time the axiological aspects of the key dramatic works of Yuri Baigusa in their universal, folk-world outlook, religious, and individual-creative expression; revealed the artistic specificity of the author’s value concept in each of the texts; the manifestation of the axiosphere in the ideological world of works and the character system is analyzed.
Tatarinova L.N., Tatarinov A.V. - The Phenomenon of Old Age in William Faulkner's Literary World pp. 175-181


Abstract: Based on the material of the prose of William Folkner (first of all, the novels “Sartoris” and “Go Down, Moses”), the phenomenon of old age is investigated as a literary problem. The object of the research is the philosophical aspects of the gerontological story in Falkner's prose. The subject of the research is the literary world created by the author, individual aesthetic movements in the creation of the images of elderly people. The authors analyze Faulkner's concept versus the concept of Ernest Hemingway who used the present moment as the narrative time. Not only young heroes of his early writings but also such characters as Santiago in his novel 'The Old Man and the Sea' live in the presence. The methodological basis of the research is the principles of philosophical literary studies that allow to evaluate the artistic world of the writer as an element of his worldview. The authors conclude that Faulkner views old age not only as an age but a certain state of mind, emotional memory, balance and wisdom combined with kindness. Faulnker relates memory and old age to such categories as eternity, while he relates young age and blindness to the categories of temporality and accident. 
Arstanova V. - The Motif of the Love Between Close Relatives in Mikhail Lermontov's Early Writings pp. 176-184


Abstract: The subject of the research is the motif of the love between close relatives in the early period of Mikhail Lermontov's creative writing (since 1829 till 1834). This motif can be found in the following works: a newly found novel thought to be written by Lermontov, his Eugene, The Spanish, Menschen und Leidenschaften and incomplete novel Vadim. The motif of the love between close relatives is one of the main motifs in the early writings of Lermontov and has roots not only in the romantic tradition but also the biography of the writer himself. In her article Arstanova compares the motif of the love between close relations in Lermontov's early writings to French and English literature (François-René de Chateaubriand and George Gordon Byron). She also draws the parallel to the development of the motif in the XXth century. The main result of the research is the author's statement that the above mentioned motif was caused by the influence of the literary tradition and biographical prerequisites. The researcher also describes how the motif developed and faded in Lermontov's creative writing. Lermontov did not raise that motif in his works created after 1834 because it was no more important for him. 
Levitskaia T.V. - Fairy Tale and Parabolic Motifs in Nadezhda Lukhmanova's Essays During the Russo-Japanese War pp. 184-193


Abstract: In her research Levitskaya discusses the work of Nadezhda Alexandrovna Lukhmanova (1841-1907) during the Russian-Japanese war. To date, there is no complete review of the creative heritage of the writer, which, despite its richness and diversity, is almost unfamiliar to the modern reader. At the age of 64, the writer took part in the Russian-Japanese war as a war correspondent. During her tenure in the war and later in Japan, Lukhmanova wrote not only travel notes and articles for newspapers, but also created short plays for soldiers (“Batman Kuzmenko”), stories based on real events (“Shaman”, “Black Band” , “The Yolka in the Chizakuin Palace”), several Chinese and Japanese fairy tales (“The Only Language Understood by a Woman”, “The Soul of a Man”, “A Typhoon”, “The Golden Chanterelle”). The works of Lukhmanova acquire a wider and ambiguous meaning due to the fabulous and parabolic form of expression. The writer resorts to allegories to more clearly illustrate her concerns, expansion and generalization of the meanings embedded in the image. The article is an analysis of several works of the Russian-Japanese Lukhmanov period. The novelty of the research lies in the attempt to analyze the creativity of N.A. Lukhmanova, which today is virtually unknown. The article deals with journalistic works that have not been republished since the time of the first publication, as well as stories that are in the archive. Appeal to such rare material allows us to consider the identity of the author in a different way.
Semenova A. - Internal Chronology in M. Kheraskov's Poem 'Vladimir' pp. 194-210


Abstract: The subject of research is the internal chronology in the poem "Vladimir". The author of the article analyzes the text of the poem by Kheraskov in order to determine how much time in Vladimir corresponds to the historical time. The first clear time reference point in the work is the appearance and death of the Varangian Christians, a record of this is given in The Tale of Bygone Years under 983, this is followed by the choice of faith in 986 and a march on Kherson, where Vladimir receives baptism in 988. In this time range, the main events of the poem unfold. In her study Semenova compares M. Kheraskov's poem to historical sources known to the poet. Tracing the internal chronology of the work, resorting to the method of Yu.M. Lotman, used in the analysis and commenting of "Eugene Onegin", we can determine by what time the author refers to the events described in the "Vladimir". This study found that the sequence of events in the poem "Vladimir" coincides with the testimony of historians. At the same time, the internal time in the work does not correspond to the historical time. Kheraskov smoothes the chronological holes characteristic of the chronicles, compressing the narration. Even taking into account several gaps in time, everything that happens in Kiev since the beginning of the narration (983), i.e. the campaign and the conquest of Kherson, Vladimir's baptism and marriage, does not stretch for 5-6 years, as in the sources.
Rakhmatova A.M. - Bodily Fragmentation as an Expression of Non-Integrity of a Lyrical Hero/Character in Non-Classical Lyrics pp. 209-219


Abstract: The scope of the research covers bodily images presented in the lyrics of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality (the end of the XIX - XX centuries). The subject of the research is the body of a lyrical subject or character depicted in fragmentation in poems relating to this stage of poetics. The article is aimed at identifying certain artistic meanings expressed in the works of non-classical lyric images of physical fragmentation. In the article, the phenomenon of corporeal fragmentation in the lyrics of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality is examined on the material of D. Merezhkovsky, I. Brodsky, and S. Plat. The phenomenon of bodily fragmentation is discussed in this article from the standpoint of historical poetics. The main methods of research are the method of immanent analysis of the figurative structure of the work, aimed at identifying the meaning of specific images, as well as the comparative method associated with identifying and describing similar features of the poetics of works related to the non-classical stage of artistic modality poetics. The scientific novelty of the research is determined, firstly, by the fact that the semantics of bodily images in the works of non-classical lyricism remains insufficiently studied; secondly, by the fact that the artistic specificity of images of bodily fragmentation in the lyric works of the non-classical stage of the poetics of artistic modality remains unexplained. The article first identifies and describes the semantic parameters of images of bodily fragmentation in non-classical lyrics.
Safarova Z.A. - Narrative Strategies in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Novel 'The Scarlett Letter' pp. 211-216


Abstract: The author considers such aspects as the features of Nathaniel Hawthorne's creativity, namely his novel "The Scarlet Letter". Also, the object of research is the synthetic structure of the novel, its historical and psychological content. Characteristics of the main characters, their goals and actions, peculiarities of the narration, such as the brevity and conciseness of the events described, the "sliding" author's position, manifested in the inconstancy of the depicted events, in terms of ratings, the main goals of the main characters, the degree of impact on the reader are given. The research methodology consisted of biographical, formal and historical-theoretical methods, as well as contextual and culturological principles of research. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is an attempt to analyze the narrative strategies of Nathaniel Hawthorne, their display in the novel "The Scarlet Letter". The conclusions reached by the author are the brevity of the style of the writer, his (writer) ambiguous subjective attitude to the heroes of his novel, the historical and psychological nature of the novel.
Vasileva T.N. - Artistic Features of the Tanka Genre Form in Ilya Baishev's Creative Writing pp. 237-243


Abstract: The subject of the research is the poems written by a poet and member of the Union of Yakurian Poets, Ilya Baishev, in a Japanese genre form 'tanka'. In her research Vasilieva examines such aspects of the topic as the correspondence to the canons of Japanese poetry, i.e. observation of the main rules and traditions (in style, verse and composition), aesthetic principles and categories. Vasilieva also analyzes national specific features of the genre form which may have been expressed in images, sound pattern, national worldview. The main research methods used by the researcher include descriptive and comparative analysis of tanka poems. The main results of the research are the peculiarities of tanka in Yakut poetry based on the comparison of the original's features (formal and compositional principles, themes and range of problems) and individual writer's singularity. Based on the author, the common feature of Yakut tanka and Japanese poetry is that both are based on the same aesthetic principles (yugen, siori, engo), use seasonal words, innuendo and allegory. The difference is that Yakut poetry has a special kind of rhyming, role of alliteration and national interpretation of images.  
Raevskaia M.M. - The Phenomenology of Iberian Space in George Borrow's Book The Bible in Spain pp. 266-279


Abstract: The article is devoted to the phenomenology of Iberian space in Britich travel literature, in particular, George Borrow's The Bible in Spain (1842). Raevskaya has a purpose to analyze peculiarities of the writer's technique which he used to describe the Iberian landscape and reality for the British reader who knew very little about it back in those times. As a reference position, the author of the article also presents a consideration of the travel genre as a collective multi-level literary form that has multidimensional specificity and is the result of the subjective knowledge of images existing in certain geographical boundaries of space. The inclusion of epistemological and historical perspectives in the research methodology, in addition to traditional biographical, comparative methods, stylistic analysis, synthesis and description, allows a more extensive assessment of the author’s idea, which represents the Iberian geoculture using certain observation procedures. The scientific novelty of the article is caused by the lack of research in the Russian philological tradition devoted to the Iberian travelogue. The approach to the study of the spatial image of the Iberian civilization in travel literature is also new and allows evaluate its features not only from literary, but also epistemological aspects. The author of the article discusses various areas of space exploration from the point of view of their typological elaboration in the domestic and foreign humanitarian tradition, shows the specificity of the interpretation of the Iberian reality related to the author’s understanding of reality.
Zav'yalova A.I. - The Literary Topography of The Kazan Chronicle and Derzhavin's Opera 'Ivan the Terrible, or Conquering of Kazan' pp. 280-286


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the texts of the opera “The Terrible, or Conquering of Kazan” by G. R. Derzhavin and an old Russian monument, "Kazan History". Unknown scribe of the XVI century tells the history of different lands and the Kazan region, in his work contains many toponyms. Following the author of Kazan History, Derzhavin in his opera creates a bright literary image of Kazan in the 16th century. One of the objectives of this work is to consider how the writer worked with the source to build the opera plot. The method of research in the article is a comparative analysis of the opera "The Terrible, or the Conquest of Kazan" and "Kazan History". As a result of the comparative characteristics of the two works, it was concluded that Kazan History can rightly be considered one of the main literary sources of the Derzhavin opera. The writer borrows from the Old Russian text a story about the foundation of Kazan and processes it in his own way, and this tradition becomes the plot basis of his dramatic composition.
Bochkina M.V. - Trends of Modern Literature in Yu. Polyakov's Novel 'Love in the Time of Change' pp. 287-292


Abstract: The author of the article explores the issue of traditions and innovations in understanding the phenomenon of time in the novel by Y. Polyakov “Love in the Time of Change”. The novel traces not only the realistic method in depicting events but also the influence of the postmodern and neo-modern directions, primarily on the ideological and substantive level. The author of the paper analyzes the motive of a gap in time as a result of a cultural trauma, as well as a motive of ontological emptiness, reflecting the nature of the era of change, described in the novel. The method of research of this work is the cultural-historical approach. The theoretical basis of this study is the work of M. Lipovetsky, A. Schopenhauer, and M. Bakhtin. Thus, the researcher discovers such features of Yu. Polyakov's novel “Love in the Time of Change” as polyphony, the prevalence of laughter, elements of the language game, and the mask of the author-narrator characteristic of modern literature. At the substantive level of the novel,  the researcher analyzes the opposition between historical contingence and time fragmentation that unites a number of non-modernist novels. 
Romanova K.S. - Development of Gaito Gazdanov's Existential Views (the Case Study of his 'Constantinople' Prose) pp. 293-299


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the texts of Gaito Gazdanov recreating the picture of the life of Russian emigration in Constantinople. Gazdanov's "Constantinople" prose describes the border situation in which existential questions are especially acute: he reflects on the purpose of human existence, the boundaries of the individual "Self", the relationship between natural and cultural principles in human nature, the possibility of finding a foothold in a situation of total alienation. In the "Constantinople" fragment of the story "The Story of a Journey," the writer denies the possibility of building happiness rooted in external being. The feeling of happiness is extremely subjective and consists of individual spiritual experiences, momentary insights, the acuteness and intensity of which depend on the individual degree of sensitivity to beauty. In the story “Weak Heart”, the Gazdanov narrator is at first captured by the aesthetic charm of the city. However, his focus soon shifted: from the panoramic “sparkling view of the Bosporus and cool nights above the mosques” to close-up situations of domestic deprivation and psychological dramas of the Russian émigré, which lead him to existential generalizations about the essence of human existence in general. The article uses descriptive and biographical methods of research, as well as a comparative comparative method in the analysis of the prose of Gazdanov and J.P. Sartre. The author comes to the conclusion that the writer's observations of the hard life of the Russian emigration in Constantinople became the most important impetus for the formation of his existential views. The harsh Constantinople reality helped Gazdanov to discover that fatal “wormhole” of life, which, from his point of view, causes the inescapable tragedy of human life.
Kononova A.V. - Common European Tradition in Seamus Heaney's Creative Writing: Dialogue with Ancient Literature pp. 300-305


Abstract: The subject of the research is the work of the Irish poet Shaymas Heaney, one of the largest representatives of modern English-language poetry. The purpose of the article is to study the role and functions of ancient literature both in prose and in Heeney's poetry. The author of the article refers to the works, critical articles, interviews of the poet himself, as well as theoretical works of the world's leading researchers on the problems of tradition in literature, as well as scholars who study directly the life and work of Heaney. The methodology of the article is determined by the guidelines of comparative literature. The author of the article uses such methods as comparative historical, contextual, textual analysis, etc. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that, despite the growing interest in Heaney's poetry, there is practically no research on this literature on this aspect of the poet’s work. The author of the article concludes that the antique literature becomes an important link in the development of the creative path of Heeney and an indispensable material for understanding Heeni’s work in the aspect of its interaction with the literary heritage of previous eras. The study of this phenomenon, not only in the context of other works by Heaney, but also in the broad context of European literature, makes it possible to examine the work of the Irish poet in “big time” and to reveal the features of his interaction with the common European literary tradition.
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