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Literary criticism
Tsendrovskiy O. - Philosophy of Antoine de Saint-Exupery: Experience in Reconstruction pp. 1-33

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2013.4.10651

Abstract: The article is devoted to the philosophy expressed by Antoine de Saint-Exupery in his books. This topic is often underestimated and very scarcely described in research literature. By analyzing Exupery's book 'Citadelle' (titled in English as The Wisdom of the Sands) and more famous Exupery's works, the author of the present article shows the wholeness of Exupery's teaching and the acuteness of the humanistic, existential and moral issues in Exupery's philosophy. The author also underlines that Exupery's philosophy can be classified as the West European philosophy of late Art Nouveau because Exupery discusses such typical late Art Nouveau topics as the transvaluation of values, understanding of the place of human after the death of God and fight against nihilism. In the course of a detailed analysis and from the point of view of systematic interpretation, the author of the article describes Exupery's views on a number of fundamental philosophical issues such as the existence of God and the meaning of life, measure of value and the essence of the truth. The main emphasis is made on the so called 'ethical pathos' of Exupery's creative work. The author of the article in detail analyzes the 'heroic ideal' offered by Exupery as well as the system of values and basic ethical principles that are now deduced from the essence of a mortal man but not the divine reality. The result of the author's research is the creation of an integrated concept of Exupery's philosophy which is new in both Russian and Western scientific literature. The author shows that Exupery's views were very close to Nietzsche's teaching and gravitated towards the radical politics. The author also provides quite an interesting description of Exupery's psychological and cultural views. 
Naumenko G. - The Wanderer pp. 1-49

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2014.1.12170

Abstract: The object of the research is a poem “The Wanderer” by A.S.Pushkin The subject of the research is Mickiewicz’s implication as a key to the poem’s understanding. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that the poem was written in the dialogue with the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, to find Mickiewicz’s implication and to perform the literary analysis of Pushkin’s poem by comparing it with the sixth poem “The Passage” from the poem “The Dziady” III and with an extract from “The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come” by Bunyan to which Pushkin referred to. (The poem “Oleszkiewicz” and Mickiewicz’s implication are the sources and impulses for Pushkin’s word and the first part of Bunyan’s poem is a canvas, the language of the generally accepted religious schemes). The research is based on the method of “careful reading” of “The Wanderer” in the context of Pushkin’s work in 1833-1836 as well as an intertextual analysis of the texts by Pushkin, Mickiewicz and Bunyan. The research includes references to well-known interpretations and analysis of Pushkin’s poem.  The dialogue between Pushkin and Mickiewicz, and wider – a talk to the West, resulted in the fact the the theme of Christianity in Pushkin’s work of the last years became key in the conflict between the East (Russia) and the West. That conflict was shown by Mickiewicz in his “Passage” from the Christian punitive point of view. The poem “The Wanderer” (1835) became is a poetic reply on the theme of “reading the Book” (the Holy Scripture) that we can find in Mickiewicz’s work and also the first part of Pyshkin’s “Reading the Book” about the way from slavery to the Liberty. Pushkin showed a wrong way to the Liberty which contradicts his understanding of the New Testament. It is proved by the constructive division of the poem into five parts (the Pentateuch model). He showed “the right way” in his “evangelic” Kamennoostrovskij cycle (1836) which was created in the tight connection with “The Wanderer”. In “The Wanderer” the poet was not ready for “the Court”, but in the poem number VI “From Pindemonte” he appears at the Court with his speech.
Rostovtseva Y.A. - Reception of Ekaterina the Second's Laws in V. Levshin's Utopia 'Newest Travel or Written in the City of Belev' pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13631

Abstract: Article is devoted to V. A. Levshin's utopia "The latest travel composed in the city of Belev" (1784). Work was published in the XIII-XVI parts of the "Interlocutor of Fans of the Russian Word" magazine. Researchers, as a rule, focused interest on its first part representing the ideal city on the Moon. The city-state has a primitive political system, in it there are no written laws. Life of lunatist is compared with legendary "a golden eyelid". Levshin's composition was considered in scientific literature, first of all, in the context of a subject of a freemasonry, motives of air travel. In the first key researches N. K. Piksanova, V. I. Sakharova, L. V. Omelko, in J. Breyllar's researches are written, T.V. Artemyeva consecrated an aeronautics subject. Laws of the utopian state were described in S. L. Baer's works and some other scientists, however a subject of separate research didn't become. Meanwhile, the end of "The latest travel" represents a panegyric of Ekaterina's Russia in which the paramount place is allocated for the wise laws "Monarchess's velikiya". It should be noted that not only reception of laws of Catherine II, but also an image of Ekaterina's Russia in Levshin's utopia I didn't become a subject of studying earlier. The author of article considers a literary utopia in an unusual context of legislative reforms of Ekaterina the Second. The basis of a scientific method is made by textual comparisons and motivny communications between Levshin's composition and group of texts of the Ekaterina's legislation.On the basis of "A big order of the empress" (1767), "The charter of deanery, or the police officer" (1782) and a number of manifestos, charters and maxims of different years attempt to reveal becomes, the laws of the ideal state which are how described on "The latest travel" correspond modern to it reality.
Simush P.I. - Geniuses and Russia: mutual cognition pp. 1-44

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.4.14832

Abstract: The author of the article examines Gogol’s works through the prism of the phenomenon of genius. He shows that Orthodoxy had a great influence on the writer’s personality. In many respects it changed his internal world, influenced literary works. The writer believed that Orthodoxy could reform Russian reality. In particular, he was aware of an enormous resource of freedom. But Gogol realized that freedom could not only enrich an individual but also «enchant» him with a possibility of enrichment, clinging to a particular religion and loosing faith in free creativity. The author also points to the comprehensive influence of Orthodoxy on reforms in Russian life. At the same time he turns to present-day reality, showing the prophetic gift of the writer.The author employs traditional methods of literary criticism. He uses the comparativist method to show the influence of tradition on Gogol’s works. He also leans on philosophical methods of analysis of literary texts. The article presents the works of Gogol as a founder of ironic narration in Russian literature. The writer constantly employs laughter and irony as ways to uncover the absurdism of social projects. The writer views Russia as a country of unseen paradoxes. Gogol has raised a question that turns us to philosophical reflection about human nature. He tries to oppose the fascination with riches. His special attention is paid to philistinism. Later, this theme in Russian literature will be taken up by many authors. A. Herzen will give an interpretation of «philistinism»; K. Leontiev will establish a relation between «pettiness» and «philistinism»; D. Merezhkovsky will identify pettiness with ignorance, banality, mediocrity; M. Gorky will furiously attack complacent petty bourgeosie. Meaning the opposition between good and evil, between love and hatred, A.P. Chekhov, as the author shows, has chosen ethical wisdom capable of counteracting evil by force of love.
Faritov V.T. - Philosophical aspects of time and space in the work of A.S. Pushkin pp. 1-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.1.15098

Abstract: This article discusses the philosophical aspects of space and time in the poetry of A.S. Pushkin. On a material analysis of poems of the poet author explicates the direction of the dynamics of lyrical chronotop Pushkin. Reveals connection between artistic representation of space and time in Pushkin's poetry with the fundamental problems of metaphysics. Carried out a comparative analysis of the lyrical chronotop Pushkin with chronotope F.I. Tyutchev and M. Voloshin. Reveals the closeness of the poetic world of Pushkin and philosophical ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche. We use the methods of comparative literature and methodological orientations of metaphysics Russian literature. Partially used the principles of hermeneutics and deconstruction. The main result of the study is to identify two types of rhythmic organization of space and time in the poetry of Pushkin and explication of their philosophical aspects. It is shown that the lyrical chronotop Pushkin tends to surpass the limits of the classical metaphysical oppositions towards anticipating the conceptual development of non-classical philosophy.
Perevalov V.P. - History illustrated in the images of the A. S. Pushkin’s “The Stationmaster” pp. 1-61

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.17259

Abstract: This article researches the issues of history manifested in creative images. The subject of the analysis is the novel by Alexander Pushkin “The Stationmaster”, which represents a great example in this case. With thin the ever-increasing number of various interpretations of Pushkin’s work on the story of the life of Samson Vyrin, the phenomenon of time is strangely under-studied. The strange fact is that within the existing interpretations there is a predominant factor of abstract time (past-present-future) that calls for transition towards perception of specific time. This is the starting task of the observations and reasoning presented in the article. The article reconstructs precise time of events and the timespan of the story.  The “calendar-overlay” timeline correlates with the biographical data of Pushkin and his (close) acquaintances, and plays the role of a reliable compass in establishing the complicated relation between the image fabric of Pushkin’s novel and the reality that served as the source of the story. In fact, the biographical image of “The Stationmaster” is the relations between Pushkin, Karamzin, and the “young Jacobins” (Decembrists) during 1816-1826/27. The main result of the analysis of this creative work in the mirror of precise time is the discovery of paradoxical impression in the image of the main character of the hero of the story and the persona of N. M. Karamzin, who loved paradoxes. The discovery of an unknown Karamzin in the renowned novel of Pushkin enriches the possibility of a deeper understanding of the historical continuity between them within the development of Russian spiritual culture.
Nilogov A.S., Varava V.V. - Russian Literature Versus Russian Philosophy (Conversation of A. Nilogov with V. Varava) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.2.18943

Abstract: The phenomenon of the Russian classical literature is considered to be internationally recognized. However recently even in Russia it was repeatedly called into question including taking into account constantly falling interest in reading as such. Alternative views on the Russian classical literature gradually get into Russian literary criticism, thus restricting the developed representations. Modern Russian literature can hardly already apply for "the ruler of thoughts" as in the good old days. Numerous spiritual and intellectual traditions restrict it on all fronts, offering in exchange at least substantial practices. The actual Russian philosophy acts as one of them and two representatives of Russian philosophy have decided to discuss the literary topic. The following methods have been used in their conversation: analytical, hermeneutic, interview, critical, literary, synthetic, comparative, philosophical, and heuristic. According to V. Varava, modern Russian literature needs a new existential breakthrough to show efficient alternative ways out of the spiritual crisis which has covered the country. However, according to A. Nilogov, today literature as a written form of literature is technologically replaced with an electronic form that exist only on the Internet. 
Tetik K. - Valery Bryusov and Urban "Texts" in Russian Literature ("Moscow" and "Petersburg" Texts) pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.4.24326

Abstract: The article deals with urban ("Moscow" and "St. Petersburg") texts in the poetry of Valery Bryusov. A lot of researches of literary critics are dedicated to this issue. In this article the image of the city is associated with two capitals Moscow and St Petersburg. The object of the research is the corpus of texts that fully represent the image of the two capitals. The poet describes these cities from the point of view of their historical and metaphysical reality. When appealing to the image of St. Petersburg, the symbolist Bryusov pays much attention to the architecture of the city. This fact raises a question about the method of ecphrasis in poetics. The methodology of this research involves the comparative analysis of Moscow and Petersburg poems by Bryusov as well as historical-functional and historical-genetic analysis methods. According to the author of the article, urban poems by Bryusov present Moscow and Petersburg texts quite fully. However, there are several very important differences between representations of these cities. For example, the image of Moscow is included in the metahistorical context but the poet keeps addressing to his contemporary epoch. Tehre are also old Moscow, the city of riot and Napoleon's war, and Soviet Moscow that is still to be understood poetically by the symbolist. The image of Petersburg (sometimes called Petrograd) is given in a very exclusive perspective and closely related to Peter the Great, an important figure for the poet. Poems that present the image of Petersburg are full of references to the city's architecture and monuments which allows to talk about the use of the ecphrasis method. However, both cities are highly spoken of by the poet both from the historical and metaphysical point of view which proves the ontological nature of Bryusov's works. 
Shchepalina V. - Sources of Alejandro Casona's Individual Author's Style pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26371

Abstract: The object of the resaerch is an individual author's style of a Spanish playwright Alejandro Casona. The subject of the research is the process of Alejandro Casona developing his author's style. The author of the article analyzes the factors that influenced the process such as facts of Casona's biography (his childhood in Asturias, work as a country teacher, participation in Teachers' missions, career as a screenwriter) as well as global literary process that were ongoing back in those times (reformation of the style of the representatives of the 98s, movement of Spanish modernism and new drama, influence of impressionism on literature). In her research Schepalina applied biographical, psychological, comparative methods, stylistic analysis as well as observation, generalisation and description. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that there are no major researches devoted to Casona in Russin academic literature. The present research gives an insight into sources of the playwright's artistic style and thus makes a contribution to understanding the literary process in Spain of the 20th century. The illustrations provided by the author allow to prove theoretical concepts offered by the researcher. 
He F. - Rhythmic-Melodic Functions of Rhyme in Mikhail Lermontov's Lyrics (the Case Study of Parallelism in Melodic Verses) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.3.30116

Abstract: The subject of the research is rhythmic-melodic functions of parallelism in Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics. The object of the research is parallelism in Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the melody and music of poetry, melodic verses, 'music school' in the history of Russian poetry and the influence of the latter on Mikhail Lermontov, the use of parallelism in Russian poetry and Mikhail Lermontov's lyrics and rhythmic-melodic functions of rhyme in Lermontov's creative writing. The researcher has applied cultural historical, comparative historical methods as well as the method of compositional analysis using the creative writing of Lermontov and other Russian poets. The main conclusion of the research is the proof of rhythmic-melodic functions performed by rhyme in Lermontov's poetry as well as the role of syntactic parallelism performed by rhyme in creation of rhythmic-melodic nature and expression of the author's message. In his use of parallelism for giving special melody and intonation to his poems, Lermontov follows the poetical tradition of 'music school', however, the poet, extends opportunities and means of melodic verse writing. This research is the first one to analyze Lermontov's poetry from the point of view of rhythmic-melodic functions of rhyme, in particular, the parallelism technique and its role in Lermontov's poetry. This is what causes the novelty of the research. 
Shvets A.V. - The establishment of media reflection in the poetics of Russian avant-garde: objectification of the word pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.4.30749

Abstract: This paper examines the reflection of the representatives of Cubo-futurism and related art community (N. Kulbin, A. Kruchenykh, N. Burliuk) on the artistic expression and poetics of literature. The object of this research is the articles by N. Kulbin (“Liberal Arts as the Basis of Life”, “Meaning of the Theory of Art” in compilation “The Studio of Impressionists”, 1910), pamphlet “Declaration of the Word as Such” (written in 1913 by N. Kulbin, A. Kruchenykh), manifest of N. Kulbin “What the Word Is” (1914), articles by N. Burliuk (“Cubism”, “Texture” in compilation “Slap to a Public Taste”, 1913, “Poetic Beginnings” and “Supplementum to a Poetic Counterpoint” from the “First Journal of Russian Futurists”, 1914. The subject of this research is the evident in these articles orientation towards putting medium to the forefront, which is understood as a material basis of the text. The texts of all articles highlight the core metaphors that set a new understanding of a word as material and media whole. The scientific novelty of this study consists in referring to the process of metaphorical comprehension of a word as a material phenomenon, which has not been previously subjected to detailed analysis in Russian or foreign research tradition. The conclusion is made that due to sequential usage of metaphors (from the area of natural sciences or everyday experience) a word becomes a material object, manipulation with the physical image of which transform the connoted meaning.
Chuvanova O.I. - Kashmir as the center of conflict in the novel “Midnight's Children” by Salman Rushdie pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34154

Abstract: The subject of this research is the conflicts generated by mythological and historical space in Kashmir Valley, which is one of the central artistic images in the novel “Midnight's Children” by the British writer of Indo-Pakistani descent Salman Rushdie. Conflict situation within the framework of Kashmir’s topos is sense-making, as it is associated with the problem of choice and acquisition of cultural wholeness by the character of the novel. The historically substantiated propensity towards conflict of the actual geographical region, which became the cause for interethnic hostility between Pakistan and India, is complicated by the conflict of Western and Eastern cultures. The "East – West" opposition implies the conflict between the conservatory intentions of the Eastern autochthonous culture and the attempts of it suppression by pro-Western migrants. The author applies historical and literary, hermeneutical and mythopoetic methods. It is determined that involvement of Kashmir’s topos in the artistic world of the novel is substantiated by the historical and interethnic conflicts in the region related to acquisition of independence by India. On the mythological level, Kashmir manifests as a space that synthesizes the ambivalent forces of destruction and creation, which reveals the latent propensity towards conflict that underlies the world. The clash of cultures and worldviews is described in the novel through the symbolic pair of characters – Indian Westerner Adam Aziz and the local boatman Tai. Relations between the characters actualize the stratified systemic conflict (interpersonal, internal, religious-mythological, problem of choice). Subsequently, this conflict propels to the ontological level, reflecting the problem of heroes of finding their place in postcolonial world
Lamzina A.V., Kikhnei L.G. - The “echo” of Edgar Poe in Anna Akhmatova’s “Poem without a Hero” and poems later period pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.1.34645

Abstract: The subject of this research is the hidden allusions to the novels of Edgar Poe in Anna Akhmatova’s “Poem without a Hero” and poems later period. The research material contains the framework text of the “Poem without a Hero” – the set of epigraphs to different parts of the poem, authorial commentaries, history of used and discarded epigraphs at various stages of revision of the poem, text of the “Poem without a Hero”, as well as the author's “Prose about the Poem” and a number of poems created during the work on the “Poem without a Hero” and afterwards. A. Akhmatova was interested in the works of Edgar Poe, and researched the references to Edgar Poe in the works of N. S. Gumilyov. The article employs comprehensive methodology, such as comparative-historical and biographical approaches, as well as intertextual and hermeneutic methods for determination of literary allusions and interpretation of meanings hidden by the author. The main conclusion lies in revelation of the profoundly concealed connection of the “Poem without a Hero” with the range of narratives of Edgar Poe, united by the cross-cutting motif of being buried alive and coming back from the dead: “The Black Cat”, “The Fall of the House of Usher”, “Morella”, “Ligeia”, “Berenice”, “The Oval Portrait”. This gives a new perspective on the literary characters that one after another appeared to the lyrical heroine in plot of the poem; and explains the fragment of one of the most mysterious works in Russian literature of the XX century, and some other poems of Anna Akhmatova.
Mekhtiev V.G. - Semantics of Lermontov's poetic myth about the Demon in The Islanders by N.S. Leskov pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.3.35024

Abstract: The subject of the study is the negative-evaluative, satirical layers of the novel "The Islanders" associated with the image of the demonic hero, who, thanks to M.Y. Lermontov, acquired the meaning of an archetype and a poetic myth in Russian literature. The object of the study is N.S. Leskov's stylistic techniques and ideological motives underlying the "desacralization" of the romantic myth. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as 1) the role of Lermontov's poem "The Demon" and romantic poetry of the 1840s in the formation of the myth of the demonic hero; 2) semantic deformations that led Leskov to the deviation of the myth from its conventional meanings; 3) the satirical mode used as the main method of creating the image of Istomin. Particular attention is paid to Leskov's satire in its function of "recoding" the myth. The main conclusions of the conducted research are: the image of the artist Istomin is entrusted with the author's task to debunk the romantic myth. For this reason, evaluative and emotional vocabulary, elements of satire that express the point of view of the "subjective" narrative are grouped around it. All this gives the image a semantic transparency that contradicts the "mysterious code" of the myth of Romanticism. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the discovery of the connections of the myth of the demon with the myth of Prometheus, which is important for understanding the complexity and versatility of the semantic core of the phenomenon under consideration. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author reveals the main motive of Leskov's satirical manner. Its meaning is not to create a "myth about a myth" or an "anti–myth"; in the novel, a "non-myth" is formed in order to achieve the complete elimination of the literary myth about the demonic hero. Satire is necessary for a writer to typify, not individualize, a character.
Li X. - The history of the Chinese translation of Chekhov's drama in the XX and XXI centuries. pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.37994

Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase in the interest of scientists in studying foreign translations of Chekhov's dramatic works. There are quite a lot of comparative studies of various Chinese translations of Chekhov's plays in a certain period, but the problem of systematic periodization of Chinese translations of Chekhov's plays has been little studied. The article is devoted to understanding the history of the Chinese translation of Chekhov's plays in the XX and XXI centuries. The subject of the study is various Chinese translations of Chekhov's dramatic works. The purpose of this work is a systematic analysis of the features and causes of the development of the Chinese translation of Chekhov's drama in different periods. Descriptive, analytical and comparative methods are used in the course of the study. For the first time, the work provides a relatively holistic overview of the history of reception and translation of Chekhov's drama in China since the XXI century. In a comparative study of Chinese translations of Chekhov's dramatic works, it is necessary to pay attention to the perception of foreign culture by different translators. We divide the complex history of reception and translation of Chekhov's drama in Chinese culture of the XX - XXI centuries into five stages. With the change of time and the development of theory and the level of translation, the artistic charm of Chekhov's drama is revealed even more. Chekhov's transformation from a typical realist writer into a recognized pioneer of modern drama of the XX century also confirms the complexity, ambiguity and advancement of Chekhov's work. We also need to look at the translations of Chekhov's dramaturgy from an intercultural point of view, timely consider the latest achievements of research in the field of translation of Chekhov's dramaturgy at home and abroad and look for ways of mutual comparison between different cultures in comparing translations.
Li X. - Chekhov 's dramaturgy in the modern Chinese theater in the XX and XXI centuries . pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.8.38125

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of reception of Chekhov's dramaturgy in the modern Chinese theater. The subject of the study is the stage reception of Chekhov's plays in China in the XX and XXI centuries. The purpose of this work is a systematic analysis of the features of Chekhov's dramaturgy in the Chinese theater in different periods. The main methods are descriptive, analytical and comparative methods. Chekhov's plays were introduced to China more than a hundred years ago, and most of his dramatic works were staged in a modern Chinese theater. In various performances based on Chekhov's plays, Chinese playwrights-directors such as Yang Shen, Lai Shengchuan, Li Liuyi, Lin Zhaohua, etc., show us their unique interpretation of Chekhov's drama in many areas.   Many studies consider the problem of the influence of Chekhov's dramaturgy on the work of Chinese writers, and the problem of stage interpretation of Chekhov's plays in China has been little studied. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the fact that it provides for the first time a relatively holistic analysis of the stage reception of Chekhov's dramatic works in China in the XX and XXI centuries. Modern Chinese theatrical figures carefully treat the text of the originals of Chekhov's plays, while offering new interpretations of his dramaturgy. Russian Russian stage interpretation and Chekhov's reception in China have already become one interpretive code for the study of Russian drama in modern Chinese theater and modern Russian-Chinese literary relations.
Li X. - The tradition of Chekhov 's images in Xia Yan 's plays pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38128

Abstract: In his dramaturgical works, Chekhov expresses reflections on social reality, national spirit and human destiny in a more significant historical framework. Chekhov's drama play an important role in the development of modern Chinese drama. Chekhov's dramaturgical masterpieces occupy an integral place in the creation of modern Chinese playwrights. This article examines the Chekhov tradition in the dramaturgical works of the modern Chinese playwright Xia Yan. The subject of the study is the embodiment of typical images of Chekhov's drama and the reflection of the tradition of Chekhov's dramaturgy in the plays of Xia Yan. The main methods used by the author are descriptive, analytical and comparative methods. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that this article for the first time gives a detailed analysis of the metamorphosis of images from Chekhov's plays in the dramas of the famous Chinese playwright Xia Yan, as well as the reflection of the tradition of Chekhov's "Cherry Orchard" in Xia Yan's play "Under the Roofs of Shanghai". In the dramatic works of Chekhov and Xia Yan, characters are more likely to meet suffering with a smile, resolve suffering with a heart full of pain, overcome suffering and endow readers with a comic spirit so that they are optimistic about life.
Wang F., Galay K.N. - Comparison of Characteristics of Female Images in Russian and Chinese Rural Prose pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.2.39663

EDN: GUBIDR

Abstract: The article compares systematically the works of Russian rural prose school and Chinese Beijing school from the point of view of reflection of female image in the works, analyzes the similarities and differences between them, as well as the reasons for their emergence from the position of comparative literary typology, taking into account the ontology of creativity. The village is the land where Russian and Chinese cultures grew and flourished, and rural literature written in the village gained a high reputation in both Russia and China during the period of great social transformations. The subject of the study is the characteristics of women's images in Russian and Chinese literature. The aim of the work is to analyze and compare female images in authors from Russia and China. Research methods – analysis of literary sources on the topic of research. Results of the research: the study of literary works from Russia and China on the theme of rural life was carried out, the portrayal of the female image by the authors of the two countries was compared. Conclusion. The works show an attempt to transform society through the pursuit of traditional culture and morality, in order to achieve an ideal state of society, full of love and freedom. The similarity of national-cultural narratives, themes and artistic styles makes the works of the Russian rural prose school comparable to the works of the Chinese Beijing school of simple fiction, but the differences between the historical and cultural background, religious beliefs and poetic soil of Russia and China make the works of these two schools of writing somewhat different.
Shi F., Li X. - Perception of V. Pelevin and the study of his work in China pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.10.44199

EDN: YRJNYM

Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the perception of V. Pelevin and the study of his work in China. The object of the study is the perception of Victor Pelevin's creativity in China. The subject of the study is a review of translations of V. Pelevin's works into Chinese and a presentation of the results of research about him in Chinese literary criticism. The main purpose of the work is to analyze the degree of study of Victor Pelevin's work in China with a brief overview of the main directions of modern research by Chinese critics. In the work, along with general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, analogy and generalization, the descriptive method and the comparative method were also used. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that Chinese literary critics pay close attention to the work of Viktor Pelevin, especially the Chinese elements in his works, and highly appreciate the intellectual value of the writer's works. The results described in this article will contribute to a deeper understanding of V. Pelevin's work by Chinese literary critics, and can also be introduced as scientific material into the educational process at the Faculty of Philology. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time new scientific achievements of China are involved in the research field – the evaluation and study by Chinese researchers of the works of V. Pelevin.
Vlasova Y.E., Vavichkina T.A. - Khalifa Al-Yazia's "The mango tree": tree of life archetype pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.68877

EDN: ALWHCT

Abstract: The subject of the study is the "world tree" concept, coined by the young writer from the United Arab Emirates, Al-Yazia Khalifa, “The Mango Tree” (2021). The authors are interested in this symbol interpretation. Using the example of an Arab family, the artist creates a picture of the quiet and measured life of Arabs in the province of al-Ain. Through the eyes of a little girl, she describes one sultry day spent in the house of her beloved grandmother, in whose yard a magnificent mango grows. The aspects of life of a large Emirati family are depicted – work, prayer, and meals. The methods of historical and systemic analysis allow the authors to prove that the mango tree is a symbol of the cycle of life continuity. A seed planted in the ground becomes a sprout of hope for a bright future and faith in the inviolability of the traditional family way of life. Cicadas chirping on a tree are the embodiment of the element of air. The fish that family members eat at dinner symbolize water, while cats in the yard represent fire. In the game, the heroine tames four natural elements, beating her fears. Thanks to the fragrant and juicy “king of fruits,” an atmosphere of comfort, prosperity and harmony is created in which several generations of the family grew up. That is why the little girl would not break away from their native roots and would follow their parents’ measured pattern of life.
Kharlamova S. - Rock Musician as the Author of Prose: Methodological Notes, Relation of Sound and Text Based on Michael Gira's Creative Writing pp. 6-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29412

Abstract: The article is devoted to the interaction between a text and music in the creative writing of a rock musician who is the author of prose and composer of songs at the same time. The subject of the research is the intermedial links between text and music and relation between text and musical composition as well as specific features of the representation of sound inside a text and its meaning in poetics of a literary piece. The research material is the collections of short stories written by an American rock musican and independent performing musician Michael Gira, studio albums and performances of the Swans rock band. The research is based on intermedial and comparative research methods. Kharlamova also makes general remarks regarding the definitino of the term 'fictional prose of rock musicians' and analysis of the verbal component of rock compositions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that intermedial connections are traced by the author from the point of view of their relation to fiction and popular music (independent experimental music in this case) as well as their opposition to the academic music. The research singularity is that the researcher analyzes the creative system of one author who writes music, texts of his songs and fictional prose. Kharlamova discovers aesthetical links between fictional prose and musical composition as well as representatino of audio and musical images in short stories and their role in the poetics of collections. The researcher also describes the general tendencies in prose and music of one author. As a conclusion, the author emphasizes the importance of sound and music in the literary world of short stories and close aesthetical connection between finctional text and musical compositions. Addressing to the interaction between a literary text and experimental music allows to significantly expand the concept of intermedial links of literature and music in particular and the concept of musicality in literature in general. 
Podkovyrin Y.V. - Visual aspects of unlocking the meaning in a literary work (based on Alexander Grin’s novella “Legless” pp. 9-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.6.35762

Abstract: The object of this research is the semantic structure of a literary work. The subject of this research is the nature of interrelation between visual and semantic aspects of the work. The “visual” implies not a characteristic of the text of the novella, but rather one of the “properties of artistic imagery” (S. P. Lavlinsky, N. M. Gurovich). On the one hand, the article interprets the semantics of visual images in A. S. Grin’s novella "Legless"; while on the other hand, reveals and describes the visual aspects of the very meaning of the novella. The author examines the dependence of understanding of the meaning of text on a certain “setting” of readers’ view. The scientific novelty consists in identification of the semantic aspects of visual images along with the visual aspects of unlocking the meaning based on Alexander Grin’s novella “Legless”. The impossibility of actualizing the meaning in the literary work without its visualization is explained the peculiar – incarnated – nature of the artistic meaning. The fact that in the literary work the meaning is translated into the actual existence of the heroes (is being  incarnated) determines the integrity of the process of understanding from scrutinization into objective forms of this existence. Missing one or another feature of the artistic world by the reader would mean shifting away from adequate understanding. If for the hero of the novella “Legless”, the understanding of Self and his true position in the world is generally associated with the rejection of vision, then for the reader of “Legless” (or other literary text) vision (that corresponds to what is depicted in the text) is the key to understanding.
Temirshina O.R., Ustinovskaya A.A., Pogodina Y.Y. - Translation as a form of dialogue: artistic translations by V. Narbut and M. Zenkevich pp. 9-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.5.37892

Abstract: The subject of the study is the mechanisms of semiotic development of aesthetic systems by acmeists of the "left wing" in the act of literary translation. The main hypothesis of the work is that the poetics of Narbut and Zenkevich seriously influenced the specifics of their translation activities, leading to the projection of semantic motif-figurative structures into the semantic space of translated texts. The work uses a linguosemiotic methodology, which, firstly, assumes an understanding of translation in the pragmatic and communicative aspect as an act of aesthetic communication, and secondly, allows to identify a system of semantic correlations between different texts based on the philosophical and aesthetic base of Acmeist poets. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that the article for the first time analyzes Narbut's translations in projection on the specifics of his military revolutionary poetry and reveals the mechanisms of "semantic narrowing" of the physiological theme in Zenkevich's translations (in comparison with his lyrics). In conclusions of the study the author establishes a number of patterns of translation activity of Narbut and Zenkevich. Thus, the work shows that a semantic pattern is formed in the military revolutionary lyrics of Narbut, which includes an apocalyptic myth, the motive of the ascension /ascension, performative structures, national toponymy. This semantic complex with all its elements is also represented in Narbut translations, which allows us to conclude that Narbut uses a direct projection strategy in his translation activities. Zenkevich's translations, correlated with the theme of war, are based on a fundamentally different model. Zenkevich's aesthetic-poetic system is much more ambitious in its philosophical scope than the translated texts themselves, which leads to a strategy of "semantic narrowing" of physiological "acmeistic" themes.
Nizhnik A. - Literary rhythm of the cycle by Isaac Babel “Red Cavalry” pp. 10-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34407

Abstract: This article examines the cycle by Isaac Babel “Red Cavalry in the context of literary trends of the 1920s. I. Babel avoided various literary organizations and loud manifestos; therefore, his role within the post-revolutionary literary system remains somewhat isolated: he had a reputation of a realist writer (although with some reservations) mostly due to specifically historical backstory of his military cycle. In this regard, his literary style is rarely viewed as a phenomenon of modernist literature – metareflective, intertextual, centered on the experiments with literary form. However, the works of I. Babel can be viewed as a characteristic to modernism phenomenon of “synthesis of arts” – not only painting and cinematography, but music as well. His musicality is traced both on the semantic level and particular recurring images, an on the level of rhythmic structure of the text. The article demonstrates “pretexts” (genre and stylistic models) that underlie the cycle “Red Cavalry”: folk songs, revolutionary marches, poetry of French symbolism (namely A. Rimbaud), which targeted to substitute versification with a rhythmic prose. Thus, some elements of I. Babel's prose are interpreted as variations of a free verse, which corresponds to the draft genre definitions given by the author to his stories, as well as to his writing style testified by some of his contemporaries.
Ustinovskaya A.A. - Translation of the poem “Le parfum impérissable” by Leconte de Lisle as an intra-Acmeist dialogue pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.3.35092

Abstract: The subject of this research is the translations of the Russian poets conducted within the framework of various literary and translation paradigms. Translations of the poem by Leconte de Lisle "Le parfum impérissable" made by I. F. Annensky, N. S. Gumilyov and M. L. Lozinsky (the latter two feature cross corrections). The three translators admired the work of de Lisle; Annensky and Gumilyov borrowed the key images from the poetry of the French author in their original works. Research methodology employs comparative analysis of the original texts and translations, with the elements of hermeneutical and component analysis of the text. The main conclusions consists in determination of the conceptual difference between the creative translation paradigms of the early XX century and such in the context of the publisher “The World Literature”. The translation by I. F. Annensky conducted in 1904 presents liberal and symbolic interpretation of the original: the poet places emphasis on the symbol of the never-dying flavor of eternal love, enclosed in the heart as in a vessel. Translations by N. S. Gumilyov and M. L. Lozinsky are notable by adhering to the original form of the sonnet and conveyance of a broad cultural context: the oriental flavor and image of the aroma-genie-spirit of love enclosed in the heart-vessel described by de Lisle. Most accurate translation of the cultural context was carried out by M. L. Lozinsky, whose version is recognized as final in the manuscript revisions of Leconte de Lisle’s texts.
Zhirkova M.A. - The tailed hero is a trickster in Sasha Cherny's story "The Cat Sanatorium" pp. 10-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.2.37435

EDN: GOJPDN

Abstract: The article presents an analysis of Sasha Cherny's novel "The Cat Sanatorium" (Rome, 1924 – Paris, 1928), the main character of which is considered as the archetype of the trickster. Beppo the cat takes revenge on his master for the hurt and pain caused, but this behavior turns against him: he finds himself on Trajan's forum, where homeless cats and cats live. Beppo does not find a place for himself in a new space for himself. The cat world does not become his own family for him, and for the inhabitants of the forum he remains an oddball. Freedom and independence are the sacred values for which he plays with death itself. Beppo is the image of a tramp, a homeless, but free and independent cat. The study reveals the main features of the trickster archetype in the image of the main character. It is also noted that Sasha Cherny's personal impressions of his stay in Rome, his experience of the historical realities of the turning point of the twentieth century and the writer's creative attitudes towards creating works for children are intertwined in the story.The scientific novelty of the work lies, firstly, in the fact that the "Cat Sanatorium" is subjected to a comprehensive analysis for the first time: the system of images, its structure, and autobiographical elements are considered, and secondly, the main character of the story is confirmed for the first time as a trickster hero. The relevance of the research will be determined by the growing interest in the literature of the Russian diaspora, and in particular, in the work of Sasha Cherny.
Wei X. - Peasant reform of 1861 in N.A. Nekrasov's poem "Peddlers" pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38212

Abstract: N.A. Nekrasov's poem "Peddlers", written in the summer of 1861, reflected the poet's reflections on the peasant reform that was beginning (announced by the Manifesto on February 19, 1861). Contrary to the testimony of N.G. Chernyshevsky, Nekrasov's attitude to the reform was not completely negative. Realizing that in some aspects the conditions of the changes were unfair to the peasants, the poet nevertheless saw in the reform the beginning of positive changes – the movement towards capitalist, market relations. Describing the recent past, Nekrasov, using specific figures of traveling peddlers, models the situation of the market in which landlords and peasants act not as masters and slaves, but as buyers. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that, in the analysis, the author also relies on the achievements of the current methodology of the "new economic criticism". Nekrasov shows the Russian national character as not alien to the love of market relations, the situation of purchase and sale, consequently, the emerging new living conditions, as quite favorable for the development of Russia. The necessary conditions for this development to really take place in the right direction, in the direction of improving the lives of both the nobility and peasants, as seen from this analysis, are the absence of severe ruinous wars (like the Crimean one, during which the action of the poem was transferred) and the protection of the domestic market from the expansion of European goods.
Sharonova E.A., Savonina N.A. - The idea of eternal femininity in the poetry of A.M. Sharonov (based on the poem "Valentine") pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.5.40677

EDN: YQSLWY

Abstract: For centuries, world culture has been thinking about the essence of the idea of Eternal femininity, manifested in philosophy and art. The idea of Eternal femininity is formed from a set of concepts that define a Woman, beauty, love, motherhood, chastity, wisdom, harmony. The purpose of the work is to consider the idea of Eternal femininity in the work of a modern Russian poet – A.M. Sharonov. The goal is realized in the process of analyzing the poem "Valentine" dedicated to the poet's wife. The lyrical heroine is the embodiment of femininity for A.M. Sharonov. The research is based on the application of a set of methods ‒ cultural-historical, comparative-historical, method of holistic analysis of a work of art. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the analysis of A. M. Sharonov's poem "Valentina" in the proposed context for the first time. The article proves that the image of Eternal femininity is formed by A.M. Sharonov through the mythological perception of femininity, which has demiurgic features peculiar to a woman by right of her birth as a woman. She is a demiurge because she was created to give birth (= create), for her this is not goal-setting, as for a man, but a given. A. M. Sharonov's woman is not secondary, not passive, not only an object of admiration and worship, but also a subject who energetically carries out life. According to A.M. Sharonov, a Woman contains wisdom, beauty, love, creative power that contributes to the transformation of the world and gives a person the opportunity to ascend to the heights he has chosen, which determines for him the idea of Eternal femininity.
Kravinskaya Y.Y., Khlybova N.A. - Deconstruction of metanarrative in postcolonial text: interpretation of Christian code in Keri Hulme’s novel “The Bone People” pp. 11-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.4.31022

Abstract: This article examines the projection of the European metanarrative in postcolonial text on the example of deconstruction of the Christian metanarrative in Keri Hulme’s novel “The Bone People” (1985). The concept of “metanarrative” is described through the prism of literary studies as a criterion for analyzing the evolution of literary process in the era of postmodernism. In postcolonial research, metanarrative has vast theoretical potential and manifests as a dominant code dictated by the European culture as a dominant one, culture of colonized nations, which makes the authors of postcolonial period refer to the method of deconstruction of metanarratives of the former colonialists. Practical analysis is conducted on the postcolonial novel that interpreted such components and the storyline, imagery of the heroes, and paratextual level. The scientific novelty of this study consists in the fact that the literary process in New Zeland as a whole, and works of the representatives of Maori Renaissance in particular, are insufficiently studied by the contemporary scholars. The analysis of deconstruction of the Christian metanarrative in postcolonial text allows making the following conclusions: uniqueness of deconstruction of metanarrative in a postcolonial text is based on application of the counter-discursive strategies, which include reference to the elements of metanarrative, presentation as a part of colonial discursive field, and authorial transformation for inscribing them into postcolonial space.
Asadov I. - Symbolics of the novel “The Woman of Rome” by Alberto Moravia pp. 11-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.6.32999

Abstract: This article analyzes the novel “The Woman of Rome” (1947) by the Italian author of the XX century Alberto Moravia. As in his other novels, Moravia features a one reflexing character, creating an authorial intention in the oeuvre. The article examines special symbolics in the novel. The events take place in the 1940’s, during the Fascism era in Italy: the heroine is a victim of indifference and cruelty of the society and her own weakness, inability to refuse material gains, defend her values and dreams. Emphasis is also made on interaction between the social classes. Unlike the heroes of other novels of Alberto Moravia, Adriana loses her place in the society, changing her behavioral patterns and undergoing reassessment of values. Each character interacting with her can be interpreted as a symbol, representative of a certain class they belong to. And each of them exploit and impact her in their own way. The text in question can be considered as neo-realistic or existential. The author also underlines common traits of the protagonists of Moravia’s novels. For example, Cesira the heroine of the novel “Two Women” (“La Ciociara”, 1957) belongs to petite bourgeoisie, she also experience the transformation of life attitudes, having become a witness of dehumanization of people and overall indifference towards the fate of the country; but unlike Adriana, who is a victim, she manifests in role of a witness. The scientific novelty consists in analysis of symbolics of the novel and correlation between fate of the heroine and fate of the country. The heroines in the works of Alberto Moravia symbolize Fascist era in Italy differently; only in case with Adriana she personifies the changes, reaching the moral decline and perverting her inner self under the influence of fascism. Analysis is conducted on peculiarities of narration in the novel: her story can be perceived as a confession, or as a conversation with an understanding friend. This softens the perception of tragic events in the novel, since in increases the level of trust of the audience to the heroine. Symbolics of the novel includes the images of Madonna and Danaë (Titian’s painting).
Starostina K.V. - Mythological motifs in the storybook by M. Moskvina “My Dog Loves Jazz” pp. 11-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.2.34988

Abstract: This article demonstrates the realization of mythological motifs in the Russian children’s literature of the late XX century, namely the story “My Dog Loves Jazz" by M. Moskvina. It is established that mythological motifs are used not only as artistic elements, but also as semantic constructs. The specificity of the story incorporates the motifs of justice, irony and game. The plot and existential component are reconstructed through the prism of mythology, which includes the elements of social experience and irrealistic course of the narrated events. The peculiarities of motif structure primarily manifest in the discussion of everyday life situations and prospects (career choice, parenting problems, purchasing clothes, ways to broaden outlook, vacation on the beach). The method of narration should be viewed as mythotypical symbolism, which manifests in the ambiguous and unpredictable of the finale of separate scenes, and allows intervening into the reader’s imagination. Colorfully delivering the interesting plotlines, the author allows the reader to reflect on themselves. The article indicates the positive energy of narration, which creates prerequisites for inspiration, new life pursuits, and desire to look at the world with eyes wide open. It is noted that this literary work contributes to the formation of morals in young generation.
Khayrulina O.I. - “King Hunger” and “Anathema” by Leonid Andreyev and “The Burghers of Calais” by Georg Kaiser: comparative analysis pp. 12-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.6.31157

Abstract: Typological proximity of Leonid Andreyev’s and Georg Kaiser’s dramaturgy has repeatedly become a subject for discussion among researchers back in the early XX century, however, the comparative analysis of separate plays of the two dramaturgists has not been previously conducted. Using the example of the conditionally-allegorical plays of L. Andreyev “King Hunger” and “Anathema” and historical drama of G. Kaiser “The Burghers of Calais”, the author finds these points of intersection at the level of the system of characters, language, partially problematics, as well as authorial remarks. The author applies the comparative literary analysis that allows revealing the typological correlation between dramaturgical works of L. Andreyev and dramaturgy of the representative of German expressionism G. Kaiser. The main conclusions consist in determination of similarity between the expressionistic dramaturgy of Georg Kaiser and conditionally-allegorical plays of Leonid Andreyev, which underlines a spontaneous succession of expressive means, as well as the common aesthetic orientation of the dramaturgists.
Kiling T.V. - G. R. Derzhavin at the brink of dialogism: on the material of earlier lyrics pp. 14-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.3.32643

Abstract: On the background of growing interest towards the problem of dialogism of lyrics of the XIX – XX centuries, the author highlights a small number of works dedicated to research of the phenomenon of dialogism in the lyrics of the XVIII century, including the works of G. R. Derzhavin. The forms of manifestation of dialogism in the earlier lyrics of G. R. Derzhavin served as the subject of this research. The goal of this research is to determine the paths of formation of dialogical intentions in the process of establishment of authorial mentality of Derzhavin as a lyricist. The materials for this research contain triumphal odes created by Derzhavin during the 1760’s – 1770’s. The methodology is based on the problem of the author S. N. Broytman, who leans on the concept of dialogism. The structural-semantic method allows determining the dialogical structures and forms within the lyrical text. The results yielded paths of dialogization manifested in the earlier odes of Derzhavin: from mastering the communicative function of address, formed in the preceding odic tradition, to emergence of intuitively or consciously news to the genre canon odes of this period of dialogism – change in the distance between addressor and addressee, individualization of lyrical subject, emergence of speech subjects, etc., which serve as the scientific novelty of this research.
Snigireva S.D. - Historiosophical views of F. M. Dostoevsky and democratic concept of schism of A. P. Shchapov pp. 14-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.5.32888

Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of schism of A. P. Shchapov, as well historiosophical constructs of F. M. Dostoevsky that revolve around comprehension of the problem of schism and its role in the historical process. The goal of this article lies in determination of the impact of democratic concept of schism presented in the works of A. P. Shchapov “Russian Schism of Old Believers”, “The Land and the Schism”, “Land and Schism. The Runners” upon the formation of historiosophical views of Dostoyevsky and peculiarities of his understanding of the phenomenon of schism. The use of systemic approach allows examining the phenomenon of schism as a central element of historiosophy of Dostoevsky in relation to socioeconomic concept of Shchapov, which laid the foundation for the populist trend in historiography of the schism and associated with the history of development of democratic thought in Russia. The scientific novelty is defined by comprehensive approach towards description of the topic of schism as a core element of Dostoevsky’s historiosophy that considers its dependence on the historical and sociopolitical factors. It is underlined that writer’s perception of schism as a protest movement and people’s discontent as a driving force of the history was formed under the influence of Shchapov’s concept on the political nature of schism, which sparked public outcry. Leaning on the democratic concept of history and overcoming the limitation of building a liberal camp, Dostoevsky creates an original model of Russia’s development based on reunification of high society with the people. In the center of this concept is the understanding of schism as a progressive phenomenon that reflects the awakening of public consciousness and cognitive activity, which retained communal structure that according to Dostoevsky is capable of becoming a foundation for a new form of public order.
Wei X. - The value method in literary studies (on the interpretation of N.A. Nekrasov's work in the axiological aspect) pp. 14-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.8.38328

EDN: KVPHES

Abstract: Nekrasov's work presents a certain problem for studying from the point of view of the value system expressed in it. Despite the fact that quite a large number of works were devoted to this problem in Soviet times, it does not seem to be solved. The most productive approach to solving the question of the ethical foundations of Nekrasov's poetry seems to be the reconstruction of the understanding of the connection between aesthetics and ethics, characteristic of the socio-philosophical thought of his time. Throughout the 1830s and 1850s, the Russian liberal intelligentsia turned to German classical philosophy in search of answers to the question of the place of art in the world. From the philosophy of Kant, who sharply divided ethics and aesthetics and denied the possibility of art's direct impact on the world and society, she moved on to Schelling's "system of transcendental idealism". Not satisfied with the potential "immoralism" of this system, Russian liberal thought accepted Hegel's philosophy, on the one hand, recognizing the need for the philosopher to "accept" reality, on the other – reserving the artist the right to criticize this reality as not corresponding to his "concept". In the 1850s, the thinkers of the circle of Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov made additions based on Feuerbach's philosophy, but in fact it remains unchanged. These concepts allow us to truly understand Nekrasov's axiology, to truly approach his specific "poetry of reality", combining the pursuit of aesthetic perfection, philosophical acceptance of the world in its entirety and sharp criticism of modern society.
Pinaev S.M., Dmitrieva Y.Y. - “May the gates to paradise open for us…”: medial semantics in N. S. Gumilyov's poetry pp. 15-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.5.35509

Abstract: The subject of this research is the medial semantics in the poetry of Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov, which is inseparably associated with the pivotal for the poet motif of path, journey, and road. The corpus of N. S. Gumilyov's poems written from 1905 to 1921 serves as the material for this research. A certain constant can be traced in interpretation of medial semantics: even if the author speaks of the gates as a physical object (the gates of a castle or house), the image has a transcendental connotation. The gates are a path to another world, often to paradise; they are not open of everyone and can be seen only by the dedicated. Similar understanding of the gates Gumilyov reflects in his theoretical articles, such as a program manifesto of a new literary trend “The Heritage of Symbolism and Acmeism”. As testified by A. Akhmatova, he sought for the mystical “golden gates”, and intended to discover it while travelling to Africa. Failure in finding it led to the emergence of macabrely interpretation of medial semantics: it can be not only the gates paradise, but also to otherworldliness, behind which are awaiting the terrible torments. As a result, the author determines the constant and variable characteristics of this figurative complex, which is inextricably entwined with the core concept of the path, road, and journey in Gumilyov’s poetry. Medial semantics interacts with a range of thanatological and gnoseological motifs: gates lead to knowledge and reveal to the dedicated and worthful. Entering another world is not the goal of the path; the portal opens in unexpected places, and not everyone can see it.
Stepanova V.E. - Artistic peculiarities of the philosophical works of S. S. Vasilyev-Borogonsky pp. 15-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.37099

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the description of artistic uniqueness of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev. The author reviews the problem of the poetic language of Vasilyev’s philosophical poems from the perspective of determination of the role and function of poetic images, as well as the techniques of rhetorical patterns, stylistics and syntax as method of expressing the original philosophical views. Examination of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev required an overview of the context of philosophical poetry of the Yakut classics – A. E. Kulakovsky, A. I. Sofronov – the forerunners of S. S. Vasilyev.  It is worth noting that the poet scrupulously adhered to the experience and traditions of his forerunners. The lyrical works of S. S. Vasilyev were oriented towards the poetics of philosophical works of the first poets. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the poetics of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev is examined on the basis of literary studies for the first time. The author determines the main ideological content of the poet's philosophical lyrics: he enhanced the semantic meaning of poetic images borrowed from the folk lyrics. The designated by the poet symbolic images are comprehensible and effective means of artistic reproduction of the philosophical concepts. The rhetorical references, questions that are specific to the philosophical lyrics overall, served as the main techniques of developing the theme of the philosophical works of S. S. Vasilyev, described his personal reflections, as well as the author’s idea of the lyrical works.
Yarovoy S.A. - Synthesis of Arts in N. V. Gogol’s “Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka" pp. 15-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.7.43469

EDN: SBXRPQ

Abstract: The article analyzes N. V. Gogol’s views, expressed in his articles of the 1830-40s, on the problem of interaction of painting, architecture, music, literature. The various functions that Gogol ascribes to art are determined by the main idea of the writer – serving the saving mission of literature. The article also deals with Gogol’s thoughts on the need to create a universal art, which would amaze reader's imagination by applying effects borrowed from other types of art. Thus, the goal of this article is to examine aesthetic searches of N.V. Gogol expressed in his articles about art, included in short story collection “Arabesques”, educe examples of the use of artistic techniques of the “new” synthetic art in the works of the cycle “Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka”. In the course of the study, it is suggested that the writer had been developing stories from “Evenings…” in accordance with visual perception laws, had been using methods in prose including dramatic skill, for instance, unfolding the action by means of statements and characters’ acts, fast change of events and locations. The article established that in order to create a comprehensive world view which is meant to shock reader’s imagination and amaze him, Gogol develops his own unique manner of narration – he uses a fragmentary division of stories, saturation of episodes with actions, fully and brightly describes the details, which allows us to conclude that the writer uses the effects of the same “synthetic” art, theoretical basis of which were described by him in articles “Sculpture, Painting, and Music”, “On Present-Day Architecture”, “The Last Day of Pompeii” and some other essay.
Guseva N.V. - The figurative system of the story by Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope” in the axiological projection pp. 16-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.5.30867

Abstract: In this article, the author conducts a comprehensive study of the value paradigm of the Mari national literature, examining the story of a Mari writer Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope”. The story is written in the Russian language, and published in 1986 in the “Friendship” almanac, dedicated to the topic of the Great Patriotic War. Great potion of attention in the story is devoted to the figurative system, which is being examined in axiological projection, as well as the characterology and symbolism, aimed at actualization of the axiological content of the story. It is proven that in the story of Lev Yatmanov “A Drop of Hope”, which is being positioned as the object of scientific inquiry for the first time in this article, the axiological connotations in characteristics of the characters and in the image-symbols define author’s conception of the story. This article outlines and describes the creative concepts of such notions as human life, love, faith and hope, which comprise the value foundation of all subjects of consciousness and speech (the narrator, his father, mother, Faith).
Ospanova E. - Controversy About the Ideological Orientation Around the Almanac "Mnemosyne" pp. 16-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39080

EDN: AUHKGD

Abstract: The article is an analysis of the controversy that took place on the pages of the almanac "Mnemosyne", published by A. S. Griboyedov, V. K. Kyukhelbeker and V. F. Odoevsky in the 19th century. The object of the study is the negative critical reviews devoted to the almanac "Mnemosyne". The aim of the study is to identify the influence of negative critical reviews on the perception of the almanac "Mnemosyne". The main part of the work is devoted to negative reviews about the almanac. The article also contains a brief description of the history of the creation of the almanac itself for a more complete and detailed understanding of the material. When considering critical reviews of the almanac "Mnemosyne", first of all it is worth mentioning the personality of F. B. Bulgarin, famous for his loud polemics with the publishers of "Mnemosyne", as well as A. F. Voeykov and Prince Shalikov, who was directly related to this almanac. The novelty of this article lies in a more detailed consideration of the negative critical reviews on the almanac "Mnemosyne", as well as the impact of this controversy on the output of the almanac. It should be noted that "Mnemosyne" for a short but rather active period of publication acquired both ideological supporters who shared the views of the publishers and opponents who actively criticized the almanac, among whom were F. B. Bulgarin, A. F. Voeykov and Prince P. I. Shalikov. The controversy of the publishers of Mnemosyne with critics did not stop until the publication of the almanac was discontinued. These critical reviews caused a heated debate on a number of issues: starting from the appearance of "Mnemosyne", and ending with individual comments on the works of the almanac. These discussions not only did not spoil the reputation of Mnemosyne, but also helped to attract public attention to it.
Paramonova M.K. - The Genre of the Funeral Sermon in Russian Oratorical Prose of the Second Half of the XVIIIth Century pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20020

Abstract: The object of the research is the genre of the funeral sermon as one of the most ancient rhetoric genres that was popular in Russian oratorica prose of the 18th century. The funeral sermon was actively developed during Peter's time and back in those times the aforesaid genre performed not only religious but also political functions. In the second half of the century the funeral sermon acquired the moral and didactic nature. The style of the word was changed, too. Long periods and numerous quotations from the Holy Bible were replaced by a shorter text and simple understandable vocabulary. The main research method used by the author of the present article is the comparative historical method: the genre is viewed in terms of the literary, cultural and historical environment of those times. As an example of the funeral sermon the author carries out a philological analysis of the text from Ekaterina's times 'The Speech for the Funeral of the Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna' written by the metropolitan Platon (Levshin). Never before in the academic literature funeral sermons of the second half of the 18th century was chosen as an object of an independent research since researchers usually pay attention to funeral sermons of Peter's time. However, the second half of the 18th century was the most beneficial for the development of the genre because it was the time when funeral sermons were actively written and published, the circle of people those funeral sermons were devoted to expanded and the genre was firmly established as the genre of religious oratorical prose. 
Kotova A.V. - Concerning the Sources of Comparison: V. Fl. 6. 609–612 pp. 17-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.1.25317

Abstract: Comparisons play an important role in the system of expressive means used in a poetic text. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of lexical-stylistic features of ancient epic poems written by Roman writers who based their plots on mythology. The purpose of this article is to analyze comparison as a stylistic device of the Roman epic poetry in I century of Christian era. The subject of the research is individual artistic features of comparing the main hero Yason to the Caucasus Mountain in Valerius Flaccus' poem 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). In her research Kotova applies both general research methods and special philological methods of interpretation of ancient texts. As a result of the research, the author makes the following conclusions: comparison of man to mountain in ancient epos ascends to Hom. I1.13.754–755. In Latin epos the brightest comparison of man to mountain can be found in the passage from Aeneis (12. 697–703) that is based on verses from the Iliad and serves as a source for comparison in 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). Using the description of Apennines, Valerius Flaccus adopted the lexical content and tertium comparationis. At the same time, the poet added the epithet 'hibernus' and reference to the previous comparison (6. 604–608) of the peak of Yason's helmet to maleficent Sirius. By doing so, the poet emphasized the fatality of Yason for Medea. Thus, Kotova analyzes how Valerius Flaccus reviewed the work of his predecessors and used comparison in his own writings. The results of the research extend our knowledge about Valerius Flaccus' writings and can be used in following researches of stylistic features of 'Argonautica'.    
Volkhovskaia A. - The Pushkinian Theme in Montserrat Roig's Writings pp. 17-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27011

Abstract: In her article Volkhovskaya analyzes the book 'Golden Spire' written by the Catalonian writer Montserrat Roig and devoted to the biography and creative writing of Alexander Pushkin. The book was published in Barcelona in 1985 and included the main materials collected by Montserrat Roig about the Russian poet. The author of the article tries to trace back the process of Montserrat Roig's developing her interest in Alexander Pushkin as well as to view new aspects of the Spanish writer's perception of Pushkin's creative writing which she added to those that already existed at the moment. In the course of writing her book, Montserrat Roig has used Henri Troyat's research 'Pushkin' as well as translations of Pushkin's works into the Spanish language. All quotations from Montserrat Roig's book are given by the author of the article in Spanish. The article is based on the analysis of two works written by Montserrat Roig, Golden Spire and 'My Travel to Blockade' in which she studied and described Pushkin's biography and creative life. Volkhovskaya also considers the cultural and historical background of these works, the moments the writer focused on, and the choice of literary and other sources that she used to write her work. According to the author, the following aspects of Montserrat Roig's writings should be noted: - Montserrat Roig makes the reader to create an association link between the image of Pushkin and the image of St. Petersburg; - for the first time in the history of Spanish studies of Pushkin, Alexander Pushkin's creative works are perceived from the point of view of realism; - Montserrat Roig analyzes the poet's relations with his wife from the point of view of feminist ideology.
Anisimova O.V. - Allusions in the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny (Corwin Cycle) pp. 18-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2017.1.22216

Abstract: The object of the study is the intertextuality of Corwin cycle. The subject of the research is made up by allusions of first five parts of the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny. In particular, the article touches upon numerous allusions to different fiction texts and myths, among which are the works by English classics as well as Celtic and Bible legends. The study material is constituted by such parts of the cycle as Nine Princes in Amber, The Guns of Avalon, Sign of the Unicorn, The Hand of Oberon, and The Courts of Chaos. The methods used in the study are: the method of intertextual analysis, textual method, and the method of comparative analysis. Scientific novelty of the given research is in the first ever attepmt to track the regularities of Zelazny's use of allusions and reminiscences in his works, and in his most famous novel the Chronicles of Amber in particular; to understand the way the intertext functions in the text corpus by the American fantasy writer. The main findings of the research undertaken are as follows: each part of Corwin cycle can be referred to a particular piece of world literature, or regarded in the context of this or that mythology system; allusions to mythology used by Zelazny play the plotforming function thus helping the writer to create the fantasy basis of the cycle's secondary world; distinctive literature allusions aim at revealing the main character's inner world, showing his psychological evolution, and also at making fictional characters comprehensible to modern readers; allusions to the Book of Revelation, in their turn, are used by the writer to create the key image of the whole cycle - the image of Apocalypse.
Guan' L. - Tragic motifs of the Great Patriotic War. Interpretation of Vasil Bykov pp. 18-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.2.32558

Abstract: This article analyzes the reconstruction of tragic moments of the Great Patriotic War in two novellas by Vasil Bykov “The Ordeals” and “In the Fog”. The author notes that vigilant attention to the tragic in science and depiction of tragic heroes and situations in art did not always align with the time describe in the texts. Emphasis is made on the fact that the tragic perception of the world or tragic tonality are inherent to Russian literature in different periods of its existence, and thus, the comprehension of essence of the tragic and its theory require further examination by the philologists, sociologists and philosophers. The relevance and novelty are substantiated by the following aspects: need for further comprehension of the essence of the importance for literary studies phenomenon and concept of “tragic”; selection of the indicative for the literature of 1920’s, and 1960’s – 1970’a works and representative from the perspective of interpretation of tragic moments of the Russian life of 1940’s therein; as well as need to thoughtfully and analytically explain the essence of the tragic characters and situation, and how they were perceived in real life and Russian literature of the XX century.
Pervushin M.V. - Two views on Olga of Kiev in the Ancient Rus’ hymnography pp. 18-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.10.33861

Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the preserved liturgical written artifacts dedicated to the Saint Equiapostolic Grand Princess Olga. These hymnographic ancient manuscripts, in modern sense poetic art of composing ceremonial, laudatory and pious (liturgical) chants, allow tracing the perception of the act of holiness by several generations of Russian scribes who lived centuries after her, and how it is perceived by the contemporaries. These representations are revealed through analyzing the images of Saint Olga, her deeds, which were praised in one or another hymnographic work by the composer. The scientific novelty is reflected in the thesis that since the late XVI century the hymnographic and hagiographic monuments more often demonstrate a regularity – the authors (especially of monuments dedicated to princedoms) increasingly attempt to portray not a realistic person who achieved sainthood, rather a saint that descended to reality, thus already representing that which deserves praise and requires endless repetition thereof. The pinnacle of such reverence of not only the sainthood, but also living rulers, was the XVIII century, when living emperors were shamelessly place into the same bracket with God, and often replacing latter with the former, and the empresses, for whom “Christ” was an awkward name, were placed above God.
Moskvin G.V. - Essay “The Caucasian” as a phenomenon of existential paradigm in the prose of M. Y. Lermontov pp. 19-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.3.35041

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question that has not been previously raised within the framework of Lermontov studies, namely analysis of the essay of Lermontov’s late period “The Caucasian” from the perspective of reflection of existential problematic of literature of the early XIX century therein. The research is conducted on the ideological and artistic arrangement of the text, which represents the socio-psychological aspects of human adaptation to life. The author underlines that Lermontov chose the Caucasian discourse for expressing the personal biographical experiences and creative ideas of his novel “A Hero of Our Time”, which coincide with the period the writer’s military service in the Caucasus and vacation in St. Petersburg in 1841. This essay generalizes the threads of personal life and fate, featuring all possible characters representing the theme: natural. Georgian, state Caucasians, among them are the unnamed heroes of the entire textual space of Lermontov’s mature prose (Maxim Maksimych, Grushnitsky, wandering literary artist, Grigory Alexandrovich Pechorin, as well as female images Bela, Undine, Cossack woman, Nastya). The essay finale is an emotional outcome of futile existence of a human. The author follows the life path of the composite character – the Russian Caucasian from the initial novella “Bela” to finale of the essay “The Caucasian”, which appears to be emotional outcome of vain existence of a human having no real substance.
Ren X. - Turgenev’s traditions and motifs in the collection “Dragons, Tigers and Dogs” by Ba Jin pp. 19-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.2.35042

Abstract: The subject of this research is the adoption and development of the motifs of I. S. Turgenev’s “Poems in Prose” in the lyrical collection “Dragons, Tigers and Dogs” by Ba Jin, who was dubbed “China’s Turgenev”. Attention is focused on the analysis of literary techniques adopted by Ba Jin from Turgenev, such as: narrative methods, motifs of the dreams, latent psychologism and profound psychologism of the landscape, symbolism, and fundamental musicality of the text. The research material contains the lyrical cycles of both writers, author's commentaries, journal articles published in Russia and China dedicated to examination of Turgenev's impact upon the Chinese writers. The article employs the historical-functional and comparative methods of analysis. The author is first to explore the influence of Turgenev's “Poems in Prose” on the works of Ba Jin, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. Ba Jin's scrutiny of Turgenev's “Poems in Prose”, during his work on translations, is reflected in his collection on the level of symbolism and the choice of motifs, command of language and literary style overall. The musicality of Turgenev's “Poems in Prose” encouraged Ba Jin to pursue the new artistic expressiveness of the language. The aesthetic peculiarities of Turgenev's “Poems in Prose” are consonant with the traditions and aesthetic requests of the Ancient Chinese literature, which justifies the enduring popularity of Turgenev’s works in China.
Li A. - Lu Xun and N. V. Gogol: the unexplored field of poetry pp. 19-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36666

Abstract: Russian literature has had a massive impact upon the creative path of Lu Xun. The researchers of his prose (including sinologist and translator L. Z. Ėĭdlin, literary scholar L. D. Pozdneeva, writer and literary scholar Feng Xue Feng, and others.) oftentimes compared his texts with the works of Russian writers. Despite the fact that Lu Xun wrote poetry throughout his life, his poetic legacy is poorly studied. Comparative analysis is conducted on the poetry of Lu Xun and N. V. Gogol. It is noted that the poetry of both authors reflects their philosophical and cultural views. The similarity of the authors lies in the fact that each used the versification that is traditional for their culture. The content and shape of Gogol’s poetry is based on the Slavic folklore and Orthodox faith, while Lu Xun is one of the initiators of the “New Culture Movement” and is considered an innovator in the Chinese literature. He wrote prose and poetry not in Wenyan (classical Chinese), which was understood by the elite of Chinese society alone, but in Baihua (written vernacular Chinese), the new Chinese literary language. Therefore, Lu Xun made a considerable contribution to the creation of new poetry, and many Chinese literary scholars (Chang Tsao, 1962-2010, Zhu Ziqing, 1898-1948) consider him the founder of the modern versification in China. The article establishes the similarities and differences between the Russian syllabic-accentual verse poems and Chinese new poetry.
Kukushkina E. - Monodrama in Malaysian National Dramaturgy: a Retrospective of the Emergence of the Genre pp. 19-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38753

EDN: UNCFEC

Abstract: The article focuses on the well-known Malaysian dramatic texts, created in the last third of the twentieth century, the generic features of monodrama in these plays being the main research subject. The purpose of the analysis is to demonstrate monodramatic nature of the works and to establish the time of the birth of Malay monodrama, as well as the reasons why the genre for a long time was not denominated as such. The analysis involves historical-cultural, analytical and comparative methods. Historical and cultural method allows to scrutinize the genre under study in the context of the post-realistic theater of Malaysia, which was born as a reaction to the tragic events of the second half of the twentieth century in the country. Analytical method is used to identify the essential generic features of the studied texts, whereas with the help of comparative method, the artistic features of these texts are matched with the genre characteristics of monodrama. Today, the Malay monodrama is undeservedly deprived of the attention of specialists, although its role on the stage of the country is quite noticeable. This determines the novelty and relevance of the work. The performed research shows that Malay monodrama is much older than is commonly believed, and has existed for almost half a century. The study of the plays "Lazri Meon" by Abdul Samad Said and "Not Suicide" by Dinsman made it possible to identify the most important monodramatic features in them (the subject of representation, the dramatic plot and the conflict), thereby pushing the lower timeframe of existence of this genre in Malay playwriting first until the 1990s, and then - the 1970s. The appearance of a non-classical genre less than a quarter of a century after the birth of Malay drama also allows us to acknowledge the accelerated development of this type of literature in Malaysia.
Novikau A.V. - Mark Z. Danilevsky's "House of Leaves": the Poetics of Simulacra pp. 19-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.2.39799

EDN: KVOMAL

Abstract: The object of research of this article is a novel by Mark Z. Danilevsky's "House of Leaves" in the context of Postmodernism. The subject of the study is the concept of a simulacrum, which appears in the novel "House of Leaves" as one of the funding components of the poetics of the work. The "House of Leaves" is considered from the position of postmodern sensitivity, in which Danilevsky deliberately blurs the boundaries between habitual space and hyperreality, real and unreal, fact and fiction. A similar effect is achieved through the simulacrum based on the novel – the short film "The Nevidson Film" – which was originally programmed by Danilevsky to expand into reality, to capture reality, that is, to limitless expansion of simulation through both material media (books) and the Internet. As a result of the proliferation of simulation within the work, the poetics of the novel text itself undergoes mutation, where genre mixing occurs, and mutually subordinate relations are established for the participants of author-reader communication due to the features of novel poetics. The text based on the simulacrum is absorbed by the simulation and eventually becomes a simulacrum due to the continuous formation and spread of the simulation. As a result, the language environment turns into a means of control, manipulation, subordination, both of the author and the recipient: the totality of simulation replaces reality and includes the perceiving consciousness in its own boundless becoming.
Grechushkina N.V. - Tragic epos of the Great Patriotic War in the story by Mikhail Sholokhov “Fate of a Man" pp. 20-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.4.32379

Abstract: The subject of this research is analysis of the tragic and epic in in the story written by Mikhail Sholokhov “Fate of a Man". In development of the theme of national tragedy of the Great Patriotic War, the author describes it as a tragic stage of the circuit of history and existence, connects tragic and epic in composition with the national patriotic position of M. A. Sholokhov, confrontation between a person and fate, conflict of good and evil. The object of this research is to determine the unity of tragic and epic in the story “Fate of Man”, leaning on composition and problematic of the work. The author uses the method of philosophical-religious interpretation, systemic-holistic and structural-typological methods, The novelty of this study consists in the new meaning of the image of Andrey Sokolov through the prism of tragic and epic beginnings. The conducted analysis of the story “Fate of Man” underlines a vast range in life of the people during the time of Great Patriotic War, and identify the story by Mikhail Sholokhov with the epos. The tragic is a part of artistic space, and is characterized by continuity of the world literature traditions. Tragic and epic beginnings emphasize the value of human life, the priority of happiness and peace between the nations.
Kharitonova A. - Andrey Mytishchev and Leon Ploshovsky as exponents of the type of hero without dogma in the prose of M.V. Krestovskaya and G. Senkevich pp. 20-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33771

Abstract: This article examines the characteristic type of hero in the literature of the epoch of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries and addresses a little-studied plot from the history of Russian-European literary ties of this period. The author focuses on two works: the novel by the Polish classic G. Senkevich "Without Dogma" (1890) and the story "The Confession of Mytishchev" (1901) by the half-forgotten Russian writer M.V. Krestovskaya, whom acquaintance with the book of an older contemporary made a strong impression. Both works contain a number of parallels at the level of composition, the way of speech organization of the narrative and the plot itself, but at the root of their connection lies attention to a new type of European man, generated by the epoch of the end of the century and suffering from its "diseases".The author of the article compares the main characters of the works of Senkevich and Krestovskaya — Leon Ploshovsky and Andrey Mytishchev — as representatives of the type of hero-skeptic, hero without dogma, whose appearance in literature was an organic stage of the evolution of the hero-individualist. Time has put its own questions before him, in particular, about the need to be guided by moral principles and follow any dogmas. The named works of Russian and Polish literature of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries are placed in a single historical and literary context for the first time, and their main characters are considered as vivid exponents of the type of European man of that time. The appeal of the modern reader to these artistic images makes it possible to better understand the cultural, historical, philosophical and social prerequisites for the appearance of carriers of such a worldview in the late XIX — early XX century. This determines the novelty and relevance of this study.
Strelnikova E.S. - Initiatory nature of the opposition “child – adult” opposition in the mythopoetic paradigm of Vladimir Mayakovsky's works of the early period pp. 20-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.8.36174

Abstract: This research analyzes Vladimir Mayakovsky’s works of the early period (1912-1916) within the framework of a neo-mythological approach, which allows reconstructing the individual authorial mythopoetic discourse. The article substantiates the inclusion of the literary works of Mayakovsky into the philosophical-culturological context, the importance of their consideration as a poetic and peacebuilding whole with its own patterns of transformation of the archetypal and mythological. The object of this research is the individual mythopoesis of the writer. The described “Dionysianism” of the lyrical hero takes roots in the typological similarities established by the author and noted by other researchers of Mayakovsky’s works, which indicates the consistency of referring to the Nietzschean dialectical opposition of Apollonian and Dionysian. The author notes multifacetedness of the category of the borderline as one of the defining dominants of mythopoetic worldview of the lyrical hero. Therefore, the subject of this research is a particular level of this category: the peculiarity of existence and evolution of a human within the world paradigm in the context of “child – adult” opposition. The novelty of the research consists in establishing the initiatory nature of the category of borderline in the works of V. Mayakovsky. This substantiates the specific, liminal personality traits of the lyrical hero, and proves the furute path of his mythopoetic evolution outlined in the pre-October texts. The author traces the dependence of transformation of mythopoetic constructions on the number of connotational changes in the dialectical opposition “child – adult”. The main result of the conducted research lies in the establishment of causal links between the incompleteness of overcoming the own liminality by the lyrical hero and the fundamental incompleteness of the process of his initiatory “maturing”. The author's special contribution to examination of the mythopoetic structure of the texts of V. Mayakovsky of the early period consists in proving the defining role of the “child – adult” opposition within the paradigm of other mythopoetic characteristics. The author outlines the way for further research of the individual authorial mythological discourse of Mayakovsky's works in the context of subsequent initiatory transformations of human and the world.
Pavlova L.V., Romanova I.V. - "Color" Ñomponent of the Frequency Dictionary of the "Armenian Text" pp. 20-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.12.39276

EDN: ZASFPP

Abstract: The aim of the study is to reconstruct the "Armenian" local text of Russian poetry, its color segment. The research material is a corpus of poems by Russian poets of the XIX–XXI centuries dedicated to Armenia. The object of study is the poetics of color as an important component of the image of Armenia, the subject of study is color naming. The methodological basis was an interdisciplinary approach combining linguistics, literary studies and computer methods of text processing. To describe the poetics of color, language material is processed and a frequency dictionary is compiled. Data interpretation is performed at the level of the entire corpus and within the subcorpuses of individual authors. This is how data on individual and national pictures of the world are compared and considered against the background of Armenian folk ideas about color. The scientific novelty of the research consists in compiling an original alphabetical-frequency dictionary of color names in the "Armenian text" of Russian poetry and in describing the poetics of coloristic elements. It is proved that in the general linguistic picture of the "Armenian text" and in most of the individually authored artistic worlds, the blue color and its shades confidently dominate. The semantics of color in Russian poets when describing Armenia does not coincide with the ethnic representations of Armenians. The study is promising for the comparative study of both local texts and national linguistic worldviews. The peculiarity of the "Armenian text" is the construction of a color picture of the world based on the perception of the color of soils, stones, rocks and the mountains themselves, as well as impressions of paintings by Armenian artists, first of all, Martiros Saryan.
Shi F., Li X. - The Siberian text of Russian literature in the assessment of Chinese critics pp. 20-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.9.43965

EDN: VHUBIT

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of studying the "Siberian text" of Russian literature through the eyes of Chinese critics. The object of the study is the analysis of the "Siberian text" in Chinese literary criticism. The subject of the study is the metaphorical images of Siberia analyzed by Chinese critics in the works of Russian writers of the XVII-XX centuries. The main purpose of the work is to determine the specifics of studying the "Siberian text" of Russian literature with a brief overview of the main directions of modern research by Chinese critics. In the work, along with general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, analogy and generalization, the following research methods were used: descriptive method, comparative method and method of linguocultural interpretation. The results of the study show that Chinese literary critics pay close attention to the works of classical and new Siberian writers. The main conclusions of the study are the classical images of Siberia and the change in the image of Siberia, as well as the famous writers of various trends and their works are summarized. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time new Chinese scientific achievements are involved in the research field – the assessments of Chinese researchers about the images of Siberia in Russian literature.
Denisova E.A. - On the autobiography of M. Y. Lermontov's dramaturgy of the early period (plats “Menschen und Leidenschaften” and “A Strange Man”) pp. 21-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.10.36462

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the two plays written by M. Y. Lermontov in the the early period – “Menschen und Leidenschaften” and “A Strange Man” form the perspective of manifestation of autobiographical context therein. These works are based on the dramatic events in Lermontov's biography that took place in 1830–1831, such as conflict between the poet's grandmother and father, death of his father, as well as Lermontov's relationship with N. F. Ivanova. Analysis is conducted on the texts of these two dramas, as well as on the biographical situation that encouraged Lermontov to create these plays. Special attention is given to determination of specificity of interrelation between the biographical and fictional in Lermontov's dramaturgy of the early period. Lermontov’s appeal to the drama genre is associated directly with the need for artistic mastering of the biographical context. The article analyzes the process of instilling life facts in the dramaturgical text, as well as the specificity of manifestation of the autobiographical in the plotline, images of the heroes, as well as ideological-thematic aspect of the work. The result of the conducted research lies in tracing the evolution of the image of the protagonist based on self-projection of the author's personality, as well as the peculiarities building a romantic conflict that has autobiographical grounds. The two compositions represent a different perspective upon the personality and behavior of a “strange” man; autobiographical accuracy in depicting a romantic conflict is associated with the possibility of conveying the history of relationships in the play, due to the closeness of this literary genre to empirical reality. This allows viewing the two plays as a system of artistic development of biographical events in the dramatic discourse.
Shi Y. - Genre varieties of the story and typology of characters in the works of Nikolai Nosov pp. 21-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.5.36947

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to identify and analyze the genre varieties of the story and the typology of characters in the work of N. Nosov. The article presents the genre system of N. Nosov's stories, the main types of stories and their subtypes are shown on concrete examples, typical images of heroes in each type of story are noted. The research uses historical-literary, discursive, typological, analytical, comparative and hermeneutical methods.The article identifies three main genre types: story-action, story-research and story-reflection, and also identifies and analyzes the main types of heroes – hero-doer and hero-thinker. The correspondences of the types of characters and genre varieties of the story are established. The theoretical significance of the work lies in determining the genre specificity of N. Nosov's stories. The results of the study can be used to study the problem of genre specificity of the story and the creative heritage of N. Nosov. The practical significance is connected with the possibility of using the results for further study of N. Nosov's work, as well as teaching courses on the history of Russian and children's literature and literary theory in universities. The research materials can be used not only for the development of special courses on the works of N. Nosov, but also for the creation of historical and literary studies and theoretical courses devoted to the problems of children's literature.
Kuzmin G. - 'Morki Text' in Mari Prose (on the Problem Statement) pp. 22-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26717

Abstract: In his research Kuzmin brings forth the problem of the local (regional) text, in particular, 'Morki text' in Mari folk literature. In his research Kuzmin gives a definition of 'Morki text' in terms of existing definitions of 'St. Petersburg text', 'Moscow text', 'Northern text', etc. and defines the key factors that contributed to the origin and development of Morki text. In his research Kuzmin pays special attention to the geographical factor in the development of Morki text and describes the main features of the message, problem, topic, narration and style unity of all Morki texts. This article is of theoretical and methodological nature. Therein the author applies analytical, systems and comparative methods of literary analysis. Kuzmin analyzes Russian academic approaches to analyzing the origin, development and current state of local supertexts from the point of view of their importance and possibility to be used to describe the term 'Morki text' in Mari folk prose. 
Semenova A. - The Historical Basis of the Epic Poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov pp. 23-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.3.23947

Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical component of the epic poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov. The poem on the theme of Russian history presupposes references to historical sources and processing of historical material. At the same time, the poem did not have to be authentic, the author was free to interpret historical events in accordance with the idea of the work. It is also necessary to consider the genre features of the epic poem which requires the author to emphasize the scope and significance of the events described. A few works are devoted to "Vladimir", the historical basis of the work is not studied, which determines the relevance of this research. The author of the article attempts to reveal the correlation of history and fiction in the poem by Kheraskov. Comparison of the poem by Kheraskov with historical sources allows to determine in which cases the poet more or less freely interprets the historical material or contributes fictional details to the work. Kheraskov in "Vladimir" stands heroic pathos, and creates the image of a strong enemy, accentuates the exploits of the protagonist, thickens the paint creating a full battle canvas, and fills in the gaps in the testimonies of historians with bright details. Historicity in the poem recedes into the background, but it remains the foundation on which the plot of the poem is built.
Krotovskaya N.G. - Vladimir Nabokov. Lectures on Foreign Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson pp. 24-66

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2013.2.132

Abstract: The article is based on the lecture course called 'Masters of European Prose' that was prepared for students of Cornell University. These lectures describe Vladimir Nabokov as a thoughtful, penetrating and, at the same time, biased researcher who taught his audience a wonderful lesson of 'thorough reading' when a reader pays special attention at details and style of writing of the great authors. Based on the example of a well-known novel 'Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde', Vladimir Nabokov analyzes a wonderful style and writing methods used by Stevenson to make his fantastic story sound rather true and real. Special attention is paid at the problem of difficult relations between the Good and the Evil, their struggle and interaction.
Saitbattalov I.R. - Turkic-language interpretations of Quran from Bashkiria of the XIX century as literary monuments pp. 25-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.37122

Abstract: The subject of this research is the literary-aesthetic characteristics of interpretation of Manzil written by Bashkir theologians Bahadirshah al-Qaynawi and Taj ad-Din ibn Yalchigul: the presence of coherent narratives based on the authorial approach towards the interpreted text, literary-aesthetic interpretations of plots and images reflected in the Quranic text directly, intertextual connections of interpretations with the works in other genres. The goal of this article lies in determination and description of the meaningful literary-aesthetic characteristics of interpretations of Manzil. The following tasks are resolved within the framework of this research: 1) determination of the key characteristics of the Tafsir genre, 2) revelation of the role of works under review for the tradition of the Turkic-language interpretation of Quran, 3) description of the literary-aesthetic characteristics of the interpretations by Bahadirshah al-Qaynawi and Taj ad-Din ibn Yalchigu, 4) translation of fragments of their interpretations that are significant from the perspective of literature into the Russian language. The scientific novelty and practical importance of this publication lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of two previously unexplored literary monuments that have not been translated into the Russian language. This significantly broadens the knowledge on the literary process in Bashkiria of the early XIX century. The author concludes that the interpretation of Quran fragments should be viewed in the context of evolution of Bashkir literature of the pre-national period. This opens great potential for studying their intertextual correlations with Turkic-language literary of the earlier period in the genres of “chronicles”, “history of the prophets”, and “miracles of the created”, as well as with sententious literature of the later period.
Guseva N.V., Kudryavtseva R.A. - Artistic Manifestation of the Axiological Problematics in the Mari Novel about the Great Patriotic War in the Second Half of the 1940s - Early 1980s (Genre-Style Tendencies) pp. 26-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27307

Abstract: This article is devoted to the artistic manifestation of the axiological problematics in the Mari novel about the Great Patriotic War of the second half 1940s - early 1980s as part of the study of the value-based paradigm of Mari national literature. The authors focus on the genre-style solutions found by writers (genre subspecies of 'military' novel as well as stylistic dominants, in particular, forms and techniques of psychologism used by writers) aimed at actualisatino of the axiological content of their works. The methodological basis of the research includes historico-typological and structural-semantic analysis of writings wich demonstrates not only value-based aspects of the problematics of a 'military novel' but also manifestates poetological aspects of the genre. The authors of the article prove that axiological problematics is most brightly expressed in such subspecies of Mari 'military' novel as lyrico-dramatic, lyrico-philosophical and documentally biographic novels and the aforesaid problematics helped to develop such stylistic dominants of Mari flash fiction as psychologism, dramatism and narrative philosophization. 
Li A. - Analysis of Chinese Studies of Lu Xun's Novel 'Notes of the Madman' in Terms of the Influence of Nikolai Gogol's Same-Named Novel pp. 26-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30419

Abstract: The subject of the research is Chinese research articles and books devoted to Lu Xun's writings. The article is devoted not only to the description of the main historical and literary issues related to wrtings of a Chinese author Lu Xun but also proof of the connection between scientists of different eras. The author of the article provides a detailed analysis of Chinese philological researches and traces back the main trends in the creative writing of Lu Xun focusing on the influence of Nikolay Gogol's influence on Chinese writer's works. The researcher has achieved the research goals by using the following research methods: cultural historical, biographical, comparative historical and comparative analytical methods. The methodological basis of the research includes publications of Chinese researchers who studied Nikolay Gogol's influence on Lu Xun's works as well as a basic Chinese research 'Three questions about Notes of the Madman' written by Shao Bojou in which the researcher emphasized the importance of studying the story behind Lu Xun's novel. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author of the article analyzes the stody behind creation of aforesaid two works as well as demonstrates succession and differences in the views of scientists at different stages of Lu Xun studies in China. Summarizing views of Chinese literary researches, the researcher demonstrates that Lu Xun did not just borrow Gogol's Notes of the Madman but created a unique work which was in many ways innovatory for Chinese literature. 
Yu L. - The Aesthetics of the Ugly in Postmodernism (V. Sorokin's Novel "Blue Fat" and Mo Yan's Novel "The Land of Wine") pp. 26-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39213

EDN: JVTQGB

Abstract: The article discusses aesthetic guidelines in postmodern literature. The emphasis is placed on the analysis of the aesthetics of the ugly in the novels of V. Sorokin "Blue Fat" and Mo Yan "The Land of Wine", the similarities and differences of the work of the two writers are revealed. Sorokin and Mo Yan are from two completely different countries, nevertheless their literary style and language are similar. The creativity of both is marked by the presence of multidimensional literary experiments. In "Blue Fat" and "The Land of Wine" there is an abundance of violent scenes, as well as detailed descriptions of violent bloody scenes. Sex scenes are also widely represented in both novels. The description of physiological details and nauseating details also occupies a significant part in both novels. In addition to the aesthetics of the ugly, both writers are heirs of the classical literature of their countries. Both writers create their own artistic world based on the aesthetics of the ugly. Unlike Sorokin, Mo Yang is obsessed with depicting the comparison between good and evil, beautiful and ugly. According to Mo Yan, the world is cruel, but evil can never prevail over good. In "Blue Fat" there are many Chinese elements of everyday life, which gives the novel an oriental flavor. Mo Yan also admits to the influence of Russian classical and Soviet literature on him: in the novel "The Land of Wine" the words of I. Lenin and L. Tolstoy are quoted. All this, as it was shown in the article, proves that the works of Vladimir Sorokin and Mo Yan have existing similarities. The heritage and development of the traditional literature of their country, the reinterpretation of modern society and its values, a self-sufficient artistic world based on the aesthetics of the ugly, is accompanied by an abundance of literary experiments, which allows both writers not only to show their talents in literary circles, but also to successfully demonstrate their own national mentality.
Zhornikova M.N., Berezkina E.P. - Christian motifs and images in A. G. Rumyantsev lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” pp. 27-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.3.29730

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of Christian imagery in lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” by the Buryat poet A.G. Rumyantsev. The subject of this research is semantic correlation of the key images and motifs of the cycle with the Christian values. The object of this research is literary comprehension of Christian symbolism in a lyrical text. The central theme in the cycle – tragedy of a father who lost his son – is reflected in the motif pairs “darkness – light”, “curse – forgiveness”, as well as theme of apocalypses and reference to the images of natural world. Methodology is based on the axiological principle, according to which the defining in artistic consciousness of the poet is his personal values and priorities. For determination of Cristian code of the images and motifs, the author applied structural-semiotic method. The scientific novelty consists in carrying out a motif and imagery analysis of A. G. Rumyantsev lyrical cycle “At The Black Doorstep” from the perspective of Christian symbolism. A conclusion is formulated that Christian imagery encompasses a recurring for the entire cycle theme of soul revival of a lyrical character, a path he walked from personal apocalypses and inner darkness to light through acceptance and forgiveness.
Denisova E.A. - Biographical and artistic in M. Y. Lermontov’s novel “Princess Ligovskaya” and the drama “Two Brothers” pp. 27-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34198

Abstract: This article is dedicated to a comparative analysis of two works by M. Y. Lermontov, which represent the interpretation of the common biographical context. The subject of this research is the specificity of transformation of the biographical fact into the artistic generalization in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. The object of this research is the drama "Two Brothers" and the novel Princess Ligovskaya” viewed within the paradigm of artistic comprehension of the scenario of unfaithfulness, or destruction of love as conceptually important in the conflict present in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. Such approach, based on interrelation between the creative and biographical, allows making important remarks on specificity of the phenomenon of autobiographism in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. The author analyzes the initial biographical situation (relationship between Lermontov and V. A. Lopukhina), and concludes that two literary texts – drama and novel – represent a distinct system of creative reflection of the biographical fact. It is established that in the process of creating the drama, and the novel later on, Lermontov ensues the need for artistic interpretation and resolution of the situation of unfaithfulness as an instance, and in a broader sense – as an ontological pattern; however, the conflict cannot be settled within the framework of this storyline. Since 1837, autobiographism in Lermontov's works ceases to play the crucial role; in other words, personal situation and its artistic interpretation no longer coincide, which renders impossible to continue the novel. Such circumstance allows realizing the reasons of incomplete works of Lermontov’s early period, which lie in inability to resolve love conflicts with a positive finale.
Wang Z. - Traditions of N. V. Gogol in prose by Jia Zhifang pp. 27-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.7.43474

EDN: SCEUYD

Abstract: The subject of the research in the article is the features of the reception of the works of N. V. Gogol in the works of the Chinese writer of the XX century Jia Zhifang. The methods of comparative and structural-semiotic analysis using elements of cultural analysis are used in the work, the method of interpretation of a separate text, the analysis of individual stylistic elements is also used. In the era of the formation of a multipolar world, the study of the reception of the work of Russian writers in foreign-language cultures is becoming especially in demand. Russian classics, true to the traditions of preserving eternal values and giving the key to understanding the Russian national character, remains an object of scientific interest for domestic and foreign researchers. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the name of the famous Chinese realist writer Jia Zhifang and a number of his works in their connection with the satirical traditions of N. V. Gogol are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The phenomenon of Jia Zhifang's "gogolization of prose" involves several components. At the level of the plot, these are direct or indirect references to the elements of N. V. Gogol's works (deceptive "demonic night", misleading the hero, ridiculing the "little man", piling up the "vulgarities of life", changing the "mimicry of laughter" to the "mimicry of sorrow"); roll call of details; the use of elements of fiction. At the level of stylistics, Jia Zhifang, in his novels and short stories, retains the techniques of Gogol's grotesque depiction of reality, the basis of which is the opposition of the "living-dead": puppetry in the portrayal of characters; the satirical technique of "reverse comparison"; the satirical technique of "the logic of the reverse". Preserving Gogol's traditions, Jia Zhifang transforms them, forcing them to work on the disclosure of the author's idea. He uses his own artistic techniques, which together with the details of the objective world allows him to represent the historical epoch, relying on the basic formula of Gogol's works "laughter through tears".
Skalnaya Y. - Genre Innovation of Bernard Shaw's Play 'Saint Joan': at the Origins of a Documentary Theatre pp. 28-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26739

Abstract: The subject of this research is the place of an Irish playwright Bernard Shaw in the history of the documentary theatre development. Contrary to common belief that the founder of the docudrama performance was a theatre director Erwin Piscator and the founder of the docudrama methodology was Bertolt Brecht, the author of this article points out that Shaw's plays preceded them. As the proof of her thesis, Skalnaya has chosen to analyze the play 'Saint Joan' (1920) written by Shaw right after the First World War. This research is structured as having three parts. The first part of the research is devoted to the analysis of the principles used by the playwright as the written evidence of that epoch demonstrate. The first part of the research proves that Shaw used a lot of verbatim (paraphrase and direct quotes from historical sources). The second part of the article is intended to extend the interpretation of 'document' in docudrama and provide examples of how the images of Joan of Arc and her contemporaries in fine arts and sculpture impacted the appearance of Shaw's play characters. In the final part of the research the author appeals to the comparison of the present and previous experience of the documentary theatre and traces back the performance of 'Saint Joan'. In the process of the research the author has used the historical literary method that involves analysis of the biographical, historical and cultural contexts of creation of a play, as well as the comparative method that allows to compare different points of view on the matter of the research. The author has also used some elements of the close reading technique. The results of the research demonstrate that Shaw's play 'Saint Joan' has all the typical features of the docudrama which proves the innovative nature of the play and explains why the play was not accepted by Shaw's contemporaries. Generally speaking, the conclusions made by Skalnaya in her research, create grounds for reviewing the current chronology of docudrama and tribunal theatre development.   
Snigireva S.D. - Khlystovshchina in the context of F. M. Dostoevsky’s ideology of pochvennichestvo pp. 28-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.1.31986

Abstract: The subject of this research is the themes of F. M. Dostoevsky’s writings on Khlystovshchina (Christ Faith), as well as his views on this sect. The object of this research is the articles “A Writer’s Diary”, novel “The Idiot”, draft notes to the poem “The Life of a Great Sinner”, main idea of the novel “Atheism”, as well as articles in the periodicals of the 1860’s dedicated to Khlystov heresy. The goal of this work consist in determination of the writer’s opinion on Khlystov heresy in the contexts of the ideology of pochvennichestvo (return to the native soil). Using the philological and historical methods, the author describes correlation of the core ideas of Dostoevsky’s writings with the history of non-Orthodox religious movements in Russia if the XIX century. The article generalizes the experience of studying the theme of Khlystovshchina in Dostoevsky’s works, and persuasively argues that Dostoevsky’s perception of the phenomenon of Khlystovshchina is justified by his ideology of pochvennichestvo, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. It is concluded that the writer’s interests to the sect is explained by the fact that he saw a unique, soil phenomenon that represents man’s cognitive activity. The research underlines that the pursued by Dostoyevsky parallel between the doctrine of the Lord Radstock and Stundism (alien to a Russian person due to protestant origin), Tatarinova Society, and Khlystovshchina reflects a profound idea of the writer on spiritual crisis emerged due to disintegration of intelligentsia and people.
Gavrilova N. - Trends in modern theatrical interpretation of A. P. Chekhov's play “Uncle Vanya” pp. 28-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.10.33890

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of trends in interpretation of A. P. Chekhov's play “Uncle Vanya” in modern theater. The subject of this research is the four theatrical productions of the play on the national stage: by Rimas Tuminas in Vakhtangov Theatre (2009), by Andrei Serban in Alexandrinsky Theater (2009), by Andrei Konchalovsky in Mossovet State Academic Theatre (2009) by Stéphane Braunschweig in the State Theatre of Nations (2019). These productions reflect the eternal existential questions raised in A. P. Chekhov’s play, as well as the relevant transformations in modern perception of the play. Examination of the aforementioned productions, as well as their analysis in the context of Chekhov's play and modern life realities in comparison with such in the XIX century, has not previously become a separate object of research. The scientific novelty consists in comprehension of the message delivered by play written in the late XIX century for the XXI century, as well as in determination of problems relevant to a contemporary person that are raised in the play. Using the meaning-making topics of the play, stage directors imply death of kindness, deterioration of nature and human, human disunity and misunderstanding. Therefore, the play “Uncle Vanya” indicates its timeliness and everlasting lifelikeness for the XXI century.
Dulina A.V. - In the center of a circle: poetics of space in Dante’s “Divine Comedy” and H. Melville’s novel “Moby-Dick, or The Whale” pp. 29-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33584

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of space arrangement in the “Divine Comedy” by Alighieri and the novel Moby-Dick, or The Whale” by Herman Melville. On the examples of structural mythologemes “journey inside yourself” and “path towards the center of a circle”, present in both works, the author notes the impact of Dante upon Melville and determines the differences in their poetics of space. Structural, semantic and comparative-historical analysis of the texts in question allows speaking of the transformation of symbolism of the images of circle and its center, circular, vertical and horizontal movement, as well as reconsideration of meaning of the category of chaos and order, opposition “internal-external” from Dante’s works to worldview of the authors of the era of Romanticism. The novelty of this work consists in simultaneous analysis of the impact of Dante’s poetry upon Melville and comparison of peculiarities of the poetics of space of both authors for determining fundamental changes in representations of the structure of world space and space of the inner world of a person. In artistic realm of H. Melville, symbolic point of the center of a circle – “center of the world” –is no longer static, it becomes unreliable, depicting heads of madman characters and the images of the objects, which semantics does not resemble the concept of emptiness. The motif of the loss of structuredness along with the motif of mutual reciprocity of spatial dimensions and characteristics distinguish Melville’s poetics of space, delineated in the dialogue with distinct features of space arrangement in Dante’s works.
Ustinovskaya A.A. - The Facets of Intercultural Dialogue: Russian Symbolists in Translation Counterpoint with French Modernists pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40386

EDN: MTWSAK

Abstract: The subject of the study is the translation strategies of Russian symbolist poets formulated in a creative intercultural dialogue with foreign symbolist poets. The object of the research is the strategy of paraphrastic free translation, common in the Russian translation heritage of the early twentieth century. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the dynamic interaction of the original text with the translation text, as well as various translation decisions taken by the authors of the Silver Age, due to the use of which they radically changed the goal setting and implication of the translated text. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the original and translated text and the moments of discrepancy between the translation and the original. The main conclusions of the study are the formulated characteristics of the early Symbolist translation, until the moment of active participation in the process of Valery Bryusov, and then - the publishing house "World Literature". A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the study of the purpose of the original and translated text and the identification of counterpoints in this regard of the intercultural dialogue between the author of the translation and the author of the original. The novelty of the research lies in the formulation of dialog strategies of Russian poets-translators - representatives of symbolism, their practice of dynamic interaction with equal, in their opinion, representatives of foreign language culture, and the creation of a creative translation based on the original text.
Kukushkina E. - From the theater of improvisation to the creation of plays: ways of the emergence of dramatic text in Malay literature pp. 30-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38366

EDN: NNFSQS

Abstract: The subject of the research in the article is the process of the origin of the national drama of Malaysia. The object of the research is information on the history of the Malay and Indonesian city theater and works of Malay literature of the first half of the twentieth century. The author examines in detail the long-term changes that took place in the Malay theatrical tradition and the factors that contributed to the emergence of written dramatic texts.The purpose of the study is to determine the mechanism of transition from the unscripted theatrical tradition to dramaturgy. Particular attention is paid to the changes in the repertoire of the Malay city theater associated with the emergence of a new type of plots. The ways of their penetration into the representations of the city theater are analyzed, their influence on the nature of performances is considered. The emergence of a dramatic text in the theatrical tradition of British Malaya has not yet been studied either in domestic Malaistics or abroad, which determines the novelty of the work. The study uses an integrated approach combining the consideration of data on theater and literature. The cultural-historical method fits the available data into the context of the epoch. The comparative method allows us to determine the results of contacts between related theatrical phenomena of the Malay world (Bangsawan theater and the Istanbul Comedy Theater). The birth of drama is seen as a transition from the existence of unscripted spectacles to the creation of plays. As a theoretical basis for the analysis, the concepts of transitivity are used, which make it possible to present this phenomenon taking into account national specifics. This is the definition of a transitional aesthetic phenomenon as an artistic presystem, introduced by A.V. Lukov, as well as the structural gradation of the literary transition, presented in the work of A. A. Stepanova on the basis of generalization of a number of previously proposed approaches. As a result of the research, the main factor that contributed to the birth of Malay drama is revealed – the appearance of realistic plots in the repertoire of the previously unscripted theater of the transitional type. According to the findings of the study, there were two sources of these plots: external borrowings and the interaction of theater with literature.
Antonova M.S. - Nikolay Gogol's Note in M. Vlasova's Album: the Dating Problem pp. 31-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29395

Abstract: The subject of the research is Nikolay Gogol's note left in M. Vlasova's (sister's of Z. Volkonskaya) album. This is the note that demnstrates the writer's gift in literary 'trifles'. Antonova analyses the main themes of V. Arutyunova's and R. Yakobson's article 'An unknown album page by Nikolaj Gogol'. The author raises a question about the dating of Gogol's note as well as analyzes intertextual links to other works written by Gogol, in particular, common motifs and references to the second volume of Dead Souls. The main research method used by the author is the structural analysis of the text as well as analysis of information about the owner of the album and dating of the note. The main outcome of the research is the systematization of information about M. Vlasova and her relationship with Gogol. By discovering intertextual links to other Gogol's writings, for example, missing chapters to the second volume of Dead Souls, plays 'Theatre Trip' and 'Extract' and Rome letters, the author of the article extends the borders of possible dating of the aforesaid album note. 
Li Z. - A brief overview of the reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” pp. 33-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.6.35839

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in mainland China. The analysis of China’s historical conditions and comparison of the statistics at different periods indicate changes in the process of reception of Russian literature as a whole, and the Old Russian literary landmark in particular in the course of historical development of Celestial Empire. The novelty of this research is defines by insufficient coverage of the process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in China as a special cultural phenomenon, inseparable from the overall process of cultural and literary development of the country. Reception of the Russian literature is viewed in the socio-historical system, in which it organically interacts with the national culture and literature. The article employs descriptive, conceptual, and comparative-historical methods for solving the scientific task; determines the key stages in the general process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in China; and reveals the peculiarities of each stage with description of the major achievements. The author concludes that for almost two centuries, the Old Russian literary landmark has undergone a propaedeutic reception in China, which gradually intensified after the May Fourth Movement. It experienced stagnation after the first complete translation of the “Tale” into Chinese language, and a breakthrough in the image of this work in modern Chinese science, which currently interprets “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” as a literary-historical text.
Liu J. - The subjective structure of the narrative literary text and the "I" character pp. 33-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.8.38576

EDN: QMLKQD

Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the construction and composition of the subject structure of the narrative literary text. At present, the question of the interaction between the narrator and the character (author and hero), as different subjects of speech and subjects of consciousness, has been studied a lot, but the analysis of the positions of different subject components in the subject structure needs to be further developed. Based on the interpretation of the narrative structure, this article attempts to build the subject structure of the narrative literary text. Clarification of the level hierarchy of the subject structure is necessary to pin down the location of subject components and analyze the nature and types of communication between subjects. Taking the character as an example, this article describes several different situations, in which a character refers to himself in the first person as "I" within the subject structure, and also explains the differences between the narrator as a speaker and the character as a speaker. At the end of the article we conclude that the character’s "I", appearing on the plane of discourse, does not have "subjectivity" in the strict sense, but is essentially related to the narrator's strategic operations in terms of voice, consciousness and point of view. The functional sphere of the character's subjectivity is limited only on the plane of story. The voice and consciousness of the characters on the plane of discourse do not belong to the "I"-sphere, but to the "He"-sphere, as some citations by the narrator. Accordingly, the opinion that "the narrator can step in the story" is also misleading. The "character-bound narrator" has a dual identity — "character" and "narrator", and only one of them functions on the plane of story or discourse.
Shukurov D.L. - Author's Strategies in K.K. Vaginov's Prose: "The Eidos of Hunting" pp. 33-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38784

EDN: SVADVO

Abstract: The meta-narrative structure of the works of the Russian writer and poet K.K. Vaginov (1899-1934) is analyzed, the strategies of the author's narrative are investigated. Most of the subject analysis is occupied by the texts of the novels "Goat Song" and "The Works and Days of Svistonov": the first – as a meta–textual narrative, maximally saturated with cultural codes, as well as auto-reminiscences and allusions of early Vagin creativity, and the second - as a text that plays the meta-narrative model of the first. Within the framework of the concept of the "aesthetic completion of the hero" by M.M. Bakhtin, such an aspect of the topic as "the author is a character" is considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the narrative strategies of K.K. Vaginov and A.P. Chekhov. As a result of the conducted research, it is concluded that the novel dilogy "The Goat Song" and "The Works and Days of Svistonov" tells about the paradoxes of artistic reality and reveals its essence in the language of the formal arrangement of Vagin's works. Due to the specifics of such a language of forms, these novels require detailed textual and poetical analysis (consideration of the novels "Bambochada" and "Harpagoniana" reflects the specifics of the author's strategies in the structure of the "single text" by K.K. Vaginov). The complex polymorphic composition of the entire Vaginovsky literary and poetic compendium, the system of mutually reversible and mutually correlating comments, references, semantic saturation of style, functionality of peripheral images and details in the structure of Vaginovsky works - all these stylistic features characterize the original author's strategies.
Kur'yanov S.O., Aleksandrova I.V., Ivanova N.P., Kur'yanova V.V. - Topical Issues of the Theory of Supertext: Literary Aspect. Text Unity as Supertext pp. 33-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.12.39384

EDN: ZSXJRO

Abstract: In this article, the subject of research is a system of integrated texts (supertext) as textual unity. The purpose of the study is to specify the terminology and clarify the features of some aspects of textual unity, in particular, to clarify the concepts of the core and its structural components, as well as to solve some other theoretical questions, the answers to which today determine clarity in the identification, classification and interpretation of supertexts. In questions of the theory of supertext, the methodological basis of the study was the work of V. N. Toporov, N. A. Kupina and G. V. Bitenskaya, N. E. Mednis, A. G. Loshakov, in questions of the theory of the literary cycle — the work of M. M. Girshman, I. V. Fomenko, V. V. Vinogradov, A. A. Slyusar, Yu. V. Lebedev, V. G. Odinokov, A. S. Yanushkevich, M. N. Darwin, V. I. Tyupa, L. E. Lyapina, E. Yu. Afonina, O. G. Egorova, and others, in questions of the theory of collective-author text unity — the work of Yu. M. Lotman. The study clarifies the concept of the core of text unity, describes the components of different forms of text unity, based on their classification proposed by A. G. Loshakov, and refined by this scientific work. All this speaks of the novelty of the study, which continues the general theory of supertext. The development of the theory of such a variety of supertext as text unity not only contributes to the further study of its various aspects, clarification of their functions, but also indicates new approaches to large text formations, since, generated by creative writers, they not only recreate the world, but also form a picture world assimilated by the perceiving consciousness.
Efimov A.S. - The novella “Fatal Sacrifice” by A. A. Dyakov (A. Nezlobin) and motif of the “counsel of the wicked” pp. 34-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.3.32711

Abstract: This article explores the impact of the elements and techniques of romantic and gothic literatures of the XVIII – XIX centuries upon anti-nihilistic novella “The Fatal Sacrifice” (1876) by A. A. Dyakov (A. Nezlobin). Attention is focused on the gothic-romantic motif of the “counsel of the wicked” and its adaptation to the relevant sociopolitical context of Russia and Russian émigré of the 1870’s. It is demonstrated that a mythological image of “witches’ sabbath” and characteristic to it motifs of “sacrifice”, “veneration of idols”, etc. become the techniques for depicting in the “Fatal Sacrifice” of a Swiss “club” of nihilists, revolutionists-socialists, and Narodniks. The author applies the biographical, comparative and historical methods of research, motif analysis, as well as analysis of storyline and characterology. The ideological component of nihilistically oriented Russian society of the 1860’s – 1870’s is taken into account.  The novella “Fatal Sacrifice”, which is included into the cycle “Kruzhkovschina” (1876-1879) is being analyzed for the first time, since there is no special scientific literature on these works within the Russian or foreign literary studies. The novelty of this research also consists in raising a question of the influence of romantic and gothic prose upon the works of A. A. Dyakov. Such influence is related to the two common to Russian anti-nihilistic literature semantic lines: eschatological and prophetic.
Shevchenko A.R. - Clash of cultures in the short stories by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie pp. 34-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.37109

Abstract: The object of this article is the English-language multicultural prose of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The subject is the situation of clash of cultures. The research material is based on individual short stories by the contemporary US-Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie published in the book “The Thing Around Your Neck” (2009). The goal of this article lies in determination and analysis of the peculiarities of artistic expression and functionality of the situation of clash of cultures in the writer’s short stories. The relevance is substantiated by the following factors: 1) clash of cultures is typical for the relationships in modern multipolar world during the globalization era, thus it is relevant in literary works of the authors of the XX–XXI centuries;  2) literary studies currently indicate heightened interest in covering various aspects of fictional multicultural prose; 3) Adichie is a remarkable figure in the modern literary process. The short stories by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are unique in their reference to signal trends in the development of the English-language literature, and thus are a relevant in the context of studying the designated topic. Unlike the works of multicultural writers of the second half of the XX century, which have repeatedly been the object of scientific research, the multicultural prose of the late XX – early XXI centuries is poorly studied. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the analysis of short stories from the collection “The Thing Around Your Neck” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, which is not translated into the Russian language, is carried out for the first time within the Russian literally studies. The conclusion is made that the situation of clash of cultures in Adichie’s stories becomes the factor that induces mental crisis in the minds of the characters. There is no constructive dialogue of cultures, and their clash leads the characters to either the loss or substitution of identity.
Xu M. - Features of Nonverbal Means of Communication as a Way to Express Social Status in a Literary Text (on the Example of A.P. Chekhov's Short Story "Thick and Thin") pp. 34-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39188

EDN: LJYFCC

Abstract: In his early works, A.P. Chekhov often draws the reader's attention to the forms of behavior of the characters. In a literary text, nonverbal means of communication used to describe communication between actors acquire special significance. The article is devoted to the problem of typology, role and effectiveness of nonverbal linguistic means of communication in the aspect of their use in the author's literary text. The relevance of the research lies in the insufficient knowledge of the place and role of paralinguistic means of communication in the early works of A.P. Chekhov. The subject of the study is the linguistic means of describing nonverbal behavior in a literary text. The object of the study was the ways of expressing nonverbal communication of the characters of the work. In the course of the work, descriptive and analytical research methods were used. The research material was the story of A.P. Chekhov "Thick and Thin" (1883). The practical significance of the work consists in the application of the research results in the courses of the Russian language, communication theory, philological analysis of text, stylistics. The aim of the study is to identify and analyze, based on the classification of nonverbal means of linguistic units existing in linguistics, with the help of which A.P. Chekhov in his early stories describes the nonverbal behavior of the characters, their composition and functions.
Seredina A.O. - Interior Details in Apollon Grigoriev's Narrative Literature pp. 35-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27369

Abstract: The article is devoted to the topic that has never been studied before which is the interior details and development of the interior details in Apollon Grigoriev's fiction. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the perception and description of the surrounding space by the hero of the memoirs 'My literary and moral wandering' (1862, 1864). Seredina traces back how the interior in Apollon Grigoriev's house and the writer's attitude to the external world (the world of objects) were reflected in the poetics of Grigoriev's early prose of mid 1840s. In addition, the author sets a task to demonstrate the connection between the interior and psychological portraits of the main heroes. The basis for the comparative analysis of Apollon Grigoriev's prose is the first theoretical research of the interior performed by I. Sudoeva. Despite the fact that in the majority of cases the description of the interior in Grigoriev's prose is pointing out individual elements of the interior (lighting, bed and door) and gives an insight into the internal world of the heroes. The universality of the description achieved through the absence of details helps to create the portrait type. The dreaminess of the hero of the memoirs, fed by the evenings spent on a bed without light, in early prose is embodied in the type of hero-dreamers the description of which is accompanied by a bed and the light of a burning candle. The audio perception of space, characteristic of the hero of the memoirs, turns into an aggravated attention to the sounds of wanderers in early prose which helps to expand the space of the room and give an idea of its structure.
Ge J. - Dragon Changes His Style: New Image of China's Regional Television pp. 35-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30441

Abstract: The subject of this research is peculiarities of China's regional television. The author proves that over the last decade regional television stations have been developing new media resources, creating new content, and using new forms. They have also performed major reforms as a result of rapidly developing digital multimedia technologies which brought bright special effects to television programs. Specific national environment of China influences the process of telling the news and forming social opinion, this is the phenomenon of television industry which needs to be studied further. The author of the article underlines that in order to follow the principles of individuation and specialisation in their TV programs, television must actively study interests and preferences of different sectors of society, make assertive policy of rado- and TV broadcasting and reinforce their unique advantages in touch regional competition of mass media. The article is based on general research methods such as cultural historical analysis, generalisation, synthesis, etc. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this article is the first attempt to describe and classify unique and varied development of China's television at different stages and in different regions of the country. The article demonstrates that there is a bilateral interactive communication beween TV broadcasters and audience which have important effect for both parties. The main conclusions of the research are the following: press, television, Internet and radio, i.e. all available means of communication, are viewed by the current government of China as the channels for developing certain state ideology and political views. Therefore, China news give an insight into positive changes inside China. 
Morozov S.V. - Lara: sources, antecedents and prototypes of the main female figure in the “Doctor Zhivago” novel pp. 35-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.5.30996

Abstract: The object of this research is the figure of Lara Guichard in the novel by Boris Pasternak “Doctor Zhivago”. The subject of this research in the formation of the character of Lara in the work of the author, including the extraliterary sources (letters of Boris Pasternak). The aim of this research is to determine the key sources for formation of her character, as well as her antecedents and biographical prototypes. Special attention is allocated to the manifestation of the creative concept and axiological intentions of Boris Pasternak in the character of Lara Guichard, establishing the connections between them in the context of author’s perception on culturological, aesthetic and literary situation of the “Silver Age”. The main conclusions of the conducted research consists in establishing the sources of formation of Lara’s character, as well as her antecedents and biographical prototypes in the context of the creative concepts and axiological intentions of Boris Pasternak, substantiated by the affiliation to the authors of the Silver Age, creating after the Civil War. The novelty of this research also consists in establishing the facts of formation of Lara’s character on the various stages of functionality of its sources and prototypes in the work of Boris Pasternak, as well as the character of the materials used, being primarily his letters.
Sluzhaeva O.O. - Book as a genre (based on the material of A. M. Dobrolybov’s compilation “From The Invisible Book” pp. 35-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.7.33319

Abstract: This article examines the genre specificity of the compilation “From The Invisible Book” by Aleksandr Dobrolyubov. Detailed analysis is conducted the structure of this book, comparing the published version with the manuscript and subsequent revisions of the author. The main genres and the storyline that connects pieces of the book are determined. The author also explores the plot and hierarchy in the compilation “From The Invisible Book”. Attention is given to the analysis of perception of Dobrolyubov’s compilation by the contemporaries. The article is first to publish archival materials, such as letters of the successors of Aleksandr Dobrolyubov – Nikolay Sutkovy and Pyotr Kartushin. The conclusion is made that in the symbolic compilation of A. M. Dobrolybov “From The Invisible Book”, book is a sovereign genre, ascending to apocalyptic genres of revelation and vision. Another title genre is the canticle. Compilation resembles a fragment. The compilation itself or its separate composition may refer to as a fragment. Concept of the “book” correlates with the sealed book from Revelations of John the Apostle, inner book from the Verse about the Book of the Dove, “Animal Book of Doukhobors”, the ideal book of Stéphane Mallarmé. The successors perceived A. M. Dobrolybov’s “From The Invisible Books” as sacred, which reflected the fundamentals of his creed. Interest to the compilation increased again few years later after it was published – 1910-1912, which coincided with the crisis of symbolism. Book becomes a general genre of the compilation.
Xuejing W. - A. Arbuzov's play "My Poor Marat" on the modern Chinese stage: the problem of reception pp. 35-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.1.37554

EDN: LNMFVI

Abstract: The author examines in detail the reception of Arbuzov's play "My Poor Marat" on the Chinese stage since 2000, analyzes the opinions of critics and audience reactions, as well as other types of responses to this dramatic text in modern Chinese culture. The problem of perception of the Russian dramaturgy of the twentieth century in China is raised on the material of the modern Chinese artistic and critical reception of Alexey Arbuzov's play "My Poor Marat" (1964). The work of Alexey Arbuzov, one of the most sought-after Soviet playwrights on the world stage, is the main subject of research. The play of this playwright "My Poor Marat" has been repeatedly staged in Chinese theaters, and in 2021 it again proved to be in demand by theatrical figures and the audience, which indicates the relevance of this study. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the work has studied the most popular performances of "My Poor Marat" in China since 2000, as well as an art exhibition based on the play. The practical significance of the results obtained is that their analysis reflects the dynamics of the development of Chinese society, changes in mentality, dominant themes of the time, dialogue with other cultures and various aesthetic systems, the specifics of theatrical life and the theatrical market in the country. The conclusion is made that the stage reception of Russian drama in China is closely connected with the socio-political aspect of the country's life and national mentality, affects the official ideology and individual consciousness, reflects the dialogue of foreign cultural factors and traditional forms of national culture.
Vorobyova O. - The History of Cooperation of Fyodor Dostoevsky with the Journal 'Russkoye Slovo' (the Case Study of his Correspondence with Contemporaries) pp. 36-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.2.22744

Abstract: The object of the present research is the journal The Russian Word published by Grigory Kushelyov-Bezborodko. The subject of the research of Fyodor Dostoevsky's participation in that journal project. Based on the analysis of the epistolary material of the writer with his contemporaries, Vorobieva step-by-step develops the history of Fyodor Dostoevky's cooperation with the Russkoye Slovo Journal. In this article Vorobieva focuses on the writer's attempts to return to literature: on the one hand, Dostoevsky published his novel 'Uncle's Dream' which he had written after the forced-labor camp in a journal of little promise 'Russkoye Slovo'. On the other hand, despite his difficult situation, Dostoevsky dictates his own terms to editors. In her research Vorobieva uses the psychobiographical method to define for which reasons and in what manner Fyodor Dostoevsky tried to affect people his creative fate depended on. The historical comparative method used by the author also helps to compare other writers' attitudes to the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' and outline differences in the principles followed by the journal editors. The main conclusions of the research are as follows: the editors of Russkoye Slovo helped Dostoevsky in his difficult times by publishing his novel but not vice versa as literary experts used to believe. Despite the fact that Dostoevsky's participation in that jornal was forced and his novel 'Uncle's Dream' was not approved by critics, Fyodor Dostoevsky's cooperation with Russkoye Slovo gave impulse to Fyodor Dostoevskyt to return to the literary community of St. Petersburg. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he uses historical reconstructions that allows to cover gaps in a number of successive facts. When such approach is applied, reconstructions inevitably attains a hypothetic nature, however, they allow to describe the history of the writer's cooperation with the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' in a wider sense without just limiting to the comments made in the 30-volume 'Complete Set of Fyodor Dostoevsky's Works'. In her research Vorobieva has used materials from the Russian State Historical Archive and the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library. 
Korshunova E.A. - The book by S. N. Durylin “In Your Corner”: reciting and interpretation experience pp. 36-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.33377

Abstract: This article is first to examine the poetics of the book by S. N. Durylin “In Your Corner” (1924-1942) – the pinnacle of his writing. Comprehensive analysis of poetics of the book genre is conducted. In this context, the book as a genre ensures unity and wholeness of the form and content in dialogical connection of different genre inclusions, sequencing the vibrant cacophony and “polyvocality” of the author's personal projections. Therefore, in namely examination of the genre opens up to the researcher the range of adequate reciting of the book “In Your Corner”, which can be focused not only on the micro-level of an expression (aphorism), but also on the macro-level of the narrative (system of motifs that comprise various recurring themes). The conclusion is made that the figure of the author, who writes his book “for everyone and foe no one”, unites the micro- and macro-levels of narration. This allows viewing problem of the author's “Self” and perceptive mentality in the aspects of dialogueness, substantiated by M. M. Bakhtin. Within the framework of such approach, each layer or level of reciting, is viewed as the “voice” involved in the dialogue alongside the author. Examination of these levels of reciting (philosophical text, the “domestic” text, the level of literary-critical discussion) clarifies the mechanisms of formation of the key mythologem of “your corner” as the authorial model of culture.
Volkova K.B. - The evolution of female image in the works of Vajiravudh pp. 37-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.9.36391

Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of female image in the works of King Vajiravudh of Siam, who is considered the father of modern Thai literature. The subject of this research is the portraits of heroines in the original Thai-language works of the monarch, both dramatic and epic, which allow us tracing the artistic transformations of female images. The historical and biographical methods reveal the status of women in the new Thai society of the early XX century and how it affect the author’s views. The problematic of the “feminine” was associated with the author’s pursuit of ideal of Thai woman from ethical perspective. This is the first research on the topic within Thai or foreign historiography. The female images, the role of women in society and fate of the nation is the pervasive theme in all works by King Vajiravudh. The author disrupts the traditional canon and depicts a new woman, who claims her rights to the freedom of choice despite the patriarchal principles. At the same time, the entire gallery of female images is an attempt to find compromise between the progress and traditional values, to create the ideal of Thai woman, which could find realization in real life.
Volkhovskaia A. - Life and Creative Writing of Alexandr Pushkin in the Eyes of Spanish Writers of the Generation 98 pp. 39-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.25457

Abstract: The article is devoted to rare episodes of Spanish writers of the Generation 98 referring to the creative legacy of Alexandr Pushkin. In her research Volkhovskaya gives several extracts from Pio Baroja's, Miguel de Unamuno's and Antonio Machado's texts in which they either quoted or analyzed Alexandr Pushkin's stories. All quotations are published and translated by the author of the article for the first time. The article is ended with the conclusions about new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's creative writing by the aforesaid Spanish writers. In her research Volkhovskaya applies the method of comparative historical analysis and analyzes extracts from texts written by Spanish writers of the Generation 98 that contained mentioning biographical facts or references to Alexandr Pushkin's writings. The author's special contribution to the topic is the discovery and translation of all available Spanish extracts by the writers of the Generation 98 about Pushkin. The main result of the research is the discovery of new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's biography and creative writing by Spanish readers.
Gorelova O.O. - Literary-documental narrative in the fictional autobiographic novel “My Secret History” by Paul Theroux pp. 39-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.5.32908

Abstract: This article raises the problem of differentiation between authorial fiction and factual information in the fictional autobiographic prose that interfere with each other. The object of this research is the fictional autobiographic prose as a peculiar type of text with structure containing system codes of diverse narrative nature. The subject of this research is the characteristics and features of the literary-documental narrative in a fictional autobiographical text. The goal consists in demonstrating the dual nature of the fictional biographic prose on the example of literary-documental novel “My Secret History” (1989) by Paul Theroux. The following conclusions were formulated: 1) fictional autobiographic narrative as a variety of literary-documental narration is characterized with descriptiveness and aptitude to imitation of objectivity studying the personality of the hero; 2) the text in question contains the signs of realization of paradigms of fiction and actuality. The scientific novelty is consists in application of narratological approach towards analysis of the text, which demonstrates the specific constituting spheres associated with simultaneous implementation of the strategies of fictionalization and documental stylization of the material. It is determines that the fictional autobiographic material is characterized with subjective processing of represented data, and thus, it is essential to interpret the prose in question based on the accessible to audience contextual information (suggested authorial context and historical context).
Novikova V. - The didactic potential of the genre of family chronicles in the mass literature of Great Britain of the XXI century pp. 39-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.1.69608

EDN: QAJXEI

Abstract: The subject of the study is the British family chronicles created at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries by E. Howard, R. Pilcher, E. Rutherford, D. Lennox, G. Swift. These works are analyzed from the point of view of their didactic potential, which is understood here as the intention of translating ethical norms and values. This genre has become the pinnacle of the development of the English social novel. Its authors considered it their task to influence the reader in terms of educating a "moral sense" in him, assimilating ethical norms and understanding a distinct hierarchy of values. The classic of the genre was the "Saga of the Forsytes" by D. Galsworthy, which denied the norms of Victorian morality, and broadcast a new system of values and the idea of historical progress. The article examines the changes in the genre that appeared under the influence of the postmodern worldview. Comparative historical and typological methods of analysis are used to compare the genre dominants of family chronicles in the early twentieth century and their implementation at the turn of the twentieth and twenty first centuries. The novelty lies in the addition of ideas about the axiology of modern mass literature. At the end of the century, there was a revolution in public consciousness, which led to the fundamental destruction of any hierarchies in ethical terms and the denial of the very idea of a positive movement of history. The authors of modern family chronicles overcome the decentering of ethics. In most of the works they refer to the events of the Second World War. The very desire to recall these lessons of history and the unequivocal denial of the ideology of fascism is proof of the didactic potential of the novels in question. In addition, they create an idealized model of family life. The influence of the postmodern worldview is reflected in the non-linearity of artistic time, the fragmentation of depicted events, and the loss of the idea of historical progress. The analysis of the family chronicles of these authors allowed us to determine the formulas and stamps of the genre.
Maksimenko E.D. - The problems of reader’s experience and the search for style in V. S. Naipaul's essayistic writing pp. 40-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.5.35357

Abstract: This article conducts a chronological reconstruction of the key milestones of the reading path of V. S. Naipaul, as well as reviews the problems of his reader’s experience and the search for writing style. Emphasis is placed on the creative and personal relationship between V. S. Naipaul and his father S. Naipaul, who was his teacher and mentor, developed his literary taste, aptitude and style of the future Nobel laureate. Their collaboration draws the interest of researchers based on the fact that namely S. Naipaul introduced world literature to his son, affected his choice of books, and helped to understand a different sociocultural context. The author reveals the impact of the Russian writers (Gogol, Tolstoy) and the Spanish picaresque novel (“Lazarillo de Tormes”) upon writing style of V. S. Naipaul; as well as determines the reading preferences of V. S. Naipaul at a mature age. Among the authors who considerably influenced V. S. Naipaul in different periods of his creative path, the author names R. Kipling, D. Defoe, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. Conrad. The analytical overview of the “writer's library” and his reading preferences allows carrying out a more systematic, consistent, and logical examination of V. S. Naipaul's works. The idea of the circle of authors and writings that considerably influenced the creative personality of V. S. Naipaul gives the key to the analysis of quotations, borrowings, allusions and reminiscences, i.e. the problems of intertextuality in his prose fiction. V. S. Naipaul's essayistic writing has not been published in the Russian language; this article introduces it into the Russian scientific discourse in literary studies.
Kol'tsova N.Z., Miaowen L. - Dialogue of arts in the novel “The Artist is Unknown” by V. Kaverin pp. 42-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33780

Abstract: Prose about the artist is fairly popular in the world and Russian culture, but the novel “The Artist is Unknown” by V. Kaverin holds a special place within the Russian literature, and the title itself is precedent for the philologists – it is mentioned each time when it comes to genre of the novel about artist. Kaverin not only creates a vivid image of the artist-painter, but also restores his manner via literary style. The pictorial beginning is prevalent in the text; however, orientation towards other types of art, namely sculpture and theatre, are also noticeable sculpture and theater, which is reflected in the character sphere and in the composition itself. In the novel “The Artist is Unknown”, theater and painting are deeply intertwined – and not only scenes of the play engage painting, but also the authorial “painting” involves theatrical aesthetics. However, namely the art of painting, is in the center of Kaverin’s attention, while the ekphrasis technique becomes the fundamental principle for arranging artistic material. It should be noted that the focus of attention of the audience falls onto imaginary ekphrasis, description of the image that exists only in the author's imagination, which allows revealing the features of Kaverin's original idiostyle that correlates certain literary techniques with the painter's technique (the author thinks in the categories of color, painting, texture, and perspective). In such way, painting becomes a metalanguage, the way of understanding the laws of art as such, and thus, the laws of literature, including such categories as narrative perspective and composition. The boundary between genres of the novel about artist and the novel about the novel in Kaverin's text is quite lucid: the fate of the artist is inseparable from the fate of his creation, and the questions of skill, purpose and designation of works comprise the very essence of conflicts of the novel.
Sangadieva E.G., Amgalanova M.V. - Representation of the picture of the world in the Buryat national literature of the first third of the XX century pp. 42-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.4.35384

Abstract: In theoretical and methodological studies of national literatures, one of the fundamental problems is the analysis of the world picture. The article examines the national picture of the world in the works of Buryat writers of the first third of the XX century on the example of the works of B. Bradin (1878-1937) and P. Dambinov, who wrote under the pseudonym Solbone Tuya (1892-1938). The key concepts ("space" and "time"), images and poetic metaphors are identified and considered. Their representation in artistic creativity in the context of the birth of the national Buryat literature was due to their proximity to the all-Mongol culture, the specifics of ethnic culture, confessional views, peculiarities of consciousness and philosophical aspects of the problem of the world and man as a whole.   Today, the literary heritage of the first writers of Buryatia is practically not represented in individual author's publications, especially those representatives of the literary art who were repressed and whose works were not published for a long time. The creative heritage of these authors is collected literally by crumbs, according to archival documents and other materials. The main methods of analyzing the poetic heritage of writers were axiological, semiotic and structural-semantic. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of the national concept of the world in the work of the founders of Buryat literature as a unique phenomenon of national literature with pronounced ethno-cultural elements.
LIN Y. - The genre of the diary of a madman by N.V. Gogol and Lu Xin is an analysis of the stories of the same name "Notes of a Madman" from the text to the context pp. 44-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37611

Abstract: The subject of the study is the genre of the diary of a madman by the Russian writer N. V. Gogol and the Chinese writer Lu Xin and their stories of the same name "Notes of a Madman". The object of the research is the primary narrative, the consciousness of the hero and the author, and the social consciousness in the diary genre. The author examines in detail the typological similarities and differences of the genre of the diary of a madman by N. V. Gogol and Lu Xin, analyzes the structure of the text, modes of artistry, the personality of the hero and the author's voice from a psychological and cultural-historical point of view, traces the theme of madness in the Russian and Chinese literary tradition. The main conclusions are that the genre of the diary of a madman by N. V. Gogol and Lu Xin is characterized by tragedy, lyricism and a full-fledged image of the personality and inner world of the hero, and that both writers combine rational and irrational factors in their work, combine the point of view of the hero and the author's voice in the form of a first-person narration on behalf of a madman. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is to identify the differences in the types of thinking of two heroes, two writers and two countries, and to indicate the psychological and cultural-historical grounds for the appearance of this genre in Russian and Chinese literature. The novelty of the research lies in synthetic research, typological comparison, and the use of methods of psychoanalysis and poststructuralism.
Markovnenkov D.V. - The Concept of Individuality and the Hero-artist in C. Bukowski’s Short Stories: Between Modernist and Postmodernist Structure of Feeling pp. 44-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39117

EDN: NKDSCS

Abstract: The subject of the study are two short stories by the American writer Charles Bukowski «Aftermatch of a lengthy rejection slip» and «Notes on the life of an aged poet». The selection of these stories is due to the fact that the first of them regards to beginning of Bukowski’s creative path, and the second one is connected with the mature period of his creation, which, in turn, allows not only to observe how the authentic style of Bukowski as a creator was forming, but also how an artist is able to capture the spirit of the historical epoch that is relevant to him. Thereby the object of the research is the image of the hero-artist, around which most of Bukowski's literary works are concentrated, including the stories selected for analysis. The purpose of this article is to analyze how the hero-artist in Bukowski’s short stories «Aftermath of a lengthy rejection slip» and «Notes on the life of an aged poet» experiences his historical present reflecting upon his professional status and his creativity. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that these stories were not subjected to scientific analysis in the domestic academic discourse and, therefore, Bukowski's short prose was not considered as a body of texts that has signs of modernist and postmodernist literature. Using comparative, descriptive and sociological methods in the study, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that Bukowski's work covers a specific historical situation in the United States, in which there is a transition from modern to postmodern mindsets, from the industrial mode of production to the postindustrial, which, in fact, Bukowski embodies in the image of his hero-artist and his creative practices vividly.
Popova V. - Concerning the Role of a Revolutionary Writer in a New Society: Waldo Frank at Writers' Congresses of 1935 pp. 45-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.2.26171

Abstract: In her research Popova focuses on two speeches made by an American writer Waldo Frank (1889–1967) at the First Convention of the League of American Writers (held in New York, 1935) and International Congress for the Defense of Culture (held in Paris, 1935) during the period of intensive cooperation with the USSR. The author also analyzes views of Waldo Frank on the role of a writer in a new society. Popova studies sources from the funds of The Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts which allows to cover unpublished materials of the writers' congresses that hadn't been published in the USSR. The author applies the historical literary method that implies analysis of biographical and historical sources, and text analysis method to analyze different versions of Waldo Frank's speeches at the Congress for the Defense of Culture in Paris as well as different publications thereof in the Russian language and extracts from the texts of his speeches. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Waldo Frank's creative writing and his relatons with the USSR are left practically understudied by the Russian literary studies. Analysis of Frank's relations with the Soviet Union allows to define the relationship between his literary interests and public position: strong cooperation with the USSR in 1930s coincided with Frank's active participation in the activity of American and European left and anti-fascist organizations. When he broke up his relations with the Soviet Union after 1937, his public activity declined, he withdrew from the USA Communist Party and left the League of American Writers. 
Guseinov M.A. - The theme of repressions in Kumyk post-Soviet prose (based on the works of I. Kerimov) pp. 45-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.3.32335

Abstract: The subject of this research is the prose of the prominent Dagestani writer I. Kerimov dedicated to the 1930s repressions. Among other national authors, Kerimov most often referred to this topic. Special attention is given to considerable contribution made by the writer to the development of a certain trend in literature of the post-Soviet period – new interpretation of the ambiguous events of the period of Socialism construction, description of artistic peculiarities of his works “Long Years, Long Roads”, “Trouble from Coal”, ”My Dream or Reality?”, etc.; determination of most commonly used means that adequately reflection of the oppressive atmosphere of these years, which caused the crisis of national consciousness. Literary review of the works of I. Kerimov's work is conducted in the context of the modern concepts of Russian science of literature, with application of sociocultural and analytical methods. The following conclusions were made: being an experienced artists in words, and simultaneously the eyewitness to the events, I. Kerimov reconstructs realities of the past through the prism of the fate of central images and conflicts. The writer testifies to the negative impact of the 1930s tribulations upon emotional state of the society, deformation of the traditional cultural values. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first to carry out a comprehensive examination of the works of I. Kerimov dedicated to the theme of repressions, determining his place and role within the modern literary process.
Anisimova O.V., Makarova I. - Mythopoetics of Literature: a Symbolic Language of British and American Fantasy and Science Fiction pp. 45-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.1.39451

EDN: JCJKPC

Abstract: The paper deals with the study of peculiarities of mythopoetics inclusion in British and American literatures. In particular, it highlights the specificity of the way English-speaking writers refer to such mythopoetic images as tree, raven and dragon. The study is done on the works by famous fantasy and sci-fi writers: John Ronald Reuell Tolkien, Roger Zelazny, Jack Vance and George Martin. A wide range of writings in various genres of literature brings certain difficulties connected with the selection of the study material. The criteria applied to fictional texts selected for the undertaken research are as follows: the degree of influence of a particular writer, the significance of mythologemes under consideration in terms of a particular text, and their level of reinterpretation in the writings of selected novelists. The novelty of a given research is connected with considering selected mythopoetic images in the context of particular examples of British and American fantasy and science fiction never regarded together before. The research findings highlight two leading directions of English-language literatures references to the world mythopoetic heritage of ancient times. Firstly, we see the way such mythologemes as tree, raven and dragon are interwoven in the fictional discourse to create a medieval atmosphere; secondly, writers incorporate archetypical images into their texts as elements of their own myth. The second direction seems to be more promising for it results in new interpretations of classical images rather than their exploitation in new texts, thus encouraging the expansion of their symbolic content.
Demicheva N. - The Problem of Historical Literary Analysis of The Capture of Pskov Tale pp. 46-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26866

Abstract: This article is devoted to The Capture of Pskov Tale from the Pskov First Chronicle and Sofia First Chronicle. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of The Capture of Pskov Tale and the late introduction thereto. In her research Demicheva emphasizes the fact that the system of expressive means used correlates to the message of the author (or editor). The Capture of Pskov Tale is viewed by the author of the article in terms of traditions of Russian chronicle writing. In particular, Demicheva analyzes transformation of the extract 'Slovo' by Serapion of Vladimir therein. In her research Demicheva uses the method of historical literary analysis of Old Russian literature developed by V. Adrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, and A. Pautkin. The author of the article concludes that The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle conveys the point of view of Pskov citizens who were loyal towards the reign of the great Muscovite prince and very negative towards Muscovite governors of Pskov. The introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale of the Pskov First Chronicle and The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Sofia First Chronicle express a more negative attitude to the capture of Pskov to Moscow than in The Capture of Pskov Tale itself as part of the Pskov First Chronicle Tale. Therein the author of the introduction emphasized the fact that Pskov was an independent city before the events of 1509 - 1510 took place. Based on the analysis of chronicles, the author of the article disputes a point of view that the introduction to The Capture of Pskov Tale in the Pskov First Chronicle was written in Novgorod.   
Nogovitsyn A.P. - Comparative analysis of the works published in periodicals and as part of the books, with major texts of A. E. Kulakovsky pp. 47-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34513

Abstract: This article examines the works of A. E. Kulakovsky based on theoretical positions of D. S. Likhachev and practical data from commentaries to the volume II of A. E. Kulakovsky (author P. V. Maksimov), as well as conducts comparative analysis of the early versions with major texts of A. E. Kulakovsky. The subject of this research is the comparative analysis of A. E. Kulakovsky's early publications with major texts. The goal consists in determination and description of the authorial editing and revisions, which allows substantiating their motives for, as well as tracing the evolution of author’s thought. The discrepancies between the texts of early period and major text are viewed as improvements: addition of lines, substitution of separate words, rearrangement lines and stanzas. The novelty of this study consists in substantiation of early publications of A. E. Kulakovsky and lifetime edition as the subject of textological research. From this perspective, early publications of the works of A. E. Kulakovsky's are attributed to as research materials of cross-disciplinary nature: as the testimonies of the stage of establishment of Yakut literature as a whole, and as the variants of writer's major texts that reveal the history of his works in particular. The relevance is defined by the fact that special textological studies of poet’s separate works, including profound examination of historiographical part of his literary heritage, are currently of special significance. Over the past decade, a sizeable corpus of new documents related to A. E. Kulakovsky’s biography, including the unpublished works and scientific writings, has been revealed; this gives a new perspective on the already familiar materials in the context of analysis of his evolution as a writer and the history of publication of his works in the XX century.
Kudryavtseva R.A., Belyaeva T.N. - Folklore Intertext of S. G. Chavain's Novel "Elnet" (Paremiological Level) pp. 47-58

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38803

EDN: XMZZIX

Abstract: In the article, as part of the study of the poetics of the Mari literature, the paremiological level of the folklore intertext of the novel "Elnet" by the founder of Mari literature Sergey Grigoryevich Chavain is considered. The authors of the article identified different semantic types of proverbs and sayings in the text of the Chavain work, identified their artistic functions in the text. In this aspect, the novel creativity of the writer is being investigated for the first time. The methodology of the research is determined by the structural and semantic analysis of the works, which made it possible to identify and describe in detail the semantic and typological components of the folklore intertext of Chavain's novel "Elnet" at the paremiological level, its significance for the expression of its artistic content. The article proves that the proverbs and sayings used in the novel "Elnet" in one way or another represent the creative portrait of the founder of the Mari national literature Chavain. We are faced with a writer with a folk worldview, brought up on folk culture and in the living language of Mari folklore. The semantic component of the proverbs and sayings used by the author is an integral part of the conceptual world of the novel and the basis of the author's axiology. Forming a folklore intertext in the novel, they also influence its narrative structure, plot movement, participate in the process of creating characters, they are also important in the context of the author's assessments of the depicted events and phenomena.
Papadopulo M. - Opposition “living – lifeless” and antique imagery in “Tales and Trials of Love” by Jeanne Flore pp. 49-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33604

Abstract: This article examines the previously unstudied aspects of the concept of true love in “Tales and Trials of Love” by Jeanne Flore based on the material of second novel in the compilation. The subject of this research is the ancient images, which reflect the central topics of the book – role of sensuality and dangers caused by it. A detailed analysis is conducted on the opposition “living – lifeless”, which is structured through the motifs of sight, word, kiss and image of a human-statue. Within the new concept of true love, which dictates to reciprocate the feelings of those seeking love, the danger hides not sensuality, but in resisting it. The novella in question stands out in the compilation, as it is the only “tale” which focus falls on sensorics to convey a warning. Special attention is given to the images of eyes and mouth, which mark the boundary between external and internal, and play the key role in the motif of poisoning. When does a fatal act takes place? When “lifeless" is behind the living (which can be achieved only by witchcraft), and the other way around. Using the ancient images, Jeanne Flore demonstrates how a sight and words of the heroes can be poisonous and upon contact with the Other can translate characteristics of the hero’s inner world (such as indifference, static character, lifelessness) to others, thereby "poisoning" them to death. This article is first to analyze the opposition of “living – lifeless” on the material of references to ancient mythology in “Love and Trials of Love”, which defines the scientific novelty.
Akamov A.T., Bekeeva A.M. - Koranic motives in Kumyk spiritual literature pp. 49-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.4.35442

Abstract: The object of this study is the Kumyk literature of the Middle Ages, which, along with the enlightenment, is dominated by the ideas of religious unity. As a result of the adoption of Islam by the peoples of Dagestan, including the Kumyks, their written literature, which was based on the Koran, acquires a pronounced general Muslim character. The spiritual literature of the Kumyks had the forms of religiouspreachings, reflections, philosophizing and instructions, which are popularly known as "Turki". The concept of "Turki", which includes numerous spiritual poems of various contents and forms, is a single system of genres, namely religious poems. The authors of this study also revealed that along with the strengthening of the position of Islam in Dagestan in the XVI century, religious themes were increasingly introduced into literature, occupying an important place in the works of Kumyk poets and theologians. The authors of the article consider the koranic motifs in the spiritual literature of the Kumyks in the works included in the collection "Majmu ul-manzumat al-ajamiya". The eschatological motives in this work can be divided into two parts: edifying, prescribing how to behave, and descriptive - a description of the horrors that await people in the event of non-compliance with these instructions.
Eremina E. - Miguel de Unamuno and His Tragic Sense of Life pp. 50-67

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2014.1.11281

Abstract: The present article is devoted to studying the 'agonic' philosophy of a Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. His philosophy was formed under the influence of the historical and social environment and particular facts from the writer's personal biography. All works written by Miguel de Unamuno after the crisis of the 1987th are full of thoughts about faith and lack of faith, death and immortality and a certain tragic tone. For Unamuno life is an 'agony', constant doubts and struggle against death. According to Miguel de Unamuno, feelings, reason, faith and science are struggling in human's soul and this 'agony' is the true life. Unamuno's philosophical searches go beyound the scope of an essay and take the form of narrative experiments. His philosophy evolves around the problem of individual immortality. The desire to live forever and the reason telling that this desire will never come true literally tore Unamuno apart. Trying to to understand the nature of relations between Human and his Creator, Unamuno appeals to imagination as the last method of knowledge and uses a novel as a model of reality. 
Drobinin G.D. - The Concept of Youth in Ilya Kormiltsev's Creative Writing pp. 50-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.3.27572

Abstract: The subject of the research is specific features of representation of youth in Ilya Kormiltsev's poetry from the point of view of its reference to rock music culture in general. The research is based on the analysis of the concept of youth in so-called 'rock poetry' texts of Ilya Kormiltsev, particularly, Nautilus Pompilius songs. The aim of this research is to compare two points of view on Russian rock, as a major cultural phenomenon and platform for modernist poery, from the one part, and sub-culture that has a secondary role for art, from the other part. The methodological basis of the research is the analysis of plots and characters of Ilya Kormiltsev's lyrics and discovering hedonistic features there which is viewed as an element of rock culture by social sciences. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is an understudied topic and the author offers a systemic description of 'rock music' poetry from the point of view of social researches of Russian rock culture. As a result, the author proves that the concept of youth is based on a single structure of plots which includes the first love experience, the situation of revelation and psychological trauma which, as a rule, devalues the rest of the life of a hero. 
Kirimov T.N. - Semiotic and linguo-stylistic aspects of the poems by H. Chergeyev “Heed What The Dead Man Says!” and “Fate” pp. 50-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.5.32835

Abstract: This article examines the little-known facts of life and artistic legacy of the reputable Crimean Tatar poet-populist of the early XX century Hasan Chergeyev. In order to reveal the semantic and linguo-stylistic peculiarities of his works, namely the poems “Heed What The Dead Man Says!” (“Eşit, mevta ne sevleyur!”, 1909) and“Fate” (“Taqdir”, 1917), the author carries out a comparative typological, semiotic and textological analysis of the original texts. The strategic approaches in poet’s depiction of the authentic, and dramatic episodes from the life of people and the clergy are conceptualized. The article reveals phenomenon of the impact of idea, theme and plot upon the structure of H. Chergeyev’s poems. Due to lateral thinking and selected methods of representation of life material, his poetic works transform into living canvases. They reflect the depth of internal emotional experiences of the title characters, reveal the natural flavor of the national language, and demonstrate the energy and power of his poetic instrument. At the same time, the article outlines the prospects for studying journalistic activities in Crimean Tatar Soviet periodical press of prewar and wartime.
Kudryavtseva R.A. - The World Topos in Terms of European Axiology of Modern Mari Poetry pp. 51-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30568

Abstract: In her article, Kudryavtseva analyzes Vasily Pekteev's lyrics as part of analysis of modern Mari national poetry, in particular, poems from his poetic series 'Man from the Kingdom of Bees' (2018). Until now these poems have never been the matter of analysis. The research grounds include analysis of the artistic space of Mari poetry. The main attention is paid to the multicomponent and multi-value topos 'world' that most brightly reflect the author's artistic axiology. The methodological basis of the research involves historical typological and structured semantic analysis of works which has allowed to define and describe structural semantic levels of the 'world' topos actualizing the author axiology in Vasiliy Pekteyev's lyrics. The researcher proves that spacial elements of the 'world' topos including archetypes, fully reveal the spirit of a lyrical hero, demonstrate the writer's values and the nature of artistic axiology of modern Mari poetry. She also shows that modern Mari lyrics confirm personal freedom, life and nature beauty, creativity as well as nature-orientation and spirituality of the Mari world. Everything which is aimed at destruction and supression of the aforesaid is viewed as anti-values.  
Snigireva S.D. - The idea of accepting suffering in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky and its connection with the theme of schism and the myth of the earth pp. 51-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33788

Abstract: The subject of this article is the idea of accepting suffering, presented in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky, and its connection with the theme of unorthodox religious movements and the myth of the earth. The object of the research is the works of F. M. Dostoevsky ("Notes from the Dead House", "Crime and Punishment", "Demons", "Brothers Karamazov") and preparatory materials for them, as well as articles of periodicals devoted to Old Believers and sectarianism ("Svyatorusskie dvoevery" V. I. Kelsiev, "Secret Sects" and "White Doves" by P. I. Melnikov, "Zemstvo and Schism. Runners", "Mental directions of the Russian schism" by A. P. Shchapov). The purpose of this work is to identify the connection between the idea of accepting suffering in Dostoevsky's work with the theme of schism and the myth of the earth. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that it analyzes for the first time the mechanisms of mythologization of the category of the earth and the image of the Russian people in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky, associated with the idea of accepting suffering coming from the schism. A special contribution of the author is to identify the correlation of some of the motives and images of the novel "Demons" with sectarianism. Conclusions: The motive of voluntary acceptance of suffering associated with the religious context, namely, with the idea of accepting torment for faith, characteristic of Old Believers, appears already in "Notes from the Dead House" and "Crime and Punishment". Starting from the first novel of the Great Pentateuch, this motif, coupled with the mythologeme of the earth, which is special for Dostoevsky's work, is realized in the context of the idea of the universal guilt of people before the earth and before each other and the need to atone for this guilt through suffering. The idea of suffering, necessary for the salvation of the soul and the acquisition of lost faith, is also closely connected with the ideology of pochvennichestvo, as it is conveyed to atheists who are torn from the soil by representatives of the common people.
Gofshtein O.G., Rudakova S.V. - Specifics of V. K. Kuchelbecker's artistic historiosophic views (based on the materials of his European Letters) pp. 51-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.6.41003

EDN: CVSNHC

Abstract: The question of artistic historiosophy is a problem that has been actively discussed in recent decades. Historiosophy is an area of interest for historians, philosophers and sociologists. Artistic historiosophy is directly related to the aesthetic side of works, this is the sphere of interests of literary critics; studying it, they comprehend the text, its images and plots in a new way, including them in various social, historical, moral and philosophical processes, revealing the peculiarities of the author's view of the phenomena of life - present, past and future. One of the insufficiently studied works of the Russian romanticist, representative of the Decembrist movement V.K. Kuchelbecker is examined in this aspect. The research material is the novel by Kuchelbecker "European Letters". The proposed work is based on the methods of historiosophical analysis of literary works and the historical-typological method. Scientific novelty of the proposed study is due to the fact that the issues of historiosophy in Kuchelbecker's "European Letters" have not been considered in the scientific literature. In the process of analyzing the "European Letters", the author's unusual view of the categories of the past, present, and future is revealed, which allows modeling the image of an ideal social world, on the one hand, and on the other hand, to give a detailed description of the socio–historical processes taking place in European and Russian life, the modern Kuchelbecker period, emphasizing the special Messianic path of Russia.
Melnichuk E.P. - “Precursor” – poetry readings at the Mayakovsky square in the sociocultural context of the 1950-1960s pp. 52-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.5.28194

Abstract: This article explores the poetry readings at the Mayakovsky square in Moscow as a separate “episode”, which played an important role in the cultural live of the 1950s and 60s, and deserves closer attention that it has previously received. Through the prism of the history of the gatherings, it can be seen how pendulum swings from thaw to freezing, how tolerance changes to animosity towards the “Mayakovians” from the authorities. The research on the creative groups that form on the Mayakovsky square and the brightest routines at the square allowed tracing the changes in the mood and views of the intelligentsia. Most of the poets viewed their poetry as part of a political or civil struggle. They fought with the experiences of the past, the cult of personality of Stalin, at the same time, the reading sounded in unison with the ideas of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Separate attention is given to the analysis of the samizdat magazine “Phoenix”, which published poetry and prose of the “Mayakovians”. The analysis reveals that anti-Soviet orientation of the magazine consisted not so much in the lunges against the Soviet authorities, as in the attempts to defend the right to choose independent creative form and path, which fell outside the rules of the Socialist regime.
Markova A.S. - Beyond memory: the absence of spirit ("Perfumer" P. Suskind) pp. 52-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37230

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify the role of collective (M. Halbwax) and cultural (Ya. Assman) of memory in the formation of the inner image of his "I" as a reflection of the perception of the "other", the spirit (der Geist), in a brilliant personality. The research material will be P. Suskind's novel "The Perfumer. The story of a murderer." To achieve the purpose of the study, it is proposed to identify the spiritual and anatomical and physical foundations of genius, correlate them with types of memory, trace the influence of collective and cultural memory (or rather, the absence of this influence) on character formation. And also to determine the role of the memory phenomenon in the structure of the work.   The study revealed the role of collective memory as a significant architectonic element in the novel "The Perfumer. The story of a murderer." Grenouille's separation from society and from himself is connected with the hero's inability to be attached to the historical and cultural heritage. It was also revealed that society itself, losing touch with its origins, inevitably degrades. However, the novel itself, which carries a complex cultural code, gives the attentive reader a holistic perception, sounds like a parable, offers a choice. This work offers an analysis of the nature of genius as a phenomenon inextricably linked with memory. This approach allows not only to discover the reasons for the disunity of the main character of the novel with society, but also to penetrate deeper into the structure of the work itself. The appeal to collective memory makes it possible to understand the significance of direct and indirect references to other works of art as attempts at dialogue with cultures and epochs. This concept can be used for further research.
Shi Y. - Lexical means of the comic in humorous stories of N. N. Nosov pp. 53-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.1.32109

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of lexical means of the comic in humorous stories of Nikolay Nosov. The article conducts systemic analysis, examines the achievement of comic potential in writer’s approaches via specific examples: irony, paradox, personification, tautology, and words formed in accordance with children etymology. The question is raised on the distinctness of Nosov’s humor and its lexical expression. Special attention is given to the analysis of psychology and behavior of the characters in particular situations, as well as determination of the original child’s way of thinking that differs from the adults. The scientific novelty is defined by an attempt of systemic analysis of lexical means for creating comic effect in the humorous stories of Nikolay Nosov. The relevance of this work on the one hand is substantiated by continued interest of the Russian and foreign researchers to the works of N. Nosov, and on the other – consists in comprehension of the insufficiently studied lexical means of the comic in his stories. The conducted analysis demonstrates the peculiarity of Nosov’s humor in creating comic effect, revelation of character of the heroes, and specificities of the children’s way of thinking.
Yashina K.I. - The image of Bolshoye Boldino in the Russian literature: peculiarities of local text formation pp. 54-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.7.33656

Abstract: The subject of this research is Bolshoye Boldino as the landmark of the Russian culture. The goal is to give characteristics to the image of Bolshoye Boldino established in the Russian literature, as well as analyze the possibility of formation of the local text. It is proven that constant traits of Boldino, such as solitude, isolation from the big world, simplicity of life, and vagueness of time boundaries, were formed based on the letters, works, and events in the life of A. S. Pushkin, and later comprehended by other authors. It is noted that the collection of texts about Bolshoye Boldino consists of the saying and interviews, fiction and folklore compositions. The research material includes the poems and an saying M. S. Petrovyh, Y. V. Drunina, D. S. Samoilov and B. A. Akhmadulina. The conclusion is made that in the Russian culture, Bolshoye Boldino resembles the place of commemoration of A. S. Pushkin, as well as the space that allows a person to achieve comprehension and mindfulness. In the aforementioned works, the image of Bolshoye Boldino in ambivalent: the space is interpreted as a place of salvation or as the origin of the tragic events in life of the poet. The author assumes that the Boldino text is in the process of formation and has low intensity, which is substantiated by its remoteness of from the cultural centers.
Selemeneva M.V. - The City as a Theme and Text in the Prose of Victoria Tokareva pp. 54-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.2.39815

EDN: HLZGOY

Abstract: The subject of the study is the image of the city in small and medium prose by V.S. Tokareva. The author reveals the uniqueness of the artistic concept of the city in the work of Victoria Tokareva, which consists in a combination of the image of a generalized conditional space and recognizable spatial images that can be considered in the context of the poetics of local texts. Clarification of the characteristics of a generalized conditional city occurs through the analysis of a system of characters whose moral and philosophical paradigm is correlated with urban loci. Recognizable spatial images are correlated with the autobiographical context of the author's work and considered from the point of view of the author's contribution to the "Moscow" and "Petersburg" text of Russian literature. The author's main contribution to the study of the poetics of V.S. Tokareva's prose is to clarify the typology of images of short stories and novels and to identify "episodic heroes" - characters with an unformed moral and philosophical paradigm and a life position of non-participation in the destinies of other characters and their own fate. The poetics of the episode determines both the key characteristics of such characters and the properties of the urban loci associated with them. The main artistic techniques contributing to the identification of the characteristics of the characters of urban prose are V.S. Tokareva's precedent comparisons and details revealing the author's position. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that reading Tokareva's small and medium prose through the prism of the poetics of local texts makes it possible to clarify the originality of the author's interpretation of the images of the two capitals. Shifting the research focus to the generalized image of the city is productive from the point of view of clarifying the typological features of the character sphere and identifying relevant moral and philosophical issues.
Jin T. - Chekhov and geographical determinism pp. 55-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.3.35125

Abstract: Literary scholars have recently shown growing interest in interrelation between Chekhov’s worldview and creativity. This article is dedicated to this topic. The question of the writer's worldview has long caused intense debate. There are multiple works dedicated to Chekhov's religious worldview, natural science materialism, and naturalism; however, the topic of Chekhov and geographical determinism is poorly studied. Although the idea of geographical determinism and the impact of vast expanses of Russia upon people’s lives occurs in the correspondence and works of Chekhov at various times. The subject of this research is Chekhov's works that contain the ideology of geographical determinism. The scientific novelty consists in the systematic and comprehensive analysis of the idea of geographical determinism in Chekhov's works. The influence of the opinions of different representatives of geographical determinism upon Chekhov's worldview is established. The author observes a connection between Chekhov and geographical determinism. Apathy, yarn, exhaustion, hopelessness, loneliness and alternation of excitability and fatigue of Chekhov's characters are associated with the geographical peculiarities of Russia, its vast expanses, severe winters, dullness, and monotony. The conducted research confirms the value of analysis of the connection between Chekhov and geographical determinism in the context of studying Chekhov's writing style.
Kyrchanoff M.W. - Pagan motifs as the manifestation of anti-modernism in the novels of N. Gaiman “American Gods” and A. Rubanov “Mahogany Man” pp. 55-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.35266

Abstract: The subject of this research is the “pagan” images in modern mass culture in the context of the novels “American Gods” by the English writer Neil Gaiman and “Mahogany Man” by the contemporary Russian writer Andrey Rubanov. The goal of this article lies in the analysis of the US and Russian experience of assimilation and integration of pagan heritage in the context of mass culture of consumer society. Research methodology employs the methods offered by Eric Hobsbawm in his theory of “inventing traditions”. Thus, the author perceives pagan motifs as one of the “invented traditions” of the modern literature of consumer society. The scientific novelty lies in the comparative analysis of actualization of pagan images in the English and Russian literature of consumer society in the novels “American Gods” by N. Gaiman and “Mahogany Man” by A. Rubanov.  Analysis is conducted on the “pagan” images in the context of ethno-futuristic discourse defined as an alternative to modern serial identities of consumer society. It is demonstrated that in the literary texts of mass culture, pagan motifs have multiple and heterogeneous origins and cultural genealogies, localized in the classical heritage and popular culture simultaneously. The author believes that pagan images in the prose of mass culture actualize the problems of identity crisis, as well as the erosion of ethnic traditional cultures in globalizing society. It is suggested that visualization of literary texts may become the key trend in the development of pagan images in the mass literature of consumer society.
Porol O.A., Dmitrieva N.M. - “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in N. Gumilyov's lyrics of the later period pp. 55-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36781

Abstract: This research is dedicated to spatiotemporal aspect of “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” in N. Gumilyov’s lyrics of later period. Based on the lyrical works written over the period from 1913 to 1921, the author contemplates on the role of the Old Russian epic for the poet’s ideology. A hypothesis advanced that the text of the tale is one of the most constructive in worldview of the poet. The article employs the comparative-historical and structural-semiotic methods (juxtaposition of semantics facts that go back to the text  of the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign” and contained in N. Gumilyov's poetry) for establishing correspondence or semantic changes of words in the original text. The method of parallel text search is applied. Textual analysis of the fragments of N. Gumilyov's works and “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” is conducted. The article is first to determine and substantiate the interrelation between N. Gumilyov’s poem “War” (1914) and text of the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign”. Detailed analysis is given to the image of the “sowing” and “reaping” Russian warriors. In his later works, Gumilyov associates the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign” with the highest ethical values, history of Russian and world culture, which underlines the historicism of Gumilyov’s thinking. The article reveals the “horse”, “warrior”, “quiver”, “saber” contained in the text of the tale reflect the true life of N. Gumilyov.
Kolosova E.I. - The evolution of ideas about vegetarianism in British literature in the Late 18th – Early 19th Century (a case of ‘An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty’ by J. Ritson, ‘Queen Mab’ and ‘A Vindication of Natural Diet’ by P.B. Shelley) pp. 55-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.10.54686

EDN: WLNEMD

Abstract: The article examines the literary representation of the topic of vegetarianism in the works of British writers in the Late 18th – Early 19th Century. English sugar merchant, author of popular self-help books Thomas Tryon was one of the first to propose the concept of vegetarianism, which was new to his contemporaries. His works, like those of his followers, inspired Joseph Ritson and Percy Bysshe Shelley. Joseph Ritson in his essay ‘An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty’ (1802) summarizes the experience of his predecessors and proposes an original concept of vegetarianism, close to the romantic philosophy. P. B. Shelley used Ritson's ideas in his philosophical poem ‘Queen Mab’ (1813) and his essay ‘A Vindication of Natural Diet’ (1813). The article presents the results of a productive dialogue between intellectuals of the Enlightenment (such as T. Tryon and G. Cheyne) and J. Ritson. This influenced the further development of the philosophy of vegetarianism in European culture. Thus, the poet of the romantic era P.B. Shelley, inspired by Ritson's essay, rethought his ideas in his own way and presented them in his works.
Razgulina L. - Free Labour and Free Dance: Aesthetical Ideology of Avant-Garde in Charles Olson's Version pp. 56-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27535

Abstract: The subject matter of this article is the first volume of The Maximus Poems (1960) which Charles Olson wrote at The Black Mountain College where he was a teacher and then a rector. Razgulina tries to demonstrate the connection between the nature and directivity of Olson's search the field of poetic form with his efforts to embody in the word, syllable the orders of human sociality. In connection with the interdisciplinary nature of the stated subject, the research approach used in the article is synthetic and combines historical, cultural, poetic, mediological methods of analysis. Charles Olson (1910-1970) is an influential figure of the American poetic neo-avant-garde, practically unknown in Russia and not studied at all. Also, the interaction of the theory and practice of free labor and free dance in the avant-garde works of Charles Olson has not been studied either in Russian or in foreign science. This article is meant to begin to fill these lacunae. In this article, the authors conclude that the aesthetics of writing Olson likens the aesthetics of craftwork and the aesthetics of dance. In the first, it is important for him to feel the natural material as well as the continuity of labor effort, imperceptibly creating history. In the second, it is important to enjoy coordinated movement. Olson is trying to write his experimental epic based on these two premises. According to the authors, Self-Maximus, the epic hero of Charles Olson, has two hypostases: he lives / works in history and he lives / dances in language, in the practice of reflective speech use.
Kharitonova A. - Falsification of content: decadence and simplification as the extreme forms of internal protest of the heroines of M. V. Krestovskaya’s novella “The Outcry” pp. 56-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.6.33121

Abstract: This article examines novella by Maria Krestovskaya “The Outcry” (1900) in the context of reception of the phenomenon of decadence in Russian literature of turn of the XIX – XX centuries. This novella by the mostly forgotten writer, who in her works refers mostly to the female topics (love, family, and profession), is currently of particular interest from the perspective of reflection of cultural trends of that time. A “typical female story” about the unhappy marriage, aimed against the power of money, insincerity and lack of freedom, puts decadence to the forefront of narration as a cultural emblem of the era, revealing the inner motifs and mechanism, which led one of the heroines to an ostentatiously decadent behavior. A contrasts form of protest against the bourgeois world in the novella is the ideology of simplification. The scientific novelty of the conducted research is defined by paucity of research on the works of M. V. Krestovskaya, and absence of special works within the modern literary studies dedicated to her writing heritage. The author’s contribution consists in introduction of novella “The Outcry” into the extensive Russian-European cultural and historical-literary context, as well as its analysis from the perspective of worldview trends and aesthetic influences of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The research proves that this text, which is not the only resort of M. V. Krestovskaya to a new type of here of the “end of century”, can be justifiably attributed to the body of work devoted to the heroes-decadents.
Guseva E.V. - The poetics of the author's situativeness in the story "The Sisters of the Cross" by A.M. Remizov pp. 57-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.8.43833

EDN: UTLXFN

Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the poetics of the author's situativeness in the story "The Sisters of the Cross" by A. M. Remizov. Methods (historical and literary, structural, semantic) and methodological basis of the research are the works of Russian and Western scientists in the field of philology (M. M. Bakhtin, B. O. Korman, Y. M. Lotman), Russian theology (N. O. Lossky, P. A. Florensky, L. I. Shestov) and remizology (I. A. Ilyin, Greta Slobin, A.M. Gracheva, E. V. Tyryshkina, etc.). The result of the work is that the situations in the story "The Sisters of the Cross" were highlighted, their classification and a detailed analysis of the poetics of the author's situativeness by A.M. Remizov were made.    The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the poetics of the author's situativeness is analyzed in detail within the framework of a global problem in the work of A.M. Remizov – the author's duality. All this allows us to conclude that the author's situativeness of A.M. Remizov is the author's individual view of the world order and man, it is a reflection of all the extra–textual factors that influenced the writer in different periods of his life and found artistic embodiment on the pages of the writer's works. The practical scope of the results of the work is seen in the possibility of using this material for deep understanding and studying such courses as "Literature of the Russian abroad", university historical and literary courses, during independent research work of students, when writing term papers and diploma projects.
Kuptsova M.Y. - The vicissitudes of life in the mirror of Nikolai Gumilyov`s literary reputation in the post-symbolist period pp. 58-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40539

EDN: OLZPNK

Abstract: Nikolai Gumilyov is one of the key figures of acmeism and the literary life of Russia in the 20th century. The image of Nikolai Gumilyov, aspects of his work and influence on literature are of keen interest for modern philology. The article is devoted to a review of the elements of the biography that affect the literary reputation of the poet. The chronological framework of the study is the period from 1910 to 1914, from the period of the decline of symbolism to the outbreak of the First World War. The subject of the study is the reputation of the poet N. Gumilyov in the post-symbolist period. The analysis of the subject is carried out by means of system-typological, biographical and cultural-historical methods. The ups and downs of N. S. Gumilyov's fate influenced not only the creative process, serving as inspiration, but also the literary reputation of the poet, which determines the scientific novelty of the study. The result of the work carried out was the selection, through the analysis of selective places from the biography of N. S. Gumilyov, of such components of his reputation in the period of post-symbolism as “writer”, “traveler” and “lover”. The conclusions presented in the material can serve as a basis for considering both literary reputation in general and directly in the analysis of the image of the poet, as well as in determining the specifics of other periods of Nikolai Gumilyov's work and their influence on the literary reputation of the poet.
Gavrilova N. - The Date When Chekhov Wrote His Play 'Uncle Vanya': Analysis of the Main Points of View pp. 59-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.2.26373

Abstract: This article is devoted to the main points of view on possible dates for Anton Chekhov writing his play 'Uncle Vanya'. The aim of the research is to analyze existing theories about the date when Chekhov wrote his play and carry out a detailed analysis of their proof. In the course of her research Gavrilova has referred to a lot of researches devoted to the transformation of the play 'The Wood Demon' to the play 'Uncle Vanya'. Checkhov left very contradictory information about the exact date when the play was written, therefore there are several groups of researchers with different views on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written. The research is based on such literary methods as comparative, analytical, critical, biographical, and cultural historical. As a result of the research, Gavrilova describes the main views of researchers who studied Ckekhov's creative writing on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written and analyzes relevant arguments. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that in her research Gavrilova extends a general scope of views on the date when Chekhov wrote his play analyzing not only classical but also contemporary approaches to the problem. As a result of her analysis of the aforesaid theories, the author of the article concludes that despite the fact that the matter is widely studied, the question when Anton Chekhov wrote his play 'Uncle Vanya' still remains. However, due to the great interest of modern researchers to the play 'Uncle Vanya', it is quite likely that future studies of Chekhov's creative writing will cast a light on the exact date of creation of 'Uncle Vanya'. 
Chernov A.V. - Francisco Sa de Miranda: Two Traditions of Perception pp. 61-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.1.28889

Abstract: The subject of the research is the two traditions of perceiving the image and style of the Portugese Renaisance poet Francisco Sa de Miranda that offered two approaches to historical interpretation of the poet's legacy. The first tradition was developed by the younger contemporaries of Sa de Miranda and the second was offered by the researchers of the XIXth, XXth and XXIst centuries. The author of the article analyzes the points where the aforesaid two traditions contradict. The main goal of the article is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the above mentioned contradictions. The key method used by the author of the article is the comparitive analysis of texts. As a result of the comparison of two approaches to perceiving the image and style of Francisco Sa de Miranda, the author has discovered principal differences of these two traditions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the comparative analysis of texts that describe characteristics of the image and style of Sa de Miranda may be also referred to the works of the younger contemporaries of the poet and thus covers texts dated the XVIth, XIXth, XXth and XXIst centries. The author focuses on different interpretations of the poet's style according to two traditions, Renaissance tradition (the XVIth century) and modern tradition (XIX, XX and XXI). This is the first research in the academic literature that states and provides a detailed analysis of the ideological differences of aforesaid traditions which comprises the novelty of the research. The conclusions made by the author may be of great use for further researches on Portuguese Renaissance literature. 
Vorobyova S., Oganova E. - Romantic songs by the Turkish ashik Karacaoğlan: key motifs and system of poetic imagery pp. 63-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34321

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the analysis of romantic motifs and corresponding poetic images in the works of the prominent Turkish ashik of the XVII century Karacaoğlan, as well as in determination of the nature of interaction of the folklore and his original tradition therein. The article employs literary text analysis, as well as the method of description and comparison. Using the specific examples, the author examines the key motifs of Karacaoğlan’s romantic lyrics (praise and admiration of the beauty of the beloved; infidelity of the beloved; separation; doubting the feelings of the beloved, etc.), and the imagery system associated with these motifs: a nightingale, rose, grus, a “burning heart”, a “wounded soul”, landscape sketches (snowcapped mountains, light breeze, etc.). Analysis is also conducted on the artistic means of creating the portrait of a beauty: her face, eyes, eyebrows, hair, manner of walking, clothes, and accessories. Literary works of the Turkish ashik Karacaoğlan have not previously become the object of separate research within the Russian science, which detfines the novelty of this article. The conclusion is made that the traditions of folklore and Diwan (Sufi) poetry are organically intertwined in the works by Karacaoğlan, which determines the specificity of poetics of ashik literature not only of the XVII century, but also the entire time continuum. This study contributes to clarification of the typology and poetics of ashik poetry, as well as the nature of interaction of the folklore and the author’s individual tradition within a single work.
Zhu Y. - The Gloomy twentieth anniversary of Chinese Pushkin Studies (1957 – 1976) pp. 63-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.4.36461

Abstract: Russian Russian literature began to be studied in China in the late XIX and early XX centuries, and the work of A.S. Pushkin was the first to be translated from Russian literature in China. From that moment, Chinese Pushkin studies gradually developed. But since 1957, the process of popularization and study of Pushkin has stalled. Special attention is paid to Chinese Pushkin studies in 1957-1976 . The article examines the causes of the decline of Chinese Pushkin studies in 1957-1976. Special attention is paid to the tragic fates of outstanding Chinese Pushkin artists (Ge Baoquan, Lu Ying, Zha Liangzheng, and Wang Zhilyan) during the gloomy twentieth anniversary in China. The scientific novelty of this work is that it introduces Russian readers to the history of Chinese Pushkin studies and the tragic fates of Chinese Pushkin writers, fitting them into a broad cultural and political context and showing how political processes and ideological attitudes affect the development of humanities. The main conclusions of the study are that Pushkin's work supported and inspired the best representatives of the Chinese intelligentsia, despite the cruel censorship oppression and repression, who introduced their compatriots to the highest achievements of world culture and defended their right to free creativity.
Kropacheva K.A. - The concept of “genre” in France of the XV – XVI centuries: from lexical diversity to codification of the term pp. 64-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33794

Abstract: This article discusses formation of the concept of “genre” in France of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, as well as codification of the corresponding term in literary language. The subject of this research is denominations of the category of genre used by the authors of theoretical treatises of the XV – XVI centuries, and the concept of “genre”, which was gradually introduced into the French theory of poetry. The goal is to determine the stages of development of the category of genre within the framework of French theoretical texts of the XV – XVI centuries, as well as denominations for the genre forms employed by the theoreticians, their similarities and differences. An attempt is made to identify at which point in French theory appears the interpretation of the term “genre” similar to the modern one. The novelty of consists in analysis of the concept of genre in diachrony based on the material of French treatises of the XV – XVI centuries. Majority of the texts considered in the article did not receive due attention within the Russian literary studies, which substantiates the relevance of studying French literary theory of the Renaissance Era. It is demonstrated that the authors of French treatises of the XV century denoted the concept of genre as “rithme”, “taille”, “manière”, “façade”, “espèce”, using them as synonyms within the framework of a single text. However, by the early XVI century, the genre form is viewed as a separate category; therefore, the number of denominations s is gradually reduced. For the first time, the term “genre” was used in the literary context in Pierre Fabre’s treatise of 1521; although at that time it partially keeps the meaning borrowed from Latin. The terms was codified later, in 1555, in Jacques Peletier’s “Art Poétique”; and from this point on it was applied by literary theoreticians for denoting different types of genre forms.
Veprev A.I. - Matryoshka version of the Russian verlibre pp. 64-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.4.35358

Abstract:   Referring to the possibility and need for an experiment in literary studies, mentioned in the early XX century by the Soviet literary theoretician and poetry scholar Boris Yarkho, who paid particular attention to the transformation of the genre and the structure of expressive means as a whole, the author of this article analyzes the new form of the Russian verlibre (free verse), its varieties of the most probable form, attempting to determine its most characteristic typology, as well as to introduce into the concept of the matryoshka verlibre the two main forms, two of its fundamental metaphases and several subvarieties: 1. Verlibre in verlibres (verlibre in several verlibres); 2. Verlibre in verlibre  (several verlibra in one verlibre). The author also distinguishes two subvarieties that are formed from the verlibre in verlibre: 3. Veprlibr (large verlibre in several verlibres); 4. Aphoristic verlibre (verlibre in several aphorisms), and others. The main conclusion of the conducted analysis of the new form of the matryoshka verlibre consists in the fact that matryoshka verlibre is patterned by a catenate fairy tale and is attributed to the type of catenate fairy tale (cumulative fairy tale, recursive fairy tale, chainlike fairy tale). The verlibre, in which dialogues or actions are repeated and develop in a modified form according to the plotline, belongs to the matryoshka verlibre. The effect of these verlibres is based on the repeating narrative, characteristic image and action changing for one or another reason and reaching culmination. In this case, semantic differentiation of the text is viewed as a synthesis of both dimensions, where any component of the work is simultaneously motivated by the coherence of such element that it creates with other elements, as well as semantic union of the elements that are subject to destruction, and belong to different components of the entire work. A matryoshka doll serves as an example.  
Dominenko N.V., Kravinskaya Y.Y. - Points of intersection of space-time planes of the “foreign world” in epistolary prose of the English romanticists pp. 64-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.7.35780

Abstract: The subject of this research is the points of intersection of space-time relations of the “foreign world” in such form of authorial self-expression as correspondence of the English romanticists. The goal is to examine the key elements of the chronotope of “foreign world”, and determine the peculiarities of their functionality in the romantic epistolary prose. The object of this research is the 50 letters of W. Wordsworth, 224 letters of G. G. Byron, 67 letters of P. B. Shelley, 51 letters of J. Keats, and 200 letters of R. Southey. The article employs a set of general scientific and special literary criticism methods, such as descriptive, biographical, historical-genetic, historical-functional, structural-semantic, and comparative-typological. It is established that the “foreign world” in the correspondence of English romanticists is represented by the following points of intersection of space-time planes: chronotope of the road / road meetup / traffic accident; contact / meetup / date; cities / countries / villages, with the dominant motifs of the road and contact. Leaning on the analysis of space-time plane of the “foreign world” in the correspondence of English romanticists, the conclusion is made that the chronotope of “foreign world” is a certain access code to the world pattern of English romanticists, the key category that resembles the worldview of a particular epoch, namely romanticism. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this work is first to analyze space-time relations of “foreign world” in the correspondence of English romanticists. The future research should focus on the types and peculiarities of functionality of the chronotope of “native world” in the correspondence of English romanticists, as well as the interaction of space and time in the correspondence of English realist writers, determining and comparing the integral and variable traits characteristic to epistolary prose as a whole.
Savelyev G.A. - Categories of things and words in the works of M. P. Shishkin (based on the material of the novels "The Taking of Ishmael" and "Venus' Hair") pp. 64-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.2.37467

EDN: CNVLUI

Abstract: The author puts forward the position that the nature of M. P. Shishkin's creativity is determined by the interaction of two trends: the preservation of a perceptually perceived thing in a word (the word in this case becomes an instrument for fixing a visible image of the world) and the use of a linguistic sign referring to a thing to create verbal and artistic constructions with immanent aesthetic significance. The writer's worldview position assumes that the ethical task of art (in the light of the research topic - the task of preserving the experience of perceiving the world) stand́t above the aesthetic (i.e. the task of creating an expressive art form). The author of the article proves that the poetics of Shishkin's novels is largely characterized by an "attitude to expression" (according to R. O. Jacobson), in which artistic discourse cannot be limited to the task of preserving a thing in a word. The analysis of the means of expressiveness and rhetorical techniques of the novels "The Taking of Ishmael" and "Venus's Hair" confirms the author's idea that the speech of Shishkin's heroes, fixing the results of perceptual interaction with the surrounding world, often turns into poetic speech, the "content" of which becomes the art form itself. Shishkin's creativity, therefore, exists only at the intersection of the two trends mentioned above. The removal of the "thing - word" opposition (with the value predominance of the former) is possible only in the context of a conversation about the novel "The Letter Writer", which the author of the article considers as an artistic text created entirely in accordance with the task of preserving the individual experience of living.
Lin G. - Multiculturality as a Subject of the Image in the Collection of Short Stories “The Stars of Manchuria” by A. P. Hejdok pp. 65-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.1.69682

EDN: MGAZVQ

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the multicultural phenomenon of the short stories by the popular writer of the Harbin diaspora A. P. Hejdok, who published the collection “The Stars of Manchuria” in 1934. The author of the article analyzes in detail the events in the works, the behavioral priorities and mindset of the characters, which organically reflect the cultural elements of China, Russia, Mongolia, Egypt, Manchurian ethnic groups, as well as biblical plots. The emphasis is on analyzing the mysterious world of China through Buddhism and Taoism. During the research, the following short stories in the collection were mainly studied: “Three Duds” (1932), “The Manchu Princess” (1930), “Miami” (1931), “The Temple of Dreams” (1932), “The Unknown” (1931), “The Dogs Howl” (1929) and “The Path” (1931). The article uses descriptive, hermeneutic, comparative, historical-literary and historical-cultural methods to analyze the texts. The scientific novelty of this article lies in the fact that for the first time a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, including cultural, analysis of the short stories in the collection “The Stars of Manchuria” was carried out, details not touched upon in previously published works were examined, and based on the analysis of the multicultural phenomenon, the artistic method in the short stories is determined for the first time. The research resulted in the following conclusions: 1. Hejdok in the collection integrates various cultural details in his own way, which make the works expressive, engaging, and contribute to the development of the plot. 2. The multicultural phenomenon gives the short stories of the collection myth-making characteristics against the backdrop of historical reality. By combining realistic description and this cultural phenomenon, Hejdok creates a distinctive prose similar to magic realism, the appearance of which coincides with the beginning of the writer’s creative path.
Tsaregorodtseva S.S., Agenosov V.V., Lobacheva N.A., Pinaev S.M. - Genre transformations and stylistic "keys" of G.D. Grebenshchikov's ornamental prose pp. 66-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.38156

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the poetics of G.D. Grebenshchikov's novel "The Epic of Mikul Buyanovich", written during the years of emigration. The first edition of the novel took place in 1924. The article reflects the reception of critics of the Russian diaspora to this publication and to the authorized translation of 1940, which was published in the USA. The main hypothesis is that this novel can be correlated with Russian ornamental prose at the genre-style level, they are brought together by epic stylization, plot fragmentation, a large role of individual motifs when the text unfolds in the system of intertextual relations reflecting the mythologized worldview of the author.    Ornamental prose is an artistic and stylistic kind of verbal skill that combines the features of prose and poetry, therefore, linguopoetic and contextual analysis is used in the work. Taking into account that ornamental prose is a concept that is not correlated with a specific style, and ornamental fields are constantly modified depending on the author's artistic method, conclusions are drawn about the main stylistic "keys" and genre transformations of G.D. Grebenshchikov's novel "The Epic of Mikul Buyanovich". The renewal of the artistic language in the first half of the XX century was a characteristic phenomenon not only for modernist literary trends, but also for traditionalism, with which the aesthetic attitudes and artistic practice of G.D. Grebenshchikov can be correlated.
Ding Y. - Alienation as a trait of personality of doctors in literary works of A.P. Chekhov pp. 66-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.8.38637

EDN: RFQHXM

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify how alienation in the works of A.P. Chekhov is associated with the images of doctors. With the help of systematic, comparative-historical methods and the method of artistic analysis, the images of doctors in the stories "Wife" and "Enemies", in the play "Uncle Vanya" and other works were considered. Alienation, understood as the impossibility of full contact with other people, distance from society and from loved ones, loss of the ability to sympathize with other people's problems, was one of the most important motives for A.P. Chekhov, through the prism of which images of a variety of characters were perceived. In the context of the images of doctors, alienation acquired a special sound. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that it for the first time examines the images of doctors created by A.P. Chekhov in the context of alienation, reveals the influence of alienation on the personal and professional development of a doctor. The writer believes that a doctor has no right to experience alienation, to distance himself from people. Alienation is disastrous for a doctor and leads to his degradation as a person and a professional; he ceases to feel sympathy and loses the ability to help people by treating them physically and spiritually. The reason for alienation can be negative social factors: hard work, constant fatigue, material need. In the story "Enemies", A.P. Chekhov shows how alienation is born, in the play "Uncle Vanya" – how a doctor who has succumbed to alienation degrades. In the story "The Wife", Dr. Sobol relieves the alienation of the main character, engineer Asorin. The humanistic nature of the medical profession, according to the writer, cannot be combined with alienation.
Belyaeva T.N. - The Role of Folklore in the Formation of the Genre of the Satirical Novel (based on the Material of the Mari Literature of the First Third of the XX Century) pp. 66-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.12.39402

EDN: ZICFXI

Abstract: This article examines the problem of folklore and literature based on the material of the Mari national literature of the first third of the twentieth century. The subject of the study is the role of folklore traditions in the formation of the genre of the satirical novel. The influence of folklore images-characters, genres of oral folk art (fairy tale, proverb, saying, etc.), their poetics and stylistics on the process of formation of Mari national literature, on the birth of the first Mari satirical novel – N. V. Ignatiev's novel "Savik" is shown. In such a scientific and theoretical aspect, this work of Mari literature is being studied in regional and domestic literary studies for the first time. The research method is structural and semantic, which allows to see the comic component of a satirical novel at the level of both its genre content and its poetics. The article proves that it is the folklore genre and figurative intertext that contributes to the disclosure of the satirical problems of the novel "Savik"; the main satirical techniques and means in it are sarcasm, specific nomination of characters ("talking names"), "sounding" toponymy, parody, comic situation, exaggeration, specific speech techniques, etc., many of which they have a folklore basis. They play an essential role in the creation of a literary and artistic text, are integral components of its poetics and stylistics, are closely related to the author's ideas, the time and space depicted, the essence of the images created.
Mamukina G.I., Minova M.V., Markova A.S. - The struggle against arrogance as the underlying concept of the “The Nibelungenlied” pp. 67-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.36668

Abstract: The goal of this article consists in determination of the underlying concept and motif of the poem "The Nibelungenlied". For achieving the set goal, the author applies the strategy of "antiquarism" – refer to the values of the era of creation of the poem and substantiate its historical-cultural prerequisites. Leaning on the theoretical and historical poetics, the presence of the author is claimed as a category of text in the work of the eidetic era, which allows analyzing the artistic whole on the level of selection of lexical units, as well as comparing the characters based on the category of specularity as a structure-forming element. The conducted research reveals the pattern of the emergence and realization of the motive of struggle against arrogance as the underlying concept of the "The Nibelungenlied" common to all characters, which determines the plot and structure of the poem on different levels of artistic unity of the text. The strategy of "antiquarism" allowed analyzing "The Nibelungenlied" according to the views of the era of its creation, and extract the key motif of the poem as a significant aspect of human life of that time – the harmonious acceptance of the fate. “The Nibelungenlied” embodies the idea of struggle against haughtiness and arrogance, which is opposed to serving a noble calling and fulfilling a duty. Theoretical poetics indicates the shift in the mode of artistry (from heroic to tragic). The focus on historical poetics reveals the underlying concept of the poem, which is essential for structuring and completing the artistic whole in the eidetic era. Therefore, arrogance as the key motif of the poem is substantiated historically and textually.
Zhirkova M.A. - Christmas tales of H. C. Andersen “The Fir Tree” and A. I. Kuprin “The Life” in historical-literary dialogue pp. 68-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.5.30798

Abstract: This article presents a comparative analysis of the tales of H. C. Andersen “The Fir-Tree” and A. I. Kuprin “The Life. Both tales are based on the theme of Christmas, which celebration becomes the culmination in life of a fir tree; as well as have common elements – description of the life of trees in the forest, gathering of people, Christmas festivities. Tale by the Danish writer moves towards death, demise of the tree that can be considered as punishment for indifference and ambitiousness, inability to find joy in what is given by life. Kuprin’s story contradicts Andersen’s tradition, demonstrating a markedly different writer’s position – affirmation of life in contrast to death. Attention is focused on not only the plot, but also genre peculiarities of each composition. Tales are allegorical, they can be called the philosophical tales-parables, urging the reader to reasoning on their own life. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the text of A. I. Kuprin’s tale is being analyzed for the first time. It is viewed in related to the tradition set by Andersen’s tales, as a Christmas text. The article also determine the role of the late among the works of the writer.
Grigorian G. - Ivan Turgenev as Perceived by Heroes of Anton Chekhov's Early Works pp. 70-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30578

Abstract: The article is devoted to references to Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories. Being the closest predecessor, Turgenev had always been in the center of Chekhov's attention. Numerous remarks about Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories prove the great influence of Turgenev on Chekhov and how Chekhov's perception of Turgenev's literary legacy had been changing at different stages of Chekhov's creative path. Turgenev's image is always there in Chekhov's literary works. The heroes of Chekhov's early stories speak of him and so do the heroes of his late novels and plays. Thus, matter under research is Chekhov's early stories as the most representational within the framework of the research. The aim of the research is to define the role of references to Turgenev in Chekhov's works. In the course of his analysis, Grigoryan has used the following research methods: systems approach, description and comparison involving interpretation techniques. As a result of the research, Grigoryan states that in his early stories Chekhov described characters who either demonstrated their ignorance about the writer or assertedly defended Turgenev but were still unable to understand the important contribution of the writer. 
Kondrasheva E.V. - Love as a macroconcept of V. Tokareva's artistic conceptosphere (on the example of collections of works "Short Beeps", "About what did not happen", "To say – not to say...") pp. 70-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37635

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of love as the dominant concept of the artistic world by V. Tokareva on the material of the collections of the writer's works published by the publishing house "ABC-Atticus": "Short beeps" (2015), "To say – not to say ..." (2019), "About what did not happen" (2021). The purpose of this study is to examine the artistic world of the writer through the prism of the concept of "love". The solution of the following tasks contributes to the achievement of this goal: to explore the concept of "love" as a macro concept, to identify its most significant life-meaning landmarks, to analyze the structure of images that fill this concept with new content and meanings. The research methodology is based on conceptual and functional methods, there are elements of comparative and descriptive methods, component analysis of the text. The study found that the writer returns to the concept of "love" in short stories and novellas, exploring this feeling at different levels of human relationships; love for objects of the material world is considered. The macro concept "love" is the center of the writer's conceptual sphere. It is he who holds together the conceptual sphere of V. Tokareva and allows us to perceive the multifaceted art world as a single one. The writer's creativity from the point of view of the influence of artistic concepts on the formation of the conceptual sphere has been studied sporadically and requires further development. The results obtained in the course of the study can be used in the practice of university teaching of special courses dedicated to the artistic concept, as well as in conducting seminars on the history of Russian literature. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the proposed interpretation of the macro concept "love".
Sukhikh O.S. - Utopia and Dystopia as Two Facets of Artistic Reality in V. P. Krapivin's novel "Green's Ampoule" pp. 70-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38832

EDN: PSHXUO

Abstract: The object of literary analysis in this article is V. P. Krapivin's novel "Green's Ampoule", the subject of the study is the features of utopia and dystopia in the artistic world of this work. Its genre nature is complex and multifaceted, but the signs of utopia and dystopia, from the point of view of the author of the work, are clearly visible in the text. The study of social and moral-philosophical issues characteristic of the genres mentioned above is being conducted. The author also analyzes the features of the poetics of this work, which work to create images of dystopian and utopian worlds. The method of holistic analysis helps to identify the relationship between two toposes: Empire and the city of Insom – and features of two genres: dystopia and utopia.     The study of these genre components of "Ampoule Green" is conducted for the first time and allows us to come to the following conclusions. The image of the Empire, which is associated with the dystopian component of the novel, is the embodiment of totalitarianism, and the life of this country is marked by a deep contradiction of the interests of the individual and the state. The image of the Free City of Insk bears the features of utopia. Describing his life, the author uses the technique of breaking expectations. The assumptions of the reader and the hero playing the role of a traveler in a utopian world are motivated by patterns typical of a society that is far from ideal, and they are refuted by the reality of Insk, where goodness and harmony reign in human relations. It is not by chance that the novel presents the hypothesis that Insk arose from the materialized fantasy of children. If the image of the Empire has the features of the world of the beginning of the XXI century, when the novel was created, then the image of Insk is replete with details related to the past. It is natural to assume that dystopian features for the author are embodied in the present, and utopian – in the past, in the memories and impressions of childhood, that is, the world of adulthood is represented as dystopian, and the world of childhood is represented as utopian.
Arzhantñeva K. - “Pinteresque” as an artistic method. The Theatre Of Harold Pinter pp. 71-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.31232

Abstract: Harold Pinter is a prominent theater reformer and creator of the unique style, which in criticism received a name of “Pinteresque” that plays on the playwright’s last name and artistic distinctness of his works. The subject of this article is the examination of “Pinteresque” as a special form of drama created by H. Pinter. Attention is given to the impact of Franz Kafka on the artistic method of Harold Pinter, which manifests in creation of the characters, as well as in general philosophical concept. The novelty of this work is defined by the reference to the phenomenon of “Pinteresque” as a method of realization of peculiarities of artistic method of the playwright. As a result, the author reveals the principles that comprise and define the simultaneously real and absurd world of H. Pinter’s plays, when the human is daily overcast with a treat, origins of which remain outside of their understanding, and violence takes place to which they have to nothing oppose.
Wang C. - On the reasons for the removal of A.T. Tvardovsky from the position of head of the editorial office of the magazine “New World” pp. 74-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.2.69785

EDN: AJVXJA

Abstract: The subject of the article is the activities of the “New World” journal in the 1950-1960s. The author examines the role of the magazine at the beginning of the reform of Russian literature; the position of the editor-in-chief of “New World” regarding the function of literature designed to reflect reality; the reasons why A. Tvardovsky was removed from the post of editorial director. The work indicates that A. Tvardovsky served as editor-in-chief of the “New World” for 16 years, but during his career he faced dismissal twice. The article reflects the direction and main ideas of liberal thought of the New World magazine, which in the 1950s and 1960s was under the leadership of the editor-in-chief A. Tvardovsky. When studying the problems associated with the magazine’s position on the need to provide literary creativity with a certain freedom. When considering the activities of the magazine and its editor in certain historical and sociocultural conditions, a comparative historical method was used. The main conclusion of the study is that A. Tvardovsky, through his activities as editor-in-chief of the publication “New World” and his principled position on the freedom of literary creativity, made it possible to outline the beginning of the Thaw period in the Soviet literary process. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the article systematizes information about the reasons for the removal of A. Tvardovsky from the post of editorial director and proves the role of the periodical in question in the process of making a turn in Russian literature towards the realistic tradition. A. Tvardovsky even published those works that were rejected by other leading journals due to the discrepancy between the author’s ideas and the ideas of the ruling party.
Petisheva V. - Under the protection of the 108 psalm. ("The Little Man" in the novels of Leonid Leonov) pp. 75-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.4.36532

Abstract: The subject of a special study is the consideration of various approaches to depicting the lives of socially humiliated characters. The appearance of "little people" in the works of writers of the XIX-XX centuries. literary critics were inclined to explain the "terrible reality of Nikolayev Russia", the "social atmosphere", which determined the characteristic features of a person who found himself under the influence of difficult circumstances, life contradictions. This is a disenfranchised person who is powerless before life and its circumstances. This is a "small" person in social terms, an "inconspicuous" hero who is forced to live on the lower floor of the public pyramid. The "little man" is not devoid of spiritual, moral and humanistic principles, so writers began to give them a place in their works. With each subsequent work, the life of people of the "lower" class manifested itself in new interpretations. The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the realities of the time, by the fact that in modern conditions the topic of the "little man" is topical. The purpose of the work is to trace the evolution of the theme of "little man" in the works of Russian writers of the XIX – first decades of the XX century, as well as the relationship of the concepts of "little man" – "righteous man". The object of research is the works of A. Pushkin, N. Gogol, F. Dostoevsky, L. Leonov. The subject of the study is the image of the "little man" as a type of literary hero in Russian literature of the XIX–XX centuries. The most accurate methodological basis of the work was the works of famous Russian scientists, such as K. Mochulsky, A. Gazizova, A. Stepanov, etc., the methods of research are comparative-typological and cultural-historical. The main conclusion of the conducted research is the proof that in every epoch there were, there are and will be "little people" who often turn out to be morally superior to people who occupy the best position in society; the concepts of "little people" – "poor people" are distinguished, the author's attitude to the synonymous or antonymous series "little" ("poor") a hero, a righteous hero.
Wei X. - How to distinguish drunk from hungry? (To the interpretation of N.A. Nekrasov's poem "Philanthropist") pp. 75-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.38087

Abstract: N.A. Nekrasov's poem "The Philanthropist" (1853) remains poorly studied. Soviet literary critics paid attention primarily to the dating of the work, the prototype of its character, and the creation of a real commentary on the text. Speaking about the content of the text, researchers (both Soviet and generally post-Soviet) see the poem as a satire either on the famous writer, educator and philanthropist Prince V.F. Odoevsky, or on philanthropy, charity in general. Such an understanding of the author's idea seems superficial and incorrect, based on a priori ideas about Nekrasov's "revolutionary" views. This article proposes a new reading of the poem as describing the impossibility for a person to go beyond the class relations that permeate the entire social life of Russia in the 19th century. The comparative-historical approach, methods of generalization, interpretation were used in the study. At the same time, as the analysis given in the article shows, the very idea of charity is not questioned or denounced by Nekrasov. The conclusions of the article are confirmed by comparing the poem "Philanthropist" with the works of N.V. Gogol ("Overcoat") and F.M. Dostoevsky ("Poor People"), in which there are episodes close to the central "scene" of "Philanthropist". This comparison allows us to show in particular how original Nekrasov interprets the plot, which has become almost "archetypal" for Russian literature of the mid-19th century: the collision of a "little man" with an angry "important person".
Tyunyaeva O.D. - “American-Style Man of Real Action”: the Image of Vasily Solomin in I. S. Turgenev’ Novel “Virgin Soil”. pp. 75-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.2.39719

EDN: DUFXEE

Abstract: The article focuses on the American topic in Turgenev's works. The rise of the diverse image of America drawn by Turgenev is shown in vast framework of what generally was thought about the New World in middle of XIXth century Russia. The author shows certain intersections that existed between the Russian Empire and the United States in the XIXth century, which determines the interest of these countries in each other. Turgenev's interest in the literature and culture of the United States was due not only to the personal tastes of the writer, but also to the general enthusiasm for the New World in Russian society of that time. The main point is the character of “postepenovets” Solomin from the novel Virgin soil. This character comprises several aspects of the major idea of a typical American shared by Russian society in XIXth century. The profound analysis of this last Turgenev's novel lets us to state that the American narrative interests Turgenev due to the new concept of developing Russia from below. Solomin, an American-style "man of real business" is shown like a hero, who can act in the prevailing historical conditions in Russia.
Okulova T.N. - Chapters of Russian Journalism History of the Last Third of the XVIIth Century: On the Way to the XIXth Century pp. 76-85

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27148

Abstract: In her research Okulova analyzes selected chapters of the journalism history of the last third of the XVIIIth century. She provides a general description of several 'passing-through' journalistic themes that help to better understand what caused the shift in the public conscience that happened in 1770 - 1780 and was vividly expressed in the new Russian literature that was going from European influences to the true historical and cultural independency. In her research Okulova has also made an attempt to outline the effect of a number of national ideas that could be found in Russian journals of the last third of the XVIIIth century and the Patriotic War of 1812. The research methods used by the author include historicism, multi-faceted approach to evaluation of the historical literary process, socio-cultural method, and dialectical principle of research that views research subjects in process. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes a number of national ideas and Russian journalism themes of the last third of the XVIIIth century which allows a better view of the process of the new Russian literature of those times becoming mature and ideological. The peculiarity of this article is also the fact that it presents an attempt to trace back the ideas of Russian journalism of the last third of the XVIIIth century and Russian literature of the first fourth of the XIXth century that played a significant rolefor the formation of the Russian national identity. For many years this historical and literary aspect (as well as a great number of terms and definitions presented in this article) has been left without research. The results of this research create a more complete view of the Russian journalism history and Russian literature of the XVIIIth - XIXth centuries in general. 
Pokhalenkov O.E. - The Comparative Analysis of the Image of the "German-Nazi" in the German Literature about the Second World War pp. 77-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.7.40130

EDN: TMENVW

Abstract: In the presented work, the author examines the German-language prose about the Second World War. The comparative analysis is carried out on the material of the novel by one of the most famous German prose writers and anti-fascist writers "Time to live and a Time to Die" by Erich Maria Remarque and the novel by the modern German prose writer Uwe Timm "By the example of my brother". The object of the study is the poetics of the above-mentioned works in a comparative aspect. The subject is the realization of the central image of the work - the image of a "German-Nazi" who is a participant in the Eastern campaign. The author dwells in detail on the realization of the image, including in the analysis the image of the artistic space of works and the motivic system. The main conclusion of the study is based on a different approach to the interpretation of the image of the "German-Nazi" by Remarque and Timm. In his novel, Remarque clearly points to the guilt of his compatriots in unleashing war and mass killings of civilians. The image of a "German-Nazi" is associated with the image of an ideological enemy. The modern German author adheres to a different point of view, which, in many respects, is based on his personal experience, because the hero of the novel is the writer's brother. The image of a "German-Nazi" in his work correlates with the image of a lost German who believed patriotic rhetoric and carried out an order.
Zakharova E.M. - Principles of V.S. Solovyov's Positive Aesthetics in I.B. Rodnyanskaya's Literary criticism pp. 77-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.36607

EDN: HEBJEC

Abstract: In the most complete collection of I.B. Rodnyanskaya's works, The Movement of Literature, the name of V.S. Solovyov appears more than 50 times in different contexts. The influence of the founder of philosophical criticism on the strengthening of this direction in Rodnyanskaya's works is provided both by theoretical and methodological works ("Beauty in Nature", "The General Meaning of Art", "The First Step to Positive Aesthetics", etc.) and by private literary and critical observations ("The Fate of Pushkin", "Poetry of F.I. Tyutchev", "Buddhist mood in Poetry", etc.). The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze those principles of positive aesthetics that have most influenced Rodnyanskaya's critical method.     The absence of a holistic teaching about aesthetics in Solovyov did not prevent the fact that the basic principles were used by Rodnyanskaya in private literary and critical observations. The main conclusions of the study are the data that allow us to talk about the rapprochement of Rodnyanskaya and Solovyov not only at the level of methodology, but also in the aspect of the poetics of literary and critical utterance. Common to Solovyov and Rodnyanskaya should be considered the plot, which consists in solving a problem related to the sphere of spirituality or, in a narrow sense, with the study of the artist's soul. The works of representatives of the philosophical direction of criticism are distinguished by the presence of two time layers.
Mohammadi Z. - Lermontov’s “Death of the Poet” in Persian language: extralinguistic difficulties of translation and level of equivalence with the original pp. 78-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.6.31318

Abstract: The goal of this article is the analysis of Persian translation of Lermontov’s poem “Death of the Poet” and assessment of the level of equivalence of translation with the original. Based on the Theory of Translation Equivalence Level developed by V. N. Komissarov, the author explores extralinguistic (mainly cultural) difficulties occurred in the process of translating Lermontov’s poem into Persian language. It is hard to convey an idea of cultural events and realities of the Russian literary life to the Iranian audience. Social and public life of Russia of the XIX century is also inscrutable and unfamiliar for an Iranian reader. Non-acquaintance with the history of literary life of the XIX century also complicates the task of a translator of Lermontov’s poetry. The article explores the Persian translation of Lermontov’s poem from the perspective of the theory of equivalence, and analyzes the extralinguistic difficulties occurred in the process of translating to Persian language. Despite all difficulties, which first and foremost relate to the cultural concepts and social events, the linguistic capabilities of Persian language and command of the Russian and Persian languages the translator allows reaching high level of translation equivalence with the original. It may be said that Persian translation of “Death of the Poet” is equivalent with the Russian version on the level of message, and at times, on the level of linguistic signs.
Kolyagina T.Y. - The characters of Eremey Aipin is pursuit of identity (based on the novel “In Search of the Primordial Land”) pp. 78-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36826

Abstract: The subject of this article is the problem of identity of the characters in the novel “In Search of the Primordial Land” by the regional Khanty writer Eremey Aipin. The goal is to describe the key vectors of reflections of the main characters on personal and national identity. The author aims to analyze the path of spiritual and social becoming, as well as finding true identity in the world and society of the protagonists of the novel — “man of the kin” Matvey Taishin and the hero “without kith or kin” Roman Romanov. The study leans on the interdisciplinary comprehensive approach, with the use of cultural-historical, typological, ethno-cultural, axiological and imagological methods of analysis. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the characters of the literary work from the perspective of their identity and identification. Analysis is conducted on the two ways of finding true identity by the characters in the small and big world. Path of “man of the kin” is the cognition of capabilities of staying in the world, strengthening of inviolable faith as the essential link in the chain of life, nature, Cosmos, and humanity. Path of the hero “without kith or kin” is a series of initiations (according to V. Y. Propp), as a result of which he gradually assimilates to the “earthly world”, having acquired the experience of merging with society. It is proven that solution of the questions on personal, social and national identity of the characters of the novel is interrelated with the author's traditionalistic worldview. The conclusion is made that in a crisis historical situation, the characters of the novel intuitively tilt towards ancient cultural memory of humanity, seeing its as a basis for reconstruction of identity.
Nasr M.T. - Literary hero in modern Russian intellectual novel of the XXI century pp. 78-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.37224

Abstract: The subject of this article is the specificity of modern Russian intellectual novel by Andrey Astvatsaturov  “Do not Feed or Touch the Pelicans”. Analysis is conducted on the role of this work in modern literary process. The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that the intellectual literature of the XXI century raises same questions that were asked by the writers of previous eras, but modern Russian intellectual novel marks certain contradictions that distinguish it from this genre variety of the past years. It worth noting that the intellectual novel as a genre features conceptuality of the text, literary experiments with the text, active engagement of the audience in the text, intertextuality, mythopoeia, and stylistic abundance. The article illustrates the development stages of modern Russian intellectual novel. The acquired results are of practical importance and can be applied in writing course projects on the history of modern literature, as well as in university lectures dedicated to modern literary authors. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. The role of the novel “Do not Feed or Touch the Pelicans” by Andrey Astvatsaturov in modern literary process is on the boundary of postmodernism and digimodernism, as it has many features of postmodern works, and the protagonist lives in his own isolated digiworld. Alongside many other works, this novel is created at the intersection of genres.   2. The text of the novel features of a range of characteristics of intellectual novel as a genre: conceptuality of the text, literary experiments with the text, active engagement of the audience in the text, intertextuality, mythopoeia, and stylistic abundance.   3. The structure of the literary hero of A. Asvatsaturov is the recurrent personality traits, which make him stand out among other heroes of the novel              
Öçèíü Ë. - Comparative-semantic analysis of the adverb of time frequency in the Chinese and Russian languages pp. 80-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.7.36030

Abstract: This article presents a comparative research of adverbs with the meaning of time in the Russian and Chinese languages. Analysis is conducted on the adverb of time in the Russian languages; characteristic is given to macro- and micro-aspects. Macro-description is an attempt to determine and classify the adverbs of time. Micro-aspect, first and foremost, implies semantic analysis of a specific adverb of time. The subject of this research is the adverb of time ‘always’ in the Russian language in comparison with the corresponding adverb in the Chinese language. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of semantic characteristics and variables that depend on the semantics of grammatical and pragmatic characteristics of the adverb of time frequency “always” in the Russian as compared to the Chinese language. The scientific novelty lies in description of the macro- and micro- aspects, identification of semantic and compatible characteristics of the adverb of time frequency ‘always ' in the Russian languahe in comparison with the corresponding adverb in the Chinese — 总是 [zong shi]. The acquired results indicate that the use of the adverb ‘always’ with the meaning of continuity or frequency requires fulfilling certain conditions. This article can be valuable in further research on the topic, in theory and practice of translation, as well as in teaching Russian as a foreign language to the Chinese students.
Gong H. - Li Qingzhao and A.P. Bunina: the complicated fates of women's poetry pp. 81-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.8.36313

Abstract: Despite the fact that Li Qingzhao and Anna Petrovna Bunina were not related either geographically or temporally, contemporaries called them Chinese and Russian Sappho. The reason for this was the consonance of their poems to the lyrics of the ancient Greek poetess, the sensuality of the poems they wrote, as well as their independent position, not typical for women of their eras. This article is devoted to comparing the biographies of two outstanding poetesses, each of whom is considered the founder of women's poetry in her own country. Despite the fame of both poetesses and their status as pioneers of women's literature, their work is compared almost for the first time. In addition to their high social status and good education, both poetesses are connected by the fact that their destinies violated the traditional canon of women's behavior: instead of patriarchal family life, they chose self-realization in creativity. The exclusivity of their position, which put them in the focus of public attention and made them pariahs in their own way, on the other hand, gave freedom of choice of issues and artistic language. This allowed them to become the founders of women's poetry, to develop their own artistic manner. It is this circumstance that typologically brings together the work of two poetesses, separated from each other by eight centuries. The subject matter of their work is surprisingly similar, but the imagery is completely different, because it is conditioned by the literary tradition of each country.
Kudryashov I.V. - To the question of prophetic nature of Nikolai Klyuev’s poetry pp. 83-91

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33681

Abstract: The subject of this research is the prophetic nature Nikolai Klyuev’s poetry. Publicistic and partially scientific literature holds a view, according to which the origins of poetic gift of prophecy of Nikolai Klyuev take roots in his extraordinary personality with certain occult knowledge that enables him to foresee the future national catastrophes. The myth on N. Klyuev, formed within public consciousness, is based on the lack of study of the peculiarities of ethical-philosophical views of the poet, who creatively embraced the rich traditions of national mythology, folklore and Ancient Rus’ culture. Leaning on the systemic analysis of artistic heritage of N. Klyuev, the author provides a new interpretation of the prophetic verses of the poet as the worldview specificities of the poet of 1920s – 1930s. The conclusion is made that numerous apocalyptic motifs and images in the poetry of N. A. Klyuev, which at the present time are perceived as prophetic, were generated by his ideology of incompatibility of civilization and culture, in their confrontation that started back in XVII century, at the time of schism of the Russian Orthodox Church, and aggravated in 1920’s – 1930’s. The poet understood civilization as repressive phenomenon that came to Rus’ from the West. Infiltration of an alien to Russia Western civilization that disrupts the identity of national culture, inevitably leads the country to a catastrophe. According to Klyuev, the tragedy of the XX century is  a destruction of the traditional national principles, followed by the imminent demise of the entire Russian world, and later of all mankind. Vast knowledge on the foundations and patterns of national life allowed the poet to look through decades into the future of Russia.
Mysovskikh L.O. - Existential type of artistic consciousness:
genesis and ways of development in the literature of the XIX century
pp. 83-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.4.37521

Abstract: The article traces the origins of existentialism on the examples of writers and philosophers of the XIX century. The history of the study of the category «artistic consciousness» and the category «existential consciousness» is considered. The theoretical substantiation of the concepts of «artistic consciousness» and «existential consciousness» is proposed. The terms «existential» and «existentialist» are distinguished. The term «existential» is applied to writers and philosophers of the XIX century. S. Kierkegaard, M. Lermontov, F. Tyutchev, A. Schopenhauer, F. Dostoevsky, L. Tolstoy, A. Chekhov, F. Nietzsche are represented as existential writers. It shows the path that existential consciousness took in literature in the XIX century from Kierkegaard's «Knight of Faith» to Nietzsche's «Antichrist». The author makes an assumption about the existence of an existential type of artistic consciousness, considered as a type of artistic and aesthetic interaction of a person with the world, expressed in artistic creativity. It is suggested that in the twentieth century, the existential consciousness of a free person who found himself in a world where «God died» fell into an enchanted circle of absurdity. The opposite approach, considering human freedom as a gift from God, suggests using it in the name of creative improvement. Such a path leads to harmony with God, elevating the human creator to the role of a co-author of Divine creativity. Only this way is able to bring existential consciousness out of the dead end of the absurd.
Chernikova N. - Bulgaria in the Life and Work of YU.V. Trifonov pp. 83-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38838

EDN: PWAWYE

Abstract: The article is devoted to the work of Yu.V. Trifonov in Bulgarian Russian studies, as well as some periods of the author's life that link his fate with Bulgaria. The article presents translations of the works into Bulgarian, as well as the names of those who popularized the author's work in Bulgaria. In connection with translation reception, periods of reader activity are highlighted, and interest in the work of the writer is revealed in certain years. The principles of evaluating the work of a writer in humanitarian thought are discussed. The translation of the author of the article contains the most typical excerpts from the statements of Bulgarian writers about Trifonov: many of the Bulgarian researchers mentioned in the article knew the writer personally and share their memories of meeting with him. Scientists are looking for different approaches to the study of Trifonov's work. The writer's prose becomes the object of research in related fields of scientific knowledge: sociology and journalism. An interview with Trifonov, given to Bulgarian journalists at the Varna Film Festival and previously published only in Bulgarian, is quoted. In the interview, the topics and problems of the author's prose are discussed. In addition, the heroes and famous works of the writer in Bulgaria are analysed. The essay "The smallest city", which has an autobiographical character, is analyzed; the work combines the image of a personal tragedy (its biographical basis is a trip to Bulgaria with his daughter after the death of his wife) and a detailed description of the culture of Bulgaria and the mentality of the Bulgarian people. The article reveals the importance of the "Bulgarian period" in Trifonov's work, shows that Bulgaria is becoming for the author an integral part of his creative path.
Lamzina A.V. - To the problem of reception of Shakespearean motifs in dramaturgy of Anna Akhmatova pp. 84-91

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.33685

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Shakespearean motifs in dramatic compositions of Anna Akhmatova. The research material contains the works of later period – draft of a movie script “On Pilots, or the Blind Mother”, and drama “Enūma Eliš”, which was destroyed and later restored by the author with numerous authorial commentaries and remarks. Akhmatova carefully examined the “Shakespeare question”, was familiar with his texts in the original, as well as translated a passage from “Macbeth”. She was well-versed in the historical connotations of Shakespeare's tragedies, considering Mary Stuart the prototype of Queen Gertrude and Lady Macbeth, and at the same time, rejected this image applicable to herself and her “alter ego” in literature. The main conclusions of this work consists in determination of the peculiar semantic tone of the set of motifs associated with “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” in dramaturgy of Anna Akhmatova, which includes: usurpation of power and envy of the rightful heir, mother – son conflict projected not only on Shakespeare's dramaturgy, but also on mythology, and through mythology on the author's poetry, motif of “drama within drama”, where masks and pseudonyms disguise the inward nature of the author. The direct and indirect quotations from “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” correlates the indicated set of motifs with biography of the author in “On the Pilots, or the Blind Mother” and “Enūma Eliš”, which substantiates the novelty of this research.
Darbasova S.D., Egorova S.I. - The works of A. E. Kulakovsky in the assessment of Yakut literary criticism of the 1920s pp. 84-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.1.34766

Abstract: This research examines critical reviews of 1920s dedicated to the analysis of literary works of the founder of Yakut literature A. E. Kulakovsky on the basis of historical-culturological approach. Previously undiscovered materials of the periodical press of that time alongside systematization of the analyzed material of literary criticism reveals the perception of literary works of the poet by the critics and writers of the incipient Yakut literature. An attempt the critical analysis of the material is conducted in the context of the impact of epoch, mentality of Sakha people, and prevalent ideology upon the criticism of literary works. The opinions in the works of critics and writers are dictated by the cultural-historical and sociopolitical situation in the country, when young Yakut literary criticism embarks on a contradictory path of transition from the field of literary studies to political struggle. The relevance of the topic is defined by insufficiency of research dedicated to the assessment of criticism of the period of establishment of Yakut literature, namely the works of A. E. Kulakovsky. The article presents the previously unpublished critical reviews, as well as the articles that were not included in the biobibliographic index of A. E. Kulakovsky. Research in this field complement the materials on the history of development of Yakut literary criticism in the context of studying artistic and scientific heritage of A. E. Kulakovsky.
Nechaeva A.L. - The relations of the World and the Other in A. Nikolaenko's novel "To Kill Bobrykin. The story of a murder" pp. 84-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.36780

EDN: HMNSSZ

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of the total failure of the dialogue between the world and the Other in A. Nikolaenko's novel "To Kill Bobrykin. The story of a murder." Special attention is paid to the signs of this distorted dialogue, through which the image of the main character is broadcast and the image of the world is deconstructed, adapting to the distorted human consciousness. The author discusses the causes of global chaos, which lie in the existence of all who are united by the artistic space of the novel. The world "here" and the world "there" are subjected to a detailed analysis, the interaction of these worlds in the work. Apocalyptic motives are also considered, which critics associate with the image of the end of the Soviet era, longing for the obsolete. The work of A. Nikolaenko reflects a steady tendency to depict the Other in modern literature. The image of the protagonist of Sasha Shishin's work demonstrates the inconsistency and instability of the world, which, together with the hero, is at a crossroads. The relations of the world and the Other in Nikolaenko's novel end at the point of misunderstanding and are built on the principle of the deployment of the motive of destruction. The dialogue in the world of "there" is bizarre and illusory, in the world of "here" it is absent. According to Nikolaenko, the world is totally destroyed, along with human consciousness. The deconstruction of reality becomes evidence of a world disorder in which God is dead, and a small person is not able to become one. The inability to fully live in reality is the only way for a person to exist in the world "here".
Nefedova N.I. - The Image of Buenos Aires in Oksana Chernyavskaya's book «What is Argentina, or the Logic of Absurdity» pp. 84-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.38178

Abstract: Domestic literary studies increasingly pay attention to modern literature in Russian created outside our country. These corpus of texts is often called «Russian-language literature», «literature in Russian» or «Russophone literature». Hence, this paper is based on the work of Oksana Chernyavskaya, an author who lives in Argentina, but writes in Russian. Notably, this author's works are virtually understudied at the moment. The research deals with the image of Buenos Aires, described in the book «What is Argentina, or the Logic of Absurdity» by Oksana Chernyavskaya. The study employs the methods of literary and comparative analysis. Based on the study of works by Russian and foreign scholars devoted to the image of Buenos Aires in the works of Latin American writers, as well as the book by O. Chernyavskaya the conclusion is made that the portrayal of the Argentinean capital in the book in Russian partially coincides with the image of Buenos Aires in the Latin American poetry and prose of the XX century. The text by O. Chernyavskaya also contains the image of Buenos Aires as seen by tourists and immigrants. The image of the capital is created also through the North/South and capital/ provincial dichotomies. Findings of this research can be used by students and teachers in schools, specialized secondary schools and higher educational institutions, where contemporary Russian literature (literature in Russian of the XXI century) is studied.
Mysovskikh L.O. - Existential and psychological grounds of criminal behavior of the heroes of Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Dostoevsky pp. 84-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.7.38571

EDN: TMGBZT

Abstract: In the article, through the prism of the philosophy of existentialism and social psychology, the prerequisites of the criminal behavior of the main characters of the novels by Mikhail Lermontov "Hero of Our Time" and Fyodor Dostoevsky "Crime and Punishment" – Grigory Pechorin and Rodion Raskolnikov are investigated. The author of the article claims that the reasons for the criminal behavior of both Pechorin and Raskolnikov are intrapersonal. However, the personal characteristics of an individual are formed under the influence of the society in which he exists, which is demonstrated by the example of the main characters of the novels of Lermontov and Dostoevsky. Thus, the article clearly shows the main principle of the philosophy of existentialism in action: the existence of a person precedes his essence.   The author of the article comes to the conclusion that Pechorin and Raskolnikov have many similar character traits, and the main difference between them lies in the social status of the characters. In both novels, the writers decry the vices of Russian class society. The author of the article summarizes that from the point of view of religious existentialism, Pechorin's fate is much more gloomy than Raskolnikov's fate, since Pechorin's soul is taken away by an all-consuming nothingness, while Raskolnikov's soul gets a chance for salvation. Dostoevsky's heroes always have hope, because God shows them the way by which a person can come to grace. This is where the main difference between Lermontov and Dostoevsky lies.
Oktyabr'skaya O.S. - The genre of the holiday story in the literature of the XXI century for children and teenagers pp. 84-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.2.69802

EDN: GAWXAE

Abstract: The article explores the genre features of a vacation literature about a children's health camp of the late XX – early XXI centuries. Both the traditions of the story about the pioneer camp of the twentieth century and the original features of modern literature for children and adolescents are revealed. The article actualizes the topics of the relationship between adolescents and children in a new team, the problems of growing up and socialization. A fairly extensive typology of child and adolescent characters relevant to modern reality is presented. The significance and importance of this article is due to the importance of the problems posed, as well as modern and practically unexplored research material, which are the works of V. Krapivin, T. Kryukova, M. Panteleeva, T. Mikheeva, etc., which are only included in scientific circulation. To understand these aspects, the following research methods are used in the article: comparative, hermeneutical and comparative typological methods. With the help of a systematic approach, an analytical study of the ways of communication between children and adolescents, their socialization and self-realization in a vacation story is provided. The main result of this work is the study of different types of characters of children and adults, ways of their interaction and ways of self-realization. The study of practically new and little-studied artistic material that arouses genuine interest among teenagers themselves becomes relevant in this article. At the same time, the following tasks were solved: identifying key aspects of growing up and socialization of a child / teenager; analyzing the relationships of children in the novels of V. Krapivin, T. Kryukova, M. Panteleeva, T. Mikheeva and other writers; determining the features of the development of the main storylines and the imaginative system of the analyzed stories, as well as the genre originality of the works under study. The key aspects of the article were questions about the genre nature of the stories, the typology of child and adolescent characters, and the moral aspects of growing up a child.
Kikteva K.D. - The Myth about Don Juan in Jose Zorrilla's Legends pp. 86-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27217

Abstract: The subject of the research is the myth about Don Juan in the legends of a Spanish writer Jose Zorrilla. The aim of the article is to prove that the image of a mocker and seducer who stands above the society appeared in Zorrilla's creative writing before the drama 'Don Juan Tenorio' was staged (1844), in particular, in the legends 'El capitán Montoya' and 'Margarita la tornera' (1840-1841) in which Kikteva finds obvious parallels to Don Juan Tenorio. These works demonstrate the writer's reflection over the image and is an important milestone in the history of myth interpretation in Spanish literature. The research methodology is based on the comparative anlaysis of texts created as part of a single writing tradition. To explain the changes of the image within different literary schools (in this research the author mentions Spanish romanticism and Baroque), the researcher has applied the method of historical and cultural researsch. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher refers to the interpretations of the myth of Don Juan that are understudied in Russian literary studied. The main conclusion of the research is the continuity between the figure of Don Juan Tenorio outlined in Zoprrilla's religious fantastic drama and images of seducers that had appeared in the creative writing of a playwright few years earlier. Establishing his own formula to describe components of the myth about Don Juan, the author proves that the relation of this myth to the images of mockers from Zorrilla's legends.   
Markova A.S. - Transculturalism and transcultural symbol of the blue flower pp. 86-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.6.35760

Abstract: This article examines the problem of determining transculturalism as an independent supracultural phenomenon, the cognition of which requires the aesthetic subject adopt an attitude of outsideness and holistic consciousness. Transculturalism is described a specific cultural model that can represent transcultural symbols. Based on the image of the blue flower, the author examines transcultural symbol as a phenomenon with mythical basis, which is being formed through ceaseless process of cultural transfer. For determining transculturalism as an independent phenomenon, the author analyzes modern definitions presented in the scientific discourse and compares them with the definition of transculturalism given by M. N. Epstein. The formation of transcultural symbol is described via genetic method and from the perspective of the process of cultural transfer (M. Espagne). This article proves M. N. Epstein's theory on perception of transculturalism as a specific cultural model, a supracultural phenomenon. The author explores the peculiarities of development of transcultural symbol,  and provides the examples of variation of this symbol are given (using the image of the blue flower in the English-language literary discourse). This work contributes to the understanding of transculturalism as a supracultural, universal, national, and holistic phenomenon. In modern world, such definition of transculturism is essential for conducting cross-cultural dialogue and maintaining respectful attitude towards national code. Using the example of the blue flower, the author reviews the variations of transcultural symbol in the English-language literature; analyzes the contest of paradigms, peculiarities of the palimpsest of this image, overcoming the stereotypes of perception and transitioning through cultural space; finds the reflection of the idea of universality underlying the poetology of Novalis.
Poulaki P. - Analysis of Translations of Mikhail Sholokhov's Novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian Language (the Case Study of Behazin's and A. Shamlu's Texts) pp. 87-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30380

Abstract: This is the first article to tell the story of translation of Mikhail Sholokov's novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian language and give a comparative analysis of two main translations of the novel, by M. Etemadzade (Behazin) and A. Shamlu who presented two opposite approaches to translation, ideological and linguistic. The author of the article analyzes the first translation of the novel The Silent Don in Farsi made by a major Iranian translator Behazin in 1965 against the Iran socio-political situation of the 1960s and describes pluses and minuses of his translation. Special attention is paid to the translation of 'The Silent Don' in the translation of a famous translator and poet A. Shamlu and response of the Iranian readers to it. Following the 'domestication' translation strategy and trying to demonstrate the treasure of the Persian language, Shamlu devoted seven years to the translation and wrote a true master-piece of Persian literature. 
Kudryashov I.V. - Gleb Uspensky on the national spirituality (based on the material of the cycle “Sketches of the Transitional Period” pp. 87-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33658

Abstract: Based on Gleb Uspensky’s cycle “Sketches of the Transitional Period”, this article analyzes the ethical-philosophical views of the writer upon national spirituality, Russian world and its future. Uspensky believed that the great mission of Russia consists in the desire to become a unifying spiritual center for the entire world civilization. However, due to its location in-between the West and the East. Russia is spiritually dying, and along with it in the global chaos and hostility of Western and Eastern civilizations, dies all of humanity. Russia’s position within the spiritual confrontation of East and West, the writer describes as "uncertain": Russia wants but is not able to impede the imminent spiritual demise of humanity. Such "uncertainty" contains the spiritual tragedy of Russia itself, which appears to be in a questionable situation with regards to its world goals and objectives. This article suggests a new approach towards understanding the cycle of G. I. Uspensky “Sketches of the Transitional Period”, based on peculiarity of his philosophical and ethical views associated with the idea of Russian messianism, its specialness in the context of the confrontation of Western and Eastern civilizations. The conducted systemic analysis of the cycle “Sketches of the Transitional Period” demonstrated that Uspensky comprehensively reflected the own understanding of spiritual tragedy of the Russian life, founded on a deep insight into the surrounding post-reform Russian reality of the 1850s-1880s. The revealed specificity of Uspensky’s worldview opens a new perspective for an overall scientific assessment of the later period of his works.
Isaeva L.F., Popova L.G. - Explication of the Central Features of the Concept of "Fidelity" in German and Russian Literary Texts pp. 87-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.10.38955

EDN: FYSGRE

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to identify and establish common and distinctive central features of the concept of "fidelity" based on the materials of German and Russian literary texts of the first half of the twentieth century. The object of the study are lexemes representing the value representation of the linguistic and cultural concept of "fidelity" in the Russian and German languages. The subject of the proposed research is the lexical and semantic explication of the conceptual component of the concept of "fidelity" in German and Russian literary texts, the direction of realism in the first half of the twentieth century. The study used such methods as: definitional analysis, component analysis, comparative method, as well as the reception of quantitative calculations. In the work, as a scientific novelty, it is proposed to study for the first time the verbalization of the conceptual component of the concept of "fidelity" on the material of literary texts in a comparative aspect. The analysis allows us to conclude that the conceptual component of the concept can be verbally represented in the form of synonyms of nuclear lexemes, which, according to their meanings, can represent the center and periphery of the concept. Also, as a result of the conducted research, the presence of distinctive central conceptual signs of loyalty was determined, namely: in German literary texts, it is devotion and affection, and in Russian texts - constancy.
Liu Y. - Transformation of Yuri Kazakov's Prose translated by Fei Qin into Chinese pp. 89-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.5.40695

EDN: WFKKMN

Abstract: The subject of the study is the features of the reception of Yu. P. Kazakov's prose in China. Translations of Kazakov's prose into Chinese have not yet been discussed in science, which determines the novelty of the proposed study. In general, the transformation of the Russian literary text, which takes place when translated into Chinese, has been the subject of active study in recent years, and the relevance of the subject of the article is connected with this.The object of the study is translations of Kazakov's works made by Fei Qin, who most consistently turned to his texts in China. The article draws on the data of Fei Qin's biography, uses historical and literary approaches, as well as elements of linguopoetic analysis to solve comparative problems. Russian writer Fei Qin (1927-1994)'s analysis of the creative path makes it possible to understand the internal reasons for the appeal to this Russian writer of the Chinese writer, who since the 1950s was fond of Russian lyrical prose, the same age as Kazakov. A comparison of Kazakov's story "The Night" and the translation of this story by Fei Qin demonstrates the inevitable differences between them, despite the translator's declared desire to accurately convey the meaning of the original text. Some of the most expressive differences are due to the fact that the Chinese translator, interpreting modern Russian prose written by his peer, includes elements peculiar to classical Chinese poetry (onomatopoeia with doubling of hieroglyphs, some traditional images), introduces personifications that are absent in the original work. It is also shown why the literal translation, which in some cases is resorted to by Fei Qin, does not allow to convey the semantic complexity of the original.
Vysokovich K.O. - Light Comedy and vaudeville: specificity of the genre pp. 91-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.37247

Abstract: The subject of this research is the light (salon, secular, noble) comedy "One's Own Family, or a Married Bride", co-authored by A. A. Shakhovsky, N. I. Khmelnitsky amd A. S. Griboyedov, as well as the vaudeville by A. S. Griboyedov and P. A. Vyazemsky "Who is a Brother, Who is Sister, or Deception after Deception". The goal lies in the analysis of similar genre models: light comedy and vaudeville – a variety of salon comedy. The key method of research is the motif-imagery analysis, which reveals a number of common a number of motifs and allowed examining the images of heroes. The comparative method is used for establishing the common and different between the indicated genre models. The novelty of this article consists in the comparison of two cognate genre models, as well as determine universals and particulars within their structure. The conclusion is drawn that vaudeville and light comedy are closely interrelated with a wide variety of genres: anecdote, fable, comic opera, interact, melodrama, and often serve as a means for conducting literary polemics. The external distinguishing characteristic of vaudeville is the presence of a verse. Despite the similarity of the fabula. it is worth noting that the light comedy rather tends towards high literary tradition; the external actable comism is reduced, and expressed through the speech manner of the heroes, witty dialogues, and aphoristic speech. The heroes are usually secular young people. The scene is also limited to secular living rooms and manor estates. Vaudeville in turn, is not restricted by the framework of secularism; its heroes can be officers, actors, servants, serfs, etc. Moreover, comism of the status of heroes is enhanced by external effects: buffoonery, multiple outfit changes, rapid and unpredictable narrative arc.
Li X. - Chekhov's tradition in the literature of Lai Shengchuan pp. 91-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.5.38001

Abstract: This article is devoted to one of the aspects of the history of interaction between Russian and Chinese literature of the XXI century. This article examines the Chekhov tradition in the dramatic work of the modern Chinese playwright Lai Shengchuan. The subject of the study is the reflection of the Chekhov tradition in the plays of Lai Shengchuan (1954-). The main methods are descriptive, analytical and comparative methods. Many studies consider Chekhov's traditions in the works of Chinese writers of the mid-20th century, such as Lu Xin, Cao Yu, Ba Jin, and Chekhov's influence on the work of Chinese writers of the end of the 20th century and of the 21st century has been poorly studied. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the fact that it provides for the first time a systematic analysis of Chekhov's influence on the literature creation of Lai Shengchuan. Chekhov's tradition in the literature of Lai Shengchuan's is mainly reflected in three aspects - static dramatic artistic characteristics, expressions of the philosophy, as well as the unique concept of comedy. Lai Shengchuan considers Chekhov as his intimate friend and consciously uses Chekhov's dramatic concept and method of creating drama in his work, which is an effective proof of Chekhov's continuous influence on Chinese modern literature, reflects not only a kind of strong protection of the traditional classics of Chinese modern playwrights against the trend of commercial entertainment in current literature, but also their appeal and expectation for the development of a dramaturgical innovative spirit.
Lyubimov N.I. - The Philosophy of nature in the lyrics of Albert Vasiliev pp. 91-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38466

EDN: HWOFXZ

Abstract: In the article, the artistic natural philosophy of Albert Vasiliev is considered as part of the study of the poetics of modern Mari philosophical lyrics. Based on the material of poems included in his collection "Osh lumyshto chever polan" ("Red Viburnum on white snow", 2017), revealed the semantics and artistic functions of natural images that represent the philosophical attitude and worldview of the author and characterize his lyrical hero in a certain way. In this aspect, Albert Vasiliev's lyrics are analyzed for the first time in regional literary studies. The methodological basis of the research is the structural and semantic analysis of the poems of the Mari poet; this approach allows us to determine and describe the structural and semantic levels of natural images that reveal the artistic and philosophical concept of the author and the personality features of the lyrical hero. The article proves that natural images in Albert Vasiliev's lyrics occupy a significant place, they are not only a bright emotional background of his works (in this sense, they usually express the psycho-emotional state of the lyrical hero), but also recreate the natural philosophical views of the author and his lyrical hero (in this sense, they are mostly symbolic, projected on human life, accumulate both universal and ethnically significant values of the poet). Thanks to the natural images-symbols (phenomena and processes) used by the author in the collection "Red Viburnum on white Snow", Albert Vasiliev's natural philosophy is highlighted, inscribed in the context of the author's socio-philosophical reflections; its substantial basis is nature and power, order and harmony, universal connection and interdependence, the art of dialogue, personal certainty and inner freedom.
Bayguzhin I.G. - Genres maktub and hitap in Bashkir literature of the early XX century pp. 92-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.6.33086

Abstract: This article examines the works of the enlighteners, innovator, and agitators in Bashkir literature of the early XX century. The author analyzes the motifs, images and ideological-thematic aspects of poets in the genres maktub and hitap. It is determined that in form of appeals, they raise the problems of freedom, enlightenment, suppression of people, protest of war, etc. Literary examples of poetic works that reflect the motifs of that time are subjected to analysis. Agitational, manifestational, publicistic, and revolutionary ideas are revealed in the images of war, since the agitators called people to seek freedom and development. Namely the genres maktub and hitap contributed to explication of thoughts, desires and aspirations of the innovators of the early XX century. The struggle for freedom, equality, and education intertwined with the ideas of revolution and enlightenment. Some poets claimed that namely illiteracy and unprofessionalism of the people impede social development. Therefore, the appeals played a crucial role in works of the poets, which were filled with humanistic spirit, strive for perfection and ideals. The scientific novelty consists in detailed examination of the genres maktup and hitap in the works of Bashkir writers of the early XX century, as well as consideration of modern approaches towards assessment of aesthetic aspect of these genres. It is concluded that the genres maktub and hitap possess a quality to manifest an opinion or stance on various problems and situations of that time. They are fused with deep and tense thoughts and feelings that can form the worldview and experiences of the poet-citizen, poet-fighter, who have active approach to life and their time.
Demiral H. - Structural and substantive dynamics of artistic concept of “culture” in the works of V. S. Makanin pp. 92-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.9.33809

Abstract: This article is dedicated to description of the artistic concept of “culture”, one of the fundamental in the conceptual framework of V. S. Makanin. The content of the concept is viewed in the context of evolution of Makanin’s works. The author examines the nature of transformation of each layer of the artistic concept of “culture” in light of establishment of Makanin’s concept of a human; determines interrelation of the motifs in their role in formation of the concept. Separate attention is given to determination of the meaning of precedent facts, including literary images, plots, themes, and motifs in development of the structure and content of the concept of “culture” in V. S. Makanin's works of different periods. Composition of circumnuclear zone and close periphery of this concept contributes to the formation of a cultural background, and their reinterpretation by the author reflects the objective processes taking place in cultural discourse for the past 50 years. In proportion to evolution of Makanin’s works, these images are saturated with new meanings, leading to refocus in interpretation of their classical content, substantiated by the need to place axiological accents. The conclusion is made on the extreme complexity of structure and content of the artistic concept of “culture” in the works of V. S. Makanin, which change dynamically throughout his creative path. This article is first to describe the structure of this concept and trace the dynamics of its transformation in diachrony, using the materials of most significant works of V. S. Makanin.
Anisimova O.V., Makarova I. - Mythopoetic Images of Irish Mythology in American Fantasy (the Case of Roger Zelazny's "Chronicles of Amber" - Corwin Cycle) pp. 92-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.39999

EDN: VOHZCA

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of key images of Irish mythology, widely used in fantasy literature, in particular, in American novels written in the second half of XX-th century. The paper considers the images of ship, tree and raven. Special attention is paid to their artistic interpretation in the novels of a famous American science fiction writer, the representative of New Wave - Roger Zelazny. The paper examines the etymology of these images, their origins in Sumero-Akkadian, Jewish and Greek mythologies, their main symbolic meanings and further interpretation in Zelazny's key novel - "The Chronicles of Amber". As a result, the complex characteristics of the three images both in the ancient mythologies and in the context of first five parts of the novel by the American science fiction writer, namely in the Corwin Cycle, have been provided. The findings achieved show that ship turns out to be connected with the key image of the novel - the Pattern, among other things symbolizing the process of initiation of the main characters. The tree, in its turn, acts as the primary basis of the Amber universe, its multilevel structure. Finally, the raven, the alter ego of the main character - Prince Corwin - stands for his destiny, filled with contradictions and relentless battles.
Krasnikov Y.E. - Categories of hero and character in drama in the light of historical poetics (in the non-classical period of the epoch of modality) pp. 94-107

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.7.43615

EDN: TMPBTJ

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed article is to consider the key trends occurring with the categories of the hero and character of the dramatic text in the third global period of historical poetics – the era of poetic modality (in its non–classical period), since it is at this stage of the literary process that the most attention is paid to the subjective sphere of the work. The author of the work, among other things, notes: transformations of images of actors caused by both actual social realities and crises of their identity; changes in terms of communicative interaction and speech of heroes and characters; transformation of dramatic conflict from external (event) to internal (personal), etc.   The key methods used in the work include comparative typological analysis, descriptive and hermeneutic. The novelty of this scientific research lies in the systematization of existing ideas concerning this issue, as well as in the breadth of the material concerned (from European and domestic dramaturgy of the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, plays of symbolists and absurdists to the domestic "new drama" of the XX – XXI centuries). A special contribution to the development of the poetics of dramaturgy is the theoretical justification and practical application of the term "image-silhouette" proposed by the author (by analogy with the concepts of "image-type", "image-character" and "image-personality" proposed in the concept of historical poetics by S. N. Broitman) demonstrated in the article.
Spivakovsky P. - The Tragic in Russian Metamodernism Literature pp. 95-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.27068

Abstract: The article is devoted to the tragic metanarration in modern Russian metamodern literature and the theoretical substantiation of the new understanding of tragedy in the culture of recent decades, partly connected with postmodern epistemology and at the same time based on overcoming the limitations imposed by orthodox postmodern theory. The statements of a number of contemporary cultural researchers associated with the criticism of the shortcomings of the theory of postmodernism are considered. The article analyzes the works of Victor Pelevin and Vladimir Sorokin, and provides an interdisciplinary analysis metamodernistskogo tragedy on the material of the Viennese production of the opera by Giuseppe Verdi's "La Traviata" at the Salzburg Festival 2005 Special attention is paid to the relation between classical postmodern theory and more modern metamodernistskoy theoretical system as a phenomenon of the postmodern era . Thanks to the use of metamodern theory, it becomes clear that many works of modern Russian literature that were considered postmodernist are more reasonable to be understood in a metamodernist context that removes postmodernist bans on seriousness, depth and tragedy. This makes it possible to discover in the works of recent times new semantic layers that remained outside the field of view of researchers.
Demicheva N. - The Novel of Special Structure 'The Capture of Pskov': Problematics, Textology, Style pp. 95-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27637

Abstract: The article is devoted to the novel of special structure 'The Capture of Pskov' which can be found in two manuscript collections at State Public Research Library and Russian State Library. The object of the research is the ideology and poetics of the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov. Demicheva analyzes this text as an old Russian writing devoted to Novgorod and Pskov joining the Moscovite state. The researcher focuses on the genetic and ideological diversity as well as composition, structure of images and style of The Capture of Pskov. In her research Demicheva applies the method historical and literary analysis of old Russian writings as these have been offered by such researchers as V. Andrianova-Perets, D. Likhachev, I. Eremin, A. Demin, A. Pauktin, and N. Trofimova. The author of the article concludes that the novel of special structure The Capture of Pskov has both markers of the negative attitude to Pskov joining Moscow and literary solutions that speak of the writer's Moscovite position in relation to the events of 1509 - 1510. Demicheva also suggests a hypothesis that The Capture of Pskov is not the original version of the text which explains the conflict of different points of view within one novel.   
Gadylshin T.R. - Features of R. Kipling’s Work in the Naturalist Prose of F. Norris pp. 95-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.10.39055

EDN: FXNTUQ

Abstract: The article focuses on estimating the influence of Rudyard Kipling’s figure on the works of his younger contemporary, the American Frank Norris. The author comes to the conclusion that the English writer fundamentally determined his literary follower’s development vector. Kipling who has become extremely popular among American readers raises Norris’s interest toward neo-romantic short story. The early stage of Norris’s work is noted by Kipling’s powerful influence and the article reveals common plot, compositional and stylistic elements in their works. The writers are united by artistic ideals: Kipling and Norris emphasize the exotic and the criminal and treat the concept of masculinity in a similar way in their short stories. The relevance and scientific novelty of the article are determined by the fact that the article studies Norris’s short stories which were previously unexplored in Russian literary criticism. The author makes an attempt to determine the significance of romanticism’s legacy for Norris’s work and to demonstrate its close relationship with naturalism, exploring various works by R. Kipling. The article uses the following methods: elements of the biographical method; estimation of Norris's theoretical ideas according to the principles of cultural studies; comparative analysis of the works of the two authors. The article can be used in teaching the history of foreign (in particular, American) literature in higher educational institutions.
Borunov A.B. - Travesty as a cycle-forming technique of B. Akunin's “Fandorin Series” pp. 97-104

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.8.33711

Abstract: The subject of this research is a set of cycle-forming techniques used by Boris Akunin in creating “Fandorin Series” dedicated to the detective Erast Fandorin. One of such techniques is travesty, “gender transitioning” that manifests on the imagery and linguistic levels. A range of characters in the novels and stories about Fandorin disguise themselves as the representatives of the other gender; this is common to the serial criminals who have committed multiple offenses. On the linguistic level, travesty manifests in a way that some characters, having a good command of Russian language, deliberately confuse masculine and feminine genders in their speech or writing. At the same time, travesty is always accompanied by the typical detective motif: the criminal character is initially introduced to the text and conceals his true self, so the detective has foster efforts to track him down. The novelty of this study consists in determination of the two basic strategies of travesty used by B. Akunin in “Fandorin Series”, and as well as in following their realization in various novels and stories dedicated to Erast Fandorin. On both imagery and semantic levels, travesty is more characteristic to the “sealed” type of detective, when the suspect is among a limited scope of persons and gradually reveals his true nature. At the same time, the implementation of such strategy in some texts is consistent (the hero constantly changes his appearance / grammatical gender), while in other texts manifests sporadically.
Pakhtusova V. - Genre Syncretism in Yury Nagibin's Story 'Fiery Protopope': on the Question about Leskov's Tradition in the Russian Prose of the Second Half of the XXth Century pp. 97-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29956

Abstract: The article is devoted to the literary parallel between Leskov and Nagibin, the topic that has never been viewed before in earlier critical research despite the obvious existence of that parallel which was proved by confessions of Nagibin himself. The creativity of two writers is analyzed by the author of the article from the point of view of genre traditions. They prove that Nagibin often used Leskov's principles of genre syncretism. Based on the analysis of Nagibin's story 'Fiery Protopope', the author demonstrates how the writer worked with Leskov's genre model presented, in particular, in his novel 'One-Track Minded Person'. The methodological basis of the research includes theoretical research of M. Bakhtin, N. Leyderman, N. Tamarchenko, Yu. Tynyanov, V. Khalizev, L. Chernets and other researchers who viewed genre-related issues and touched upon the questions related to genre traditions. The author concludes that just like Leskov, Nagibin's story combined the features of a biographical essay, feuilleton, hagiography, and anecdote. Developing Leskov's genre model and expanding opportunities of the genre form, Nagibin brings a number of changes at the level of the genre content. The genre syncretism shown in Nagibin's texts generally reflects the trends typical for the literature of the second half of the XXth century and the reference to Leskov's texts reveals the sources of this tradition in the Russian literature and importance of the genre model that is based on the synthesis of different genre forms. 
Poletaeva E.A. - The Main Grounds for the Artistic Picture of the World Shared by the Poets of the Literary Association 'Moscow Time' pp. 97-108

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30373

Abstract: The subject of the research is the general grounds for the artistic picture of the world shared by the poets of the literary association 'Moscow time'. In particular, Poletaeva focuses on creative writing of the leading members, S. Gandlevsky, B. Kenjeev, A. Soprovsky, A. Tsvetkov, T. Poletaeva, and A. Kazintsev from the point of view of the main lines of their artistic picture of the world. These include their views on the place and mission of human and his system of values (which involves such aspects as human and society, relationship of an individual and government, etc.), relationship between human and nature; relation between artistic and scientific pictures of the world. The research methodology is based on views of B. Meylakh about the main lines of the artistic picture of the world. Such picture of the world was offered by the Moscow Time poets as an opposition to the Soviet (atheistic and materialistic) point of view; it was idealistic as it was and related to the picture of the world in the Russian classical literature. However, some authors changed their worldviews with time. Nevertheless, there were certain topics that continued to play an important role throughout their creative life. Those included self-denying difficult creative work; search for full and bright life; perception of nature as alive and spirited; Biblian allusions and images (in particular, relation of an poet to Adam as those who give names to God's creatures); the motif of miracle; estrangement of a lyrical hero rooted in romantic traditions; ethical component of their creative writing; and view of literature as an important part of human life, abilities of literature to predict the future and preserve the past. 
Kulikova D.L. - The vampires of A. V. Ivanov in light of the gothic tradition of Russian Literature pp. 98-107

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.6.35873

Abstract: The object of this research is the novel “Food Block” by A. V. Ivanov and the realization of aesthetics of the horror genre therein. The goal is to establish correlation between the gothic tradition of Russian literature and modern horror literature based on the works of the indicated authors. The article examines the influence of the gothic romantic tradition upon composition and imaginary system of A. K. Tolstoy’s novella. The material of A. V. Ivanov’s novel indicates resorting to the literary tradition on the level of composition and individual images; while overall, the historical experience accumulated by the genre over the decades and significant impact of cinematography manifested on the level of cinematographic techniques. The conclusion is made that in the novel by A. V. Ivanov, the mystical attributes of vampirism, which coincide with the pioneer symbolism, have political implications, which contradicts the horror traditions in gothics. Novellas “The Vampire” and" The Family of the Vourdalak” are the result of accumulation of gothic motifs, such as family curse, mystical house, dream, and portrait that came alive. Comparison of the techniques of creating horror literature allows tracing the paths of literary evolution, and formulating conclusions on modernization of the genre at the present stage. The novelty of this research is define by insufficient research of the topic of typological and genetic links between gothic and modern horror, namely in the works of A. V. Ivanov.
Vysokovich K.O. - The image of a secular young man in light comedy of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries pp. 98-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.37262

Abstract: The subject of this research the comedies “Secular Event” (1826), "The Talker" (1817) by N. I. Khmelnitsky, "The Heiress" (1824) by A. I. Pisarev, "Young Spouses" (1815) by A. S. Griboyedov, and “Feigned Infidelity” (1818) co-authored by A. S. Griboyedov and A. A. Zhandra. The goal lies in revealing the traits of a secular young man reflected in light comedy of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The research employs the following methods: 1) motivic analysis for determining the main motivation of the hero; 2) cultural-historical for establishing correlation between the literary tradition (image of a secular young man) and the real historical type. The novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to analyze light comedy of the late XVIII – early XIX century for the purpose of revealing the traits characteristic to a secular young man. It is established that the embodiment of the image of a secular young man is characterized with the motif of “the fictitious and the true”.  The hero is most interested in his own gain. He is willing to comply with the rules of the secular game in order to maintain the external decency. In the work of "Young Spouses" by A. S. Griboyedov, Arist in his reasoning comes to justification of infidelity, considering it a secular norm. Therefore, the hero of the salon comedy pursues his goals by means of deception, justifying it by the norms the privileged circles.
Sangadieva E.G. - The concept of world in Bair Dugarov’s poetry compilation “The Saga of Samsara” pp. 101-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.6.32901

Abstract: The problem of the concept of world in a literary work has always been fundamental within the framework of literary studies. This article examines the definition of the concept of world in the anthology of Bair Dugarov “The Saga of Samsara. The author reviews the key concepts, such as space and time, their analysis within the structure of compilation, which attracted poet’s attention to the concepts of ethnic world of Mongolian-language peoples, taking into account the specificity of traditional ethnic culture, confessional views, peculiarities of mentality and philosophical aspects of the problem of the world and human being. Research methodology is based on the semiotic approach, structural-semantic, axiological and narrative methods. The scientific novelty consists in analysis of the concept of world in the works of Bair Dugarov as a unique phenomenon of Buryat poetry with vivid ethno-national and religious-sacral traits. The main conclusion lies in the fact that the supertemporal essence of a human being – as an intrinsic part of an ethnic group, carries of moral, and ethical values, capable of assessing himself and the entire world – is being reached through the examined concepts.
Lisitsin M. - The Phenomenon of Data Journalism in Foreign Mass Media (the Case Study of Works by Data Journalism Awards Winners) pp. 102-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.1.29056

Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign data journalism projects and the analysis of works by Data Journalism Awards winners of 2014 - 2017. Despite the fact that the term 'data journalism' was first mentioned only in 2010, similar researches had been made long before it. The aim of this article is do define the main aspects of the phenomenon from the point of view of foreign mass media. The author focuses on stylistic features of the phenomenon and technical peculiarities of the content generation process. By using the content analysis and induction as the research methods, the author has come to the conclusion that data journalism requires two conditions, the data base as the source of contents and data visualisation as the means of 'telling the story'. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines general features and peculiarities of projects which enables an comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of data journalism that still has a rather uncertain status in Russia. The author also describes the key differences between the terms 'infographics', 'investigative journalism' and 'data journalism'. 
Zhigalov A.Y. - "The “Nestorian Chronicle” in the Prague “Lectures...” of Alfred Bem pp. 102-110

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.34758

Abstract: During the interwar period, Prague was truly an academic capital of emigration. A unique scientific environment that formed therein a century ago was favorable for the study of Russian literature, including the ancient period. Among the philologists, who emigrated to Czechoslovakia, was Alfred Bem, known to modern science as a talented researcher of the works of Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Blok, Gumilyov and Mayakovsky. However, hardly anyone remembers Bem as Medievalist. The article analyzes the “Lectures” on the history of Old Russian literature (up to the mid XVII century) read to the students of Russian Pedagogical Institute named after Jan Amos Komenský in Prague in the winter semester of 1923 that have been nearly forgotten by now. These are the sheer bibliographic rarity. The circulation of this unique publication is small, just a few copies taken by duplicating machine from the typewritten original, which contains typos and corrections made by the author. “Lectures...” – a full textbook on the history of Russian literature of the XI – first half of the XVII centuries. A significant part of is dedicated to the “Tale of Bygone Years”. A. L. Bem’s view of the "Nestorian Chronicle” reflected in the Prague “Lectures...” is analyzed within the framework of studying the extensive historiographical topic of the “Research of Old Russian Literature in Czechoslovakia in the 1920s – 1930s”. This defines the novelty of this article. The conclusion is made that Alfred Bem made a considerable contribution to the study of the major Russian chronicle, provided in-depth and accurate characteristics to the “Tale of Bygone Years”, determining its historical and literary role. His contemplations on the genre and stylistic uniqueness of the “Tale” have subsequently found reflection in the works of Russian and foreign Medievalists. He also paid special attention to the history of the Corpus, thereby touching upon the question that is yet to be resolved.
Mysovskikh L.O. - Existential and Religious Concepts of Fyodor Tyutchev's Poetry as Proof of the Existence of God pp. 102-110

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38487

EDN: HWUSUS

Abstract: The philosophical nature of Tyutchev's poetry was noted by researchers of his work during the poet's lifetime. The study of Tyutchev's work makes it possible to trace the origin of a unique direction of philosophical thought in Russian poetry of the XIX century – religious existentialism. The research carried out within the framework of this article allowed us to trace the genesis of the original direction of religious existentialism in the poetry of F. Tyutchev, who interpreted Nature in his work in philosophical categories. In his poetic works, Tyutchev does not just depict the splendor of Nature, but shows his own idea of the essence of the universe and tries to solve the riddle of human existence through the knowledge of the secrets of Nature, which is presented as proof of the existence of God. Thus, Tyutchev's poetry of Nature is regarded as existential poetry, since it gives a person an answer to the question of the meaning of his existence. In Tyutchev's poetry, the tragedy of human existence correlates with a similar theme developed in the philosophical treatises of the founder of existentialism, S. Kierkegaard, and subsequently continued in the works of the German existential philosopher K. Jaspers. Kierkegaard imagined a gloomy reality where a person is doomed to exist, plunged into the abyss of despair. At the same time, the founder of existentialism offered man a way out of tragic existence through the process of self-improvement, that is, the formation of his own personality, and striving for God. However, the process of becoming a personality is also a path to the tragedy of being, as it leads to a violation of harmony between man and Nature. It is this existential problem, which is related to the borderline situation of Jaspers, that lies in the focus of Tyutchev's attention, who described in poetic form the relationship between man and Nature and showed the only possible way out of this situation through making an existential choice in favor of accepting faith in the true God.
Ma M. - On the question of the reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin in Russian Literary Studies pp. 102-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40546

EDN: WSGBXA

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin in Russian literary studies. The theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin has been attracting the attention of researchers for more than 90 years. To date, a large number of works devoted to the study of Bakhtin's polyphonic theory have been published in Russia. A broad dialogue between researchers led to an increase in the degree of perception of Bakhtin's polyphonic theory, as well as to the deepening of research on Dostoevsky's novels. The purpose of our work is to identify the state and main trends in the reception of the theory of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel in Russia. In the article, the author gives an idea of the gradual development of Bakhtin's polyphonic idea in Russian literary studies, analyzes the specifics of the reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel at each stage. Based on the analysis, we came to the conclusion that the reception of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel theory in Russian literary studies is connected not only with the publication of the book by the scientist Dostoevsky, but also with the state of perception of Dostoevsky's work, and the hottest discussions in the process of receiving Bakhtin's theory are around the question of the independence of the voices of heroes and the role of the author in Dostoevsky's polyphonic novel, Bakhtin's methodological approach to the analysis of Dostoevsky's creativity. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the fact that the author considers various interpretations of the theory of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel in Russian literary studies.
Chai L. - Reflections on Chinese studies of Russian women's prose pp. 102-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.69051

EDN: LFBRRL

Abstract: The active development of women's prose is an important phenomenon in world literature. After the 1980s, a large number of works by Russian writers were translated in China, which attracted more attention of Chinese Russian scholars. The subject of the research is the historical and cultural prerequisites for the study of Russian women's prose in China and the current state of research on this prose. The relevance of the article can be determined by the fact that with the rapid changes in the socio-cultural environment, the study of women's prose in China gradually demonstrates a systematic and interdisciplinary growing trend, thanks to which it is possible to take a fresh look at the study of Russian women's prose in China. Russian writers' main translated works and the main studies of Chinese scientists on Russian women's prose, published since 1942 to the present, are the material of the study. The research method is the analysis of review materials and generalization of philology researches opinions. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is the answers received to questions about the context, development, current state and directions of studying Russian women's prose in China. Conclusions are drawn that 1992 is an important moment, before that Chinese scientists mainly paid attention to the translation of foreign women's literature, including Russian, after 1992, through a practical analysis of Western feminist theories in literary studies, Chinese researchers proposed the concept of "soft feminism", which influenced the development of women's prose in China, which led to attention to the inner world of a woman, her role not only in the family, but also in culture and history.
Zhitenev A. - Sensory and Affective Codes in Sergey Popov's Poetry pp. 103-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.27162

Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the principles of the formation of the artistic world in the lyrics of the Voronezh poet Sergei Popov. The subject of the research is sensory and affective motifs in a poetic text. It is established that the principles of reflection of sensual and emotional memory in the structure of the artistic world of Sergey Popov are determined by the desire to overcome the chaotic state of the world. The work of memory has a “therapeutic” character, but it is not connected with the restoration of a torn personal history, but with the irrational introduction to the creative forces of being. The main tool of analysis is a motivational analysis in conjunction with elements of the approaches developed in the “history of emotions” and the practice of analyzing representations of corporeality. In the lyrics of Sergey Popov, memory restores subjectivity through the intensity of sensual detail, when the “Self” experiences its dissolution in the natural world, by replacing the “reverse” view with the “childish” sight. The most important thing in this experience is the collision with the language outside the language, with the experience of “fire” or “river” as statements, in which the sign and thing are not separated. Sensual contemplation, always associated with memory, is portrayed “ecstatically,” as a state that presupposes a bodily renewal of “Self.”
Sulaimanov M.U. - Ethnocultural code in the Crimean Tatar literary criticism (on the example of Shakir Selim’s literary-criticism article “About Shamil Alyadin, Charyks and a Pocket Knife”) pp. 104-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.4.35485

Abstract:  Based on the analysis of causality and reasonableness of arguments of such literary scholars as Shakir Selim and Shamil Alyadin, this article attempt to determine the ethnocultural code of the Crimean Tatar literary criticism. The author applies the approach of methodological pluralism, as well as hermeneutical, logical, historical-genetic, comparative-typological, phenomenological, and psychological methods. This allows considering various perspectives of the aforementioned literary scholars upon the variants of critical analysis of the artistic heritage of the classic of Crimean Tatar literature Memet Nuzet. The article outlines the basic principles of literary criticism, declared by Shakir Selim and Shamil Alyadin, as well as their dependence on the ethnocultural code of the Crimean Tatars. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the attempt of carrying out a comprehensive hermeneutical analysis of Shakir Selim’s literary-criticism work “About Shamil Alyadin, Charyks and the Pocket Knife” through the prism of methodological pluralism in the aspect of ethnocultural code. The author’s main contribution consists in the reflection of the “clash of opinions” of three literary critics – this is the critical article by Shakir Selim, based on the response of Pirae Kadri-Zade, written to Shamil Alyadin’s criticism essay on the poem composed by the classic of the Crimean Tatar literature Memet Nuzet. 
Ovcherenko U. - “Voices of the Night” by Rollan Seisenbayev as metafiction pp. 105-113

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.8.36110

Abstract: The object of this research is “Voices of the Night” by the Kazakh Russian-language novelist Rollan Seisenbayev. The subject of this research is the metafiction structure implemented by Rollan Seisenbayev in the text field. Analysis is conducted on the layers of narration, transition from the novel to the metafiction level. A precise pattern of interaction between these levels is described. The article explores the authorial question and the “author's mask”, as well as the techniques that allow intentionally confusing the reader in distinguishing between these figures. The subject of analysis is also the need for using metafiction structure in the composition written within the framework of realism. The author analyzes the important theme in the works of Rollan Seisenbayev – interrelation between art and life. The novelty of this paper lies in the fact that Rollan Seisenbayev’s works of the Soviet period are extensively studied by the Soviet critics, while his compositions of the post-Soviet period rarely draw the scientific interest of modern researchers. His contemporary mark the shift from the trends of realism and gravitation towards the techniques of polystylistics, which synthesizes the techniques of various literary directions. The article reviews Rollan Seisenbayev’s novel “Voices of the Night”, which demonstrates the application of metafiction structure. The writer usesthis genre to reflect on the creative act and the nature of creativity.
Kartasheva A.O., Ustinovskaya A.A. - Bryusov-lyrics' Genre in a Translation Dialogue with French Symbolism pp. 105-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39221

EDN: OQZEQG

Abstract: The subject of the study is an intertextual dialogue between V.Y. Bryusov and Paul Verlaine based on the poem "Croquis parisienne" ("Parizhskoe croquis"). The object of the research is the ways and means of forming intertextual and intercultural dialogue in poetic translations of the Silver Age. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as the unique word usage of the word "croquis" in the use of V.Y. Bryusov, reinforcing the conclusions with quotations from the National Corpus of the Russian language. Special attention is paid to the exclusive use of the word "croquis" as a genre mark, which corresponds to the extensive tactics of mastering genres by V.Y. Bryusov both in translations and in original poetry. The main conclusions of the study are the means allocated by the authors to implement intertextual dialogue in translation: the changes made by the translator to the original text strengthen the dialogic component of the picture developed by the author and weaken the motive of existential loneliness presented in the original text. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is the identification in the translation work of V.Y. Bryusov of the original genre of the ekphrasic type - "croquis"-a sketch associated with the visual and verbal representation of the image. The novelty of the research lies in a detailed description of this impressionistic poetic genre and tracing its semantic and aesthetic connections with the fundamental attitudes of Impressionism in painting.
Demenyuk V.M. - The transformation of frontier mythology in short stories by Ambrose Bierce (based on the "Tales of Soldiers and Civilians", 1891) pp. 106-113

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.37346

Abstract: This article examines a certain type of US national mentality that stems from the historical frontier development of the continent, as well as the specificity of its representation in the texts of the American writer of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries Ambrose Bierce. The object of this research is the texts of the “Tales of Soldiers and Civilians" by Ambrose Bierce. The subject is the category of cyclic time, binary opposition of “own/alien”, system of characters in the “Tales of Soldiers and Civilians", interpretation of the symbolic images of the texts through the prism of frontier mythology. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the works by Ambrose Bierce not only as a literary tradition, but also in the context of frontier mythology, which determines the specificity of the US national worldview. It is established that Ambrose Bierce refers to a range of patterns characteristic to the frontier myth (opposition of own/alien, image of frontiersman, transformational shift, religious symbolism, and motivation), which allows revealing the national traits of the contemporary to Bierce Americans who have experienced the monumental disturbances of the Civil War, as well as examining the human nature overall, creating a universal image of a man who lost touch with the world and own identity.  
Kovlekov K.I. - The image of the "demon Lord" in Japanese fantasy: traditions, formality, originality pp. 106-114

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.10.38135

EDN: FTQMCC

Abstract: Modern Japanese fantasy is based on a limited set of characters. One of them is “demon lord” or "Maou" (jap. 魔王). Given the growing popularity of novels implementing the character during composition, as well as growing popularity of manga and anime adaptations, it seems relevant to study the key characters of Japanese fantasy. In this regard, the purpose of the study is to determine the role of the demon lord character. Subject of the study pertains to modern Japanese fantasy. To achieve research goals, methods of comparative historical analysis, J. G. Kavelty's literary formula approach, and content analysis were used.   The main result of the work was identification of the characteristic features and the role of the demon lord as character in its diachronic and synchronic aspects. The fields of application of the research results are literary studies, Oriental studies, the study of modern Japanese mass literature. It is concluded that the demon lord as a concept dates back to traditional Buddhist origins, but nowadays returns to its roots in a new capacity after adapting Japanese popular culture, in response to the needs of modern man. In the context of modern mass literature, the demon lord holds value as a type of standard of Japanese fantasy and as an important element of the conventional structure of the literary formula.
Pei J. - About the names and pseudonyms of translators of Russian literature in China (using the examples of translators I. A. Krylov, A. S. Pushkin and N. V. Gogol) pp. 107-113

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.37926

Abstract: This article discusses the features of the names and pseudonyms of three famous Chinese translators of Russian literature – Wu Yan, Mu Dan and Lu Xin. The author explores the components of Chinese names before the creation of the PRC, explains the main reasons for the formation of the original Chinese pseudonyms, and mainly highlights the relationship of pseudonyms and real names of translators I. A. Krylov, A. S. Pushkin, N. V. Gogol. The purpose of the study is to identify the sources of formation, the meaning of the names and pseudonyms of these famous Chinese translators. When analyzing the characteristics of the names and pseudonyms of translators, a comparative historical approach, methods of analysis and interpretation are applied.    The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the article for the first time studied the pseudonyms of Chinese translators of Russian classics in detail from the position of pseudonymy. As a result, it was revealed that the tradition of pseudonyms in China has a long history, and the names "Hao" of the ancient Chinese were similar to today's pseudonyms. At the end of the ⅩⅨ and the beginning of the ⅩⅩ centuries, Chinese began to translate works of fiction of Russian literature. For political and social reasons, more and more of these translators began to use pseudonyms to publish their works, and until the 1880s, few people published their works under their real names. The results and conclusions can be used in the study of the history of translation of Russian literature in China and the problem of pseudonymy.
Li G. - Emigrant’s fate in the image of the protagonist in the novel “Katya the Chinese” by D. A. Prigov pp. 108-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.6.35899

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of representation of emigrant’s fate in the novel “Katya the Chinese” by the contemporary Russian writer Dmitri Prigov. The subject of this research is the system of characters in the novel, namely the images of the protagonist Katya and her nanny. This is an interdisciplinary research with emphasis on the cultural-historical and hermeneutical methods. The plotline of the novel revolves around the life of the girl Katya, the daughter of the representative of white émigré in China. The role of an intermediary in Katya’s adaptation to the civilizational space of China was played by her nanny, since she was a typical representative of the “people” and an exemplary bearer of Chinese traditional culture. The author aims to comprehensively examine the plotline of the novel through the prism of the processes of cultural assimilation, which defines the novelty of this research. The conclusion lies in outlining the stages of the protagonist’s assimilation to the cultural space of China: language, social, behavioral, and spiritual. The article indicates the effectiveness of studying the novel in the context of the history of white émigré. The heroine's departure from China makes her to reconsider personal identity, which in many ways has become “Chinese”. The story of the girl Katya allows the author to describe the emigrant’s fate, who is forced to spend his life upon the road and constantly adapt to foreign cultural spaces.
Prikhod'ko K.O. - The Image of a Fountain in the Selected Lyrics of Pernette du Guillét and Maurice Scève pp. 108-118

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.8.43942

EDN: WVLJCU

Abstract: The article is dedicated to the image of a fountain – or a spring – in the lyrics of the poets of the Lyon School Pernette du Guillet and Maurice Scève. A clear spring as a symbol of love became widely known thanks to “The Romance of the Rose”, a French allegorical poem of the 13th century. The article provides a comparative analysis of selected lyrics by Pernette du Guillet and Maurice Scève, mostly from poetry collections “Rymes” and “Délie”. The purpose of the study is to compare the artistic motifs and imagery built by the poets around a fountain, which is a significant topos of courtly poetry. For this purpose, detailed comparative analysis of the lyrics of Maurice Scève, the head of the Lyon School of Poets, and Pernette du Guillet, his student, is carried with the help of poems with the image of a fountain. The novelty of the study is attributed to the fact that the lyrics of Pernette du Guillet with its problems and interpretation are practically unexplored in Russian literary studies. “Délie” by Scève is analyzed and interpreted in the dissertation of V.P. Avdonin dated 2013. The lyrics of Lyon poets' and the comparison of the concepts of love philosophy are topical themes in Russian literary studies. A fountain has several guises in the studied poems. The first is the healing from the fire of pernicious passion that can be found in its waters. While the water does save the lyrical heroine of Pernetta from the flames (as can be seen in the elegy plot), Scève pictures inextinguishable flames (continuing to burn even in water). They both – in their own way based on their gender roles – touch upon the motif of a naked lady bathing, which traces back to the myth of Actaeon. The fountain water is a soul mirror and a vessel of divine wisdom, it is an intermediary between a lover and a loved one.
Oktyabr'skaya O.S. - The genre of Kievan Rus' annals and its manifestation in the poem of N. P. Konchalovskaya “Our Ancient Capital” pp. 109-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.6.31625

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of genre elements of the annals realized in the historical poem by Natalya Konchalovskaya, continuity of Konchalovskaya’s poem to the traditions of Kievan Rus' annals and determination of the timeless character of the moral values proclaimed by this XX century poet, determination in Konchalovskaya’s poem characteristic to the annals factographic foundation of the poem, chronological principal of expression with partial retardation, bright portraiture, mosaic character of coupling of multifaceted episodes and simultaneous reproduction of unified historical process of development of Russian statehood, culture, economy, etc.. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the need for renewed examination of the poem “Our Old Capital”, which remains an important component of moral upbringing of modern child and teenager, and continues the best traditions of Russian literature. The author concludes that there is a solid factographic foundation to Konchalovskaya’s poem, its polygenre structure, most precise and complete reproduction of historical coloration of every particular era, as well as complex portraiture and eventive painting.
Pokhalenkov O.E., Nikulicheva S.E. - Poetic Thanatology of the Novel by E.M. Remarque "Life on Loan or Heaven Knows no Favorites" pp. 109-116

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.12.39144

EDN: KJMPBK

Abstract: The presented work examines the thanatological motifs in the work of the German writer E.M. Remarque. The influence of historical events is assumed not only on the plot and ideological levels of the novel, but also on the figurative. The hypothesis about the tendency in the work of E.M. Remarque to the widespread use of images traditionally associated with death is put forward and proved. The aim of the work is to prove the author's special understanding of the theme of death and its realization in the novel by E.M. Remarque "Life on loan or Heaven knows no favorites". The object of the study is a special Remark's representation of the category of death and its place in the literature of the "lost generation". The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the authors present a new interpretation of the title of the novel in connection with the original belonging of the characters to the afterlife. The main content of the study is the analysis of the poetical levels of the novel; motives, mythologems and images of death are analyzed at the ideological-thematic, plot, character, space-time and genre levels; citation examples are given for various connotations of death for each character of the novel by E.M. Remarque "Life on loan or Heaven knows no favorites". Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of semantic substitution of the real definition of the concept of life for an antonymic one. In conclusion, the role of death at the compositional level of the work is revealed.
Zhai D. - Secondary text and its features in E. P. Rostopchina's "Chatsky's Return to Moscow...." pp. 110-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40549

EDN: WQIUAK

Abstract: The purpose of the study: to consider the relationship between the secondary and the original literary work at the level of images of heroes, storylines, and text; to determine the features of dialogic in books, as well as to identify similar features of the original and secondary works, as well as to establish differences between them. The subject of the study is the artistic techniques of aging of continuation texts, identified on the basis of a dialogical text of the Russian writer of the XIX century E.P. Rastopchina. The method used was the analysis of the texts of the original and secondary works using the classification of intertextual interactions by Gerard Genette to identify connections based on excerpts from texts.   This side of Evdokia Petrovna Rostopchina's creativity has been little studied not only in Russia and China but also around the world. Studying this sphere allows us to explore the phenomenon of dialogicity and thereby opens up new opportunities for studying the theoretical basis in this direction. The analysis of the play "Chatsky's Return to Moscow" shows that it is characterized by close intertextual ties with the primary work. In addition, the "Note from the author" in Rostopchina's play creates a paratextual connection between the two works. It is also possible to trace architexturally in the texts. At the same time, it is important to note that for these works it is the least obvious kind of intertextual relationship, and even the genre of the original and the continuation is defined differently by the authors. Nevertheless, both in the original and in the secondary work there are elements of a comedy of intrigue and a sitcom. This gives reason to talk about architextual intertextual connections. And finally, the conducted research of the works allows us to say about the presence of hypertextual connections, which are noticeable due to close paratextual and intertextual relations.
Oktyabr'skaya O.S. - The theme of family and home in Maria Yakunina's dilogy "The Eight" and "Dear Rita" pp. 110-116

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.10.68779

EDN: TPBHJB

Abstract: The article raises the question of the principles of the relationship between adults and children in a modern children's story. In addition, the themes of home, family, and family education in the lives of teenagers are updated. The significance of this article is due to the importance of the problems posed, as well as modern and practically unexplored research material, which are the stories "The Eight" and "Dear Rita" by the modern teenage author M. Yakunina. To comprehend these aspects, the following research methods are used in the article: comparative, hermeneutic and comparative-typological methods. With the help of a systematic approach, an analytical study of the ways of socialization and self-improvement of a child in a teenage story is provided. The main result of this work is the study of different types of characters of children and adults, ways of their interaction and ways of self-realization. At the same time, the following tasks were solved: identification of key aspects of growing up and socialization of the child; analysis of the relationship between adults and children in Maria Yakunina's stories "The Eight" and "Dear Rita"; determination of the features of the development of the main storylines and the figurative system of the analyzed stories. The key topic of the article is the role of the family in the life of a teenager, the possibility of choosing a family by a child and the responsibility of both children and adults for the family as a whole and each of its members.
Alkhlavova I.K., Akamov A.T. - Sufi traditions in the later poetic works of Dzhaminat Kerimova pp. 111-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.1.31924

Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic specificities of the poetic texts of religious-philosophical content of the modern Kumyk poetess of the late XX – early XXI century Dzhaminat Kerimova. The object of this research is her later poetic works. Relevance of this topic is substantiated by the need for creating a holistic picture of the final period of creative path of the poetess, which marks prevalence of the religious-philosophical aspects. Based on philological analysis of the poems, the author determines the religious-philosophical motifs; as well as explores the problem of person’s stance on religion, material world, and children’s view of their parents. The main conclusions consist in revelation of the religious-ethical motifs in later period of poetry (1990-2000). The author’s special contribution to this research lies in the analysis of language peculiarities of Kerimova’s poetic texts of religious-philosophical nature that give insight into the specificity of Sufi factor. The author was able to determine that the theme of religion, which most vividly depicts the specificities of the use and functionality of Sufi lexicon, is dominant in the later poetic texts. The scientific novelty consists in reference to the later period of poetry of Dzhaminat Kerimova, as her literary heritage and religious texts in particular, remain insufficiently studied in the context of religious literatures of the peoples of Dagestan. The author believes that the research of this topic would allow filling the gap in the modern Kumyk poetry, and thus, enrich not only Kumyk, but also Dagestani literature.
Zhigalov A.Y. - The concept of Russian sanctity in the book “The Venerable Sergius of Radonezh” by B. K. Zaitsev pp. 111-119

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.34803

Abstract: The book “The Venerable Sergius of Radonezh” by Boris Konstantinovich was first published in Paris in 1925. A. V. Amfiteatrov-Kadashev assumed that it is “the best work of the writer, imbued with the warmth of humanism, but, at the same time, truly national, Russian in spirit”. It is hard to disagree with this statement: B. K. Zaitsev not only describes the path of the Venerable Sergius of Radonezh, but also reflects a peculiar concept of the Russian sanctity. The fate Sergius of Radonezh resembles the path of Russia. The key traits of the true national character, the Russian soul merged in the image of the venerable old man. His image embodied the idea of the sanctity of the Ancient Rus’ and modern Russia – inwardly and spiritually true Homeland. An attempt is made to determine the essence of this concept give a brief description to its main characteristics. This substantiates the novelty of this study. The author concludes that the image of the venerable old man Sergius of Radonezh resembled the image Rus’ itself, which conveyed modesty, humbleness, purity and lightness, braveness and frankness, departure from rebel and extremes, humility and meekness, communication with God, love for the father’s house and parents, inner beauty and outward humbleness, sincere faith. All of these features are inherent to the Russian soul. Although it is not easy to discern such natural spiritual wealth in oneself, it will point the right path and lead to true sanctity that was achieved by the Venerable Sergius of Radonezh and described in the book of B. K. Zaitsev.
Volkova K.B. - Genre originality of King Vachiravudh's novel "The Heart of a Young Man" pp. 111-119

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.7.38491

EDN: HOYQRZ

Abstract: The object of this study is the analysis of the genre of the novel "The Heart of a Young Man" by the Thai king Rama VI Vachiravudh (1881-1925) – the monarch who stood at the origins of the formation of modern national literature of Siam / Thailand. The subject of the evaluation was the compositional and stylistic features of the work of the king-composer. Vachiravudh's innovation in the field of genre allowed not only to truthfully depict the personal experiences of the protagonist of the work, but at the same time to pose an important problem – man and society in an era of global change. Biographical, historical and comparative methods were used for a detailed analysis of the novel's genre originality. This is the first original Thai-language epic work of the monarch, which is of unconditional interest and artistic value. Previously, the novel was not translated into Western languages and did not become the subject of a separate study by both national Thai literary critics and foreign ones. In "The Heart of a Young Man", Vachiravud proved himself as a talented artist-innovator, creating an original genre synthesis: a sentimental novel in letters with elements of a realistic psychological novel. The form of the Western European sentimental novel in the letters of the XVIII century. Vachiravudh uses the connection of the social into the personal in the fate of an individual to express topical issues. Based on the material of "The Heart of a young Man", the plot and compositional organization of the epistolary novel, the originality of the typological features of the genre (Preface, indication of the place and date of writing, address to the addressee, signature, etc.), its chronotope and the relationship between the hero - narrator – author, as well as the features of the image of the inner world of the protagonist and his spiritual evolution are investigated. It is shown that, having inherited the tradition of European literature of the XVIII – XIX centuries, Vachiravud anticipated in his novel one of the dominant lines of development of Thai literature of the twentieth century.
Kim L. - Theoretical Literary Analysis of the Term 'Network Literature' pp. 112-118

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27817

Abstract: The subject of the research is the theoretical literary structure of the phenomenon of network literature, important literary fact of the contemporary history. In the course of the research Kim analyzes and denies as insufficient several theories of network literature that are based on the search of necessary and sufficient grounds. In particular, Kim criticises post-modernist theory of network literature as a hypertext and historical theory of a network text placed on the Internet and created using technical means of the Internet environment. These theories, however, are not fully denied, the author uses elements of these theories in his integral theory of network literature that is based on the theory of an open concept. The research methodology includes the conceptual and logical analysis of relevant literary terms, theories of language games of late L. Wittgenstein and anti-essentialism of Ziff and Weitz, structural and post-structural reflection over the historico-literature definition of 'network literature'. The result of the research is the theoretical description of the intensional of the term 'network literature' that combines conceptual, historical, post-modernist and Wittgenstein's approaches. The results of the research can be used in theoretical literary and  historico-literary research as well as teaching. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author establishes the grounds for the theoretical and methodological research framework of network vocabulary. 
He J. - Images of Late Soviet and post - Soviet writers in the works of Yu. Polyakova pp. 113-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.37735

EDN: QJUIMZ

Abstract: The main subject of the article is the heroes-writers and heroes-editors from the main works of Yu. Polyakov. In the center of the research are such works of Y. Polyakov as "Parisian love of Kostya Gumankov", "Goat in milk", "Plaster Trumpeter", "Love in an era of change", "A merry life, or Sex in the USSR". This article confirms that the work of Yu. Polyakov is an encyclopedia of late Soviet and post–Soviet life, and the writer himself is a chronicler of the era. The article also mentions the proximity of Yu. Polyakov to the literary circle and his ability to portray a gallery of images of writers without distance. By analyzing the images of representatives of the Soviet intelligentsia, this author tries to answer the questions: why did the USSR collapse? What is the role of the intelligentsia in the collapse of the USSR? The article identifies seven types of writers: opportunists, sycophants, "dissidents", opponents within the Soviet system, ladies' men, drunkards, and writers who embody the conscience of literature. Most of those characters do not feel their social responsibility to the people, they only think about their material goods, only two characters demonstrate writer's responsibility. Having analyzed the main and minor characters of these works, we can understand the reason for the collapse of the USSR and conclude that the lack of a sense of responsibility among the intelligentsia and indifference to their country lead to the breakdown of society.
Kirdyaeva O. - Oscar Wilde's "Picture of Dorian Gray": painting, portrait or something else? pp. 114-122

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.1.37353

Abstract: The subject of this research is the contextual row of synonyms picture-portrait-painting in Oscar Wilde's novel "The Picture of Dorian Gray". The article examines the interrelation of the selected lexemes with the content and plotline of the literary work. Analysis is conducted on the various aspects of implementation of the key meanings of the lexemes in the narrative, turning particular attention to the fact that namely the lexeme “picture” is reflected in the title of the novel. Since the title is the most significant form of expression of the author's plan and comprehension of the own literary work, there is a need for accurate interpretation of the author’s intention and substantiation of the choice of the lexeme “picture” as a plot-forming in comparison with “portrait” and “painting”. The scientific novelty of this research lies in the selection and examination of the triad of lexical units in their semantic, plotline and content interdependence in the novel by O. Wilde, in structuring synonymic chain in the priority sequence that is significant for the accurate interpretation of the author’s position, in determination of the additional triad of symbols, as well as in indication of the latent dynamic component of the headline lexeme of the novel. The acquired results demonstrate that the synonymic chain “picture-portrait-paining” features the technique of ascending gradation, with the dominant word “picture” that forms the title and meta-theme of the literary work. These contextual synonyms determine the emergence of the new triad: instrument, object, and image of creation. The studied lexical units, which a priori are in syntagmatic connectivity, transform into the paradigm of ideological meanings of the novel.
Zipunov A. - Macrosemantic rhythmic structures in the songs of A. Mirzayan pp. 114-128

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.38151

Abstract: Earlier, semantic rhythms were found in several texts of the author's song of the 1950s-80s, determined by the oppositions "private-universal" and "order-chaos". In the process of analyzing these works, a method of categorical macrosemantic structures was developed. Previously, this approach was applied in a systematic study of cultural trends. As part of the current work, the songs of the famous bard Alexander Mirzayan are considered using this method. The totality of this author's creativity is analyzed. From the standpoint of semantic rhythms, a structural analysis of the song "Wanderers" based on the poems of A. Mirzayan was carried out, as well as several song adaptations based on the texts of I. Brodsky, V. Sosnora and T. Klangsor were considered. In the works under study, the general theme of the conflict of a certain alternative system with the state line is traced. Mirzayan's interest in this topic is probably connected with the social processes of the late USSR. In addition, the presence of semantic rhythms in songs based on poems by A. Mirzayan and poems by other authors is compared. As a result, it turned out that the indicators of PM-rhythmics in song adaptations exceed the indicators of these structures in A. Mirzayan's poetry. Thus, the method of categorical macro-semantic structures helped clarify the principle by which Mirzayan selects poems by other authors and what are the methods of their adaptation.
Novikau A.V. - The Tree "Yggdrasil" as a Symbolic Key to the Interpretation of the Novel by Mark Z. Danilevsky's "House of Leaves" pp. 114-144

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2024.1.39786

EDN: KSTUIS

Abstract: The object of research in this article is a novel by Mark Z. Danilevsky's "House of Leaves" in the context of postmodernism. The subject of the study was the mythical element of the novel (ash Yggdrasil). This element is considered as a hermeneutic key to the interpretation of the novel by Mark Z. Danilevsky's "House of Leaves". Also, the subject of the study is space and time in the novel, inextricably linked with the mythical component of the works. As a result, a detailed analysis of the mythical component of the "House of Leaves" is given in the context of the poetics of postmodernism, as well as some characteristics of the space-time of the novel. Hermeneutical interpretation is performed using the poem "Yggdrasil", located on the last page of the novel, as a symbolic key. The grapheme "Yggdrasil" and the symbolism of the components of the limit tree in their relation to the exemplification of the structure of the novel as a whole are analyzed. The mechanism of the inclusion of the work in the context of world literature is described through the actualization of semantic and etymological inclusions of mythical motifs about the creation of the world in the text of the "House of Leaves". The analysis of intertextual references to Egyptian mythology through the symbols of the ouroboros and the solar disk is given. The plot of the path of the sun god Ra in the "House of Leaves" is analyzed. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that we have analyzed the symbolic detail in the novel: the hidden symbolism of the "Ash Tree" as the tree of the limit; elements of biblical mythology; the image of the inverted world; labyrinth, stairs. The interpretation of the work as a model of the world is considered, where the ambiguity of mythological and spatio-temporal layers, based on the inevitable symbolic references-threads, function as an instrument of appeal to the cultural unconscious. The connection of the mythologies of Egypt, Tibet, the texts of the "Upanishads" and "Kabbalah", as well as the artistic and literary intertext with the "House of Leaves" is analyzed. As a result of this hermeneutic analysis, an ironic postmodern interpretation of the work of Mark Z. is described. Danilevsky through the symbolism of emptiness (unselfishness).
Cherednichenko L., Lapko A. - Forms of presentation of content in educational media (on the example of the educational media project Arzamas) pp. 115-131

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.5.35663

Abstract: The subject of the research in the article is the forms of presentation of content in educational media, which are a very voluminous developing typological group and constitute a significant segment of the Russian information market. The editorial offices of these resources use modern formats for presenting scientific and educational information from different fields of knowledge in accordance with the trends in the development of journalism and following the interests and needs of the audience. The hypothesis of the study is the idea that educational media mainly use formats with a greater engaging ability to solve creative tasks and realize their functional purpose. Using the example of publications of the Arzamas network media project, the author examines the possibilities of various forms of presentation of educational information. The article presents an intelligence study of the forms of presentation of content in educational media. The novelty of the research is due to the small knowledge of the formats of online publications of this type and consists in identifying and characterizing the main forms of content presentation in educational media in the context of the development of online journalism formats. The methodological basis of the study was a systematic approach. The forms of educational media content are considered by the author of the article in the context of the development of journalism and the characteristics of modern media text. The study uses descriptive, informative, comparative and structural-functional methods to solve a scientific problem, highlights the main forms of presentation of the content of the educational media project Arzamas, reveals their features and functional purpose. As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that in order to realize their functional purpose, educational media use combined forms that allow solving educational and recreational tasks. The editorial board of the Arzamas educational media project creates a hypertextual and multimedia educational environment, addressing both traditional journalistic genres and new media formats.
Mu A. - About the Heroic Image in the Epic «David of Sasun» pp. 115-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.10.38675

EDN: IQTRPA

Abstract: The article is devoted to the heroic image in the national epic «David of Sasun», which is an ancient Armenian heroic epic, as well as the pinnacle of Armenian classical folk literature. The subject of the study is the heroic image of four generations of Sasun. The purpose of this study is to study the typological features of the heroes of Sasun, to explain their origin and the transformation of characters due to territorial features. The article shows that to a large extent they are similar to the images of early ancient Homer's heroes with primitive colors, noble origin and mighty power. They are distinguished by amazing strength, great kindness and bravery, an acute sense of justice and compassion, a high degree of patriotism, strong sense of collectivism and valuable civilian consciousness. In general, being a kind of symbol, the image of the Sasun’s heroes reflects the deep desire of the Armenian people, who have suffered from foreign aggression for a long time, for world peace, national independence and a strong national defender. But at the same time, the author identifies those features that distinguish them from the heroes of other epics in the article. The fact is that over time, being passed from mouth to mouth, they "localized" on the territory of the Armenian Highlands and acquired the qualities inherent in this people with fundamentally different thinking, activities and ideas about bravery, about war. The article shows the similarities and differences between the heroes of the Armenian and Greek epics, the distinctive characteristics of the behavior and character of the heroes of the Armenian epic. The major research methods are text analysis and comparative study.
Ibragimova K.R. - Pathetic speech in “Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer pp. 116-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36972

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the peculiarities of pathetic language in Geoffrey Chaucer's “Canterbury Tales” and rhetorical techniques used for saturating the speech of the narrator and the characters. On the example of the “Man of Law's Tale” and the “Second Nun’s Tale”, in which the vicissitudes of the heroines are in the limelight, the author of this article examines the specificity of pathetic speech and its functions in Chaucer’s text. The goal of this research lies in determination of the cause for using pathetic speech in these two tales. Research methodology employs structural, semantic, and historical-cultural methods of analysis of the literary text. The scientific novelty consists in reference to the analysis of rhetorical techniques in the poetics of Geoffrey Chaucer reflected in the context of the categories of tragic and pathetic, which have not been thoroughly studied in the Russian and foreign research tradition. The following conclusions were made: the abundance of pathetic speech is a means to draw the attention of audience; its heightened expansiveness allows reaching the expected emotional response. In most instances, pathetic speech is associated with the positive characters of the tales, as well as the narrator, who comments on the actions of the heroes and emphasizes the touching episodes in their lives. The speech of the negative characters in these two tales is rather neutral, and in some cases replaced by the speech of the narrator. Granting the word to the negative characters, Chaucer means expansion of their role, allowing the audience to look at them not only as the minister of evil.
Tsaregorodtseva S.S., Pogodina Y.Y. - Lyrical miniatures by Grigory Petnikov: historical and cultural context pp. 116-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.5.40809

EDN: TZDBWC

Abstract: Grigory Nikolaevich Petnikov (1894-1971) was a Russian and Ukrainian poet, translator, publisher. He actively published as a poet during the futuristic period (1913-1922), when he joined the literary avant-garde, was the Second Chairman of the Globe and one of the founders of the Kharkov publishing house "Liren". Since the mid-20s, Grigory Petnikov has been mainly engaged in translations and is still better known as a translator of myths of Ancient Greece, fairy tales of the brothers Grimm, Ukrainian and Belarusian folk tales, poems by Taras Shevchenko, prose by Ivan Franko, Marko Vovchok, German poetry. The second period of Grigory Petnikov's poetic creativity began with the time of the thaw and lasted until the last years of the poet's life. In 1958, Petnikov moved to the Crimea, wrote a lot and actively published as a poet. The article attempts to analyze the late poems-miniatures of Grigory Petnikov from his last lifetime collection "Lyrics", published in 1969. Special attention is paid to the genre and style features of Petnikov's lyrical miniatures, the cultural and historical context of the poems; an attempt is made to determine whether the poems from the collection "Lyrics" belong to the poetic trends and trends in the lyrics of the Silver Age.
Nabigulaeva M.N., Murtazaliev A.M. - Children's poetry by Rasul Gamzatov pp. 117-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.10.34165

Abstract: The object of this research is the works of Rasul Gamzatov, while the subject is his poetics and style of children's poems. Detailed analysis is conducted on the genre and ideological-thematic peculiarities of children's poems by R. Gamzatov. Attention is focused on the techniques and means of expressiveness of the literary image. Rasul Gamzatov's children's poetry has not previously become the object of comprehensive research. The author observes the lack of scientific research that touch upon this side of the poet’s activity, namely substantive, formal, and artistic peculiarities of his poems for children. This topic requires in-depth scientific examination. The conclusion is made on the extensive representation of children's poetry in the works of Rasul Gamzatov, the key motifs of which are hard work, education, patriotism, love for the mother, plea for peace on earth, and propaganda of the traditional highland upbringing. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt of holistic study of the poetics, as well as genre, stylistic and ideological-thematic peculiarities of children's poetry. The author’s special contribution to this research lies in shedding light on the little-studied aspect of R. Gamzatov's works, which arouses interest in further research of his literary heritage.
Poletaeva E.A. - Lyrics to Friends in a Literary Group 'The Moscow Time' pp. 118-125

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29294

Abstract: The subject of the research is the main trends in lyrics to friends created by a literary group The Moscow Time. The object of the research is the poems written by the poets who were the members of The Moscow Time devoted to friends or related to friendship. Lyrics to friends of The Moscow Time writers have never been a matter of special research in literary studies before. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the main patterns discovered in the poems devoted by The Moscow Time poets to their friends. The researcher focuses on intertextual references as part of friendship lyrics created by the literary group. The research is based on the comparative historical and analytical methyods. The author has also used theoretical provisions of L. Ginzburg's researches. The singularity of The Moscow Time group is their desire to unite and create the image of a fellowship like Pushkin's circle or Duma's three musketeers. The features of their fellowship is the opposition to the other world, jokes, friendly notes, discussions of politics, religion and philosophy. The poets also share memories about their young years spent together and commemorate dead friends. 
Yan' K. - Imagination and Reality: Mirror Symmetry in Gazdanov's Novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' pp. 118-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30534

Abstract: In his novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' Gaito Gazdanov criticizes the double world perception of Russian immigrants whose imagination and memories about the past prevailed over the reality. In order to express the relationship between two worlds, imaginatory and real, the writer uses the mirror symmetry as the main principle of plot creation, characters' and main hero's features making. As the final, the writer 'broke' the mirror of three aforesaid aspects at the story line 'the main hero kills his counterpart'. Thus, the meaning of the mirror structure and destruction thereof make the matter under research. In his research Yan uses the semiotic method and the method of intertextuality to view the relationship between the author's mind and artistic space the author has created. Detailed analysis carried out by the author allows to note that at the moment when the mirror symmetry was destroyed, the mirror relationship between the past based on the memory and imagination and the actual world disappeared, too. The author demonstrates the danger of close relation between the subjective and objectived world and invasion of the reality with the past or imagined present. The writer suggests to come back to the reality through self-realisation of an individual in the real world. 
Greshilova A. - The Myths About Peter the Great and Lenin in Tatyana Tolstaya's Prose pp. 119-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.4.27867

Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical myths in the prose of Tatyana Tolstaya: the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin are central to the artistic mythology of the writer, their functioning in the text is the object of research. In her article Greshilova discusses the motive structure of each of the myths, their author's interpretation and the relationship between them. Particular attention is paid to the image of St. Petersburg, because, first of all, within the framework of St. Petersburg space, parallels are built between Peter the Great and Lenin. In the process of analysis the author has applied the comparative and cultural-historical methods since it is necessary to actualize the “Petersburg text” of Russian literature, and the biographical context is also used. As a result of the work, the axiological and ontological status of the myths about Peter the Great and Lenin is revealed, which is the scientific novelty of the article. It is concluded that the key to interpreting the myth of Peter I is the “fractal” myth of St. Petersburg which Tolstoy presents in the stories one-centrically and literature-centrically. Another important conclusion is that both historical myths make an important part of the national concept of Tolstaya. Despite all its mystic and contradictory nature, the myth about Peter the First is has the constructive national beginning while the mythological image of Lenin, on the contrary, performs the destructive tendency. 
Pisarenko A.Y. - Motives and Images of Medieval Mysticism in the Works of Nikolai Gumilyov pp. 119-126

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.8.43754

EDN: WXOOAS

Abstract: This scientific article is devoted to the study of the influence of mystical motifs and images of the Middle Ages on the work of the Russian poet Nikolai Gumilev. The central task of the study is to analyze the specific works of the poet, in which the influence of mystical themes is most clearly traced. The article draws attention to various aspects of the interaction of mysticism and creativity, including structure, rhythm, language and images in Gumilev's works. The article uses methods of comparative analysis, textual interpretation and cultural and historical contextualization. Particular attention is paid to the reception of mystical elements in Gumilev's work among his contemporaries and critics, such as Marina Tsvetaeva and Anna Akhmatova. One of the conclusions of the study is that mystical motifs and images not only enrich Gumilev's creative world, but also serve as a key factor in the formation of his unique style. This, in turn, allows us to consider him one of the most significant and interesting authors of Russian literature of the early XX century. The novelty of the study is a detailed analysis of mystical elements in the context of Gumilev's general style and aesthetic principles, which was not previously considered in such completeness. These results may be useful for further study of the influence of mystical themes on Russian literature in general and on Gumilev's work in particular.
Naduda N.V. - National character in the allegorical prose of M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky pp. 120-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.34830

Abstract: This article analyzes the Russian national character as the main theme in the works of M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky. The criteria for selecting the research material is the date of publication (2019) and the presence of an allegorical plot, which depicts the traditionalism, spirituality, controversy, and at the same time holism, sense of humor, and depth of national character. The author views national character as the foundation of artistic world in the allegorical prose; as well as gives characteristics to the key motifs, such as faith, labor, challenges, antagonism of the alien, unfamiliar to a Russian person. The article employs the systemic-holistic approach towards revealing the typological features of the modern traditionalist prose by M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky. The research is based on the comparativism, which allows determining the common trends and uniqueness of both authors. The article identifies the invariant constructions and images (portrait, landscape, detail, language). The elements of biographical method are used for correlating the hero with personal experience and worldview of the author. The structural-semantic method allows focusing on the aesthetic object, revealing the semantic meaning of methods used by the writers to create the image. Hermeneutics characterizes the allegory and symbol as fundamental means of expressing the authorial intentions, which reflect the ideological and aesthetic changes in the literary system. This article is first to analyze the literary texts of modern authors from the perspective of ethnopoetics.
Seredina A.O. - Ekphrasis as the Expressive Means of Appolon Grigoreiv's Religious Views pp. 122-135

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.27345

Abstract: In her research Seredina considers religious and aesthetic views of Apollon Grigoriev reflected on the poetics of his fiction and epistolary heritage. The focus is on religious ecphrasis, that is, descriptions of icons, images of the Madonna, frescoes, temples and monasteries. An extensive material is drawn such as texts of Grigoriev’s early prose of the mid-1840s, essays and letters of the turn of the 1850s-1860s, as well as the final work of the writer, the memoirs "My Literary and Moral Wanderings". The theoretical basis for the immanent comparative analysis is the works of N.V. Braginskaya, N.G. Morozova, E.V. Yatsenko on ecphrasis. The study found that Appolon Grigoriev put forward different requirements in evaluating a secular work of art and a work claiming to be sacred. The author of the article also traces the peculiarities of interaction between the categories of nationality and sacredness in the concepts of Appolon Grigoriev. In this article Seredina continues her analysis of the theme of ecphrasis in the prosaic heritage of Appolon Grigorieva who had not previously attracted the special attention of literary critics.
Zakharova E.M. - The philosophical aspect of the book of literary and critical articles as a structural and semantic unity pp. 123-139

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.3.37823

EDN: KFQLLK

Abstract: The focus of this research is the book of literary-critical articles as a "big form", a phenomenon of such a special and developing branch of modern science of literature as cyclology. The main objects are authorized collections of articles written in the period from 1986 to 1989, when literary criticism of the philosophical direction was revived. Publications were selected as the research material: "On a live trail. Spiritual Searches of Russian Classics" by I.I. Vinogradov, "The Artist in Search of Truth" by I.B. Rodnyanskaya and "Paradoxes of Novelty: On the Literary Development of the XIX–XX centuries" by M.N. Epstein. The purpose of this work is to identify and analyze the principles that make it possible to talk about the philosophical nature of books that have become the object of comparative analysis for the first time. The distinctive feature of the books of the period 1986-1989 considered in this article in semantic terms were the "Aesopian language" conditioned by the era, indirect and direct references to the texts of Holy Scripture, concentration on issues related to the problems of Russian classical literature to solve problems of a spiritual and moral order. In general, we can talk about each of the books considered as a conscious attempt by the author to offer his own view both on problems relevant to the current state of literature and on issues of universal importance based on philosophical concepts and special ideological attitudes.
Efimov A.S. - “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” of V. P. Meshchersky and “The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” of V. P. Titov and A. S. Pushkin pp. 124-134

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.1.32153

Abstract: This article examines the influence of the romantic-gothic novel The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” (1829) by V. P. Titov and A. S. Pushkin upon the anti-nihilistic novel “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” (1877) by . P. Meshchersky. In the limelight is the evolution and sociopolitical adaptation of the romantic-gothic themes “invitation of evil spirits into the house” and “evil spirits obsessed with romantic passion towards a human”. The article demonstrates how the religious-mythological image of “evil spirits” (destructive beginning) undergoes “ideological transformation”, and in the conditions of development of realistic art in the middle XIX century “blends” at the artistic level of anti-nihilistic level with the image of a “nihilist”. The research is based on biographical, comparative and historical methods, as well as motif analysis. The sociopolitical context of the 1870’s is being considered. Problematic of the continuity of Pushkin’s storyline, characterology, and system of themes in the works of V. P. Meshchersky is an unexplored area. The study of influence of the narrative “The Remote House on Vasilyevsky Island” upon anti-nihilistic novel “The Secrets of Modern Petersburg” along with their comparative analysis have not been previously conducted. The article also comments on the historiosophical ides, which led Meshchersky to reconsideration of Pushkin’s storyline and its adaptation to the relevant sociopolitical realities of the 1870’s.
Kur'yanov S.O., Ivanova N.P., Kur'yanova V.V. - Topical Issues of the Theory of Supertext: Literary Aspect.
Associative Semantic Supertext
pp. 124-136

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.11.39200

EDN: QWEDLH

Abstract: The subject of this study is the associative-semantic supertext as a system of integrated texts, which is a textual community. The purpose of the study is to specify the terminology and clarify the features of some aspects of the associative-semantic supertext, in particular, to clarify the concepts of the core and structural components of the supertext, as well as to solve the problem of distinguishing between the types of associative-semantic supertexts according to the type of referent, that is, questions on the answers to which depend today there is clarity in the identification, classification and interpretation of supertexts. In questions of the theory of supertext, the methodological basis of the study was the work of V. N. Toporov, N. A. Kupina and G. V. Bitenskaya, N. E. Mednis, A. G. Loshakov, in questions of the theory of myth — the work of A. F. Losev and E. M. Meletinsky, in matters of the theory of concept, motive, archetype, symbol, intertext — the works of Yu. S. Stepanov, A. F. Losev, B. M. Gasparov, K. Jung, Yu. Kristeva, A. P Chudakov, I. V. Silant'ev. The study clarifies the concept of the supertext core, designating the myth as the main component of the supertext and its modern version — a constant mythologized representation. The classification of associative-semantic supertexts according to the type of referent is given, it is shown that nominal, topical (spatial) and event supertexts are heterogeneous and are divided into personal and character, local and regional, casual and epochal supertexts, respectively. All this speaks of the novelty of the study, which continues the general theory of supertext. The development of the theory of associative-semantic supertext contributes not only to further study of its various aspects, clarification of their functions, but also indicates new approaches to large text formations, since, generated by creative writers, they not only recreate the world in constant representations, but also form thanks to these mythologized representations of the picture of the world assimilated by the perceiving consciousness.
Iudakhin A.A. - The polemic of F. M. Dostoevsky with Catholicism: towards the formulation of the problem. pp. 125-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.5.38246

EDN: UFKIME

Abstract: The subject of the study is the journalistic work of F. M. Dostoevsky in the aspect of his religious and confessional problems, which includes a complex of specific motives, among which the anti-Catholic question stands out. The author points out that the Catholic theme, the genesis of which dates back to the early 1860s, will become one of the leading ones for all subsequent publicistic and artistic creativity of Dostoevsky. Criticism of Catholicism as a sum of ideas, denunciation of the Catholic Church, correspondence polemics with the anti—Christian and even "anti-Christ" principle of papal Catholicism - all these topics are implicit or explicit in the novels of the Great Pentateuch and publicistic articles by F. M. Dostoevsky, influencing the conceptual design and architectonics of the works. It is based on this fact that the problem of the genesis and evolution of the writer's anti-Catholic views acquires a relevant significance in literary studies and Dostoevistics. The author demonstrates that the Catholic theme appears in Dostoevsky's field of vision in the first half of the 1860s in connection with the events unfolding in the west of the Russian Empire and on the Apennine Peninsula - the Polish uprising of 1863-1864 and the Italian Risorgimento. Catholic problems initially arise in Dostoevsky's field of view as a journalistic fact — various eventful incidents, everyday episodes captured by foreign and domestic press. The author of the article believes that it was the factology of the "Polish question" and the "Roman question", along with the anti-Catholic rhetoric of Slavophiles and soil scientists, that had a decisive influence on the formation of Dostoevsky's steady rejection of Catholicism, with which the writer will confidently and convincingly polemize until the end of his days.
Alkhlavova I.K. - Gender-Specific Featurs of Jaminat Kerimova's Poetry (the Case Study of her Love Lyrics) pp. 126-136

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29787

Abstract: The subject of the research is the gender-specific features of the poetry of of a modern Kumyk female poet of the late XXth - early XXIst century Jaminat Kerimova. The object of the research is her love lyrics. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as 'female poetry', masculine world view, difference between 'male' and 'female' poetry. For example, unlike men women tend to give a more emotional and pathetic description of their surroundings, love and family life because women usually depict the sphere of life that is close and clear for them themselves. The researcher also covers important motives in female poetry such as the motif of one-way love, destroyed illusions, unhappy family life, unrealized dreams of being a mother, etc. In the course of the research the author has used such research methods as comparison, psychological analysis and description. The main results of the research include: descripton of 'female' features of creative writing, typical featurse being pathetics and listening to one's heart, as well as description of the ideological features, genre and structure of images used by Kerimova. The author's special contribution to the topic is her analysis of specific features of female poetry which gives a better insight into gender-related issues. The dominating motif in female lyrics is love that demonstrates gender-specific style most brightly. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes creative writing of Jaminat Kerimova whose literary legacy is still understudied as part of Kumyk and Dagestan literature. 
Kudryavtseva R.A. - "Sheklyanur text" in the novel by Yivan Osmin "Between Heaven and Earth" pp. 126-145

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.69118

EDN: NCNJAO

Abstract: This article is prepared as part of the study of the actual problem of local supertext in the literature. It examines the "Sheklyanur text" of the documentary-fiction (autobiographical, memoir) novel by the Mari writer Yivan Osmin "Kava den mlande koklashte" ("Between Heaven and Earth"). The author identifies, describes and analyzes the main components of the "Sheklyanur text" (the problems tied to the Sheklyanur plot line and the Sheklyanur part of the biography of the central character acting as a narrator, the system of characters and events, descriptions, administrative and geographical realities, ethnographic scenes and details, language features), their place in the artistic structure of the novel and also highlights the historical context of the "Shakespearean text", most clearly visible in its ring composition and having a dramatic and tragic orientation. The methodological basis of the research is the historical-genetic method and the structural-semantic analysis of the work. They made it possible to identify and adequately interpret the meaningful lines of the "Shakespearean text" to the maximum extent, to describe the key elements of its poetics. Yyvan Osmin's novel "Between Heaven and Earth" for the first time in regional and Russian science has become the object of special analysis, it is studied in the context of the actual, almost unexplored in Mari philology problem of local overtext in literature. The "Sheklyanur text" of the novel is considered as a focus of information about the specific aspects of the village of Sheklyanur (as a socio-cultural space) of the mid-1930s, sustained within the framework of an artistic and documentary (memoir, autobiographical, primary) narrative. The "Sheklyanur text" is filled with memorable everyday scenes of a personal and social nature, which, together with open ethnographic elements, recreate pictures of the Mari world and some features of its manifestation in a particular place of residence of Mari. The exceptional signs of the "Shakespearean text" were the authentic names of real characters, their destinies, topographical and administrative-economic realities, lexical features of the narrator's speech.
Dulova S.A., Nikolaev N.I. - Gaito Gazdanov's Prose in Terms of Changing Worldview in Literature pp. 128-134

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30501

Abstract: Modern literary studies view the first wave of the Russian Immigration of the XXth century as a heterogeneous phenomenon. Traditionally, researchers describe two generations of the Russian Immigration, the 'seniors' (Bunin, Shmelev, Zaitsev, Gippius and others) and 'juniors' (Nabokov, Varshavsky, Yanovsky and Gazdanov). Peculiarities of each writer's creative style still need to be clarified. Description of experimental and innovatory searches of each junior and analysis of the influence of modern European literature on them have not allowed to make conclusions about general trends in their writing. The question about the changing worldview in literature has been partly covered in researches of Gaito Gazdanov's creative legacy and era. The most famous modern approach to this problem is an attempt to describe changes in the worldview by focusing on particular aspects (the feeling of upcoming catastrophe, crisis, loneliness, etc.). These observations prove extension, clarification, and explicitation of a traditional worldview, however, they do not always mean a qualitative change. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author views the initial cause of changes in the worldview in litrature as the search for a principally new position towards the world that would allow to model the world as one whole. 
Apal'kova E.S. - The image of Venetian mirror in the magic storylines of P. P. Muratov and A. V. Chayanov pp. 128-136

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.12.37065

Abstract: This article examines the role of the image of Venetian mirror in the novella “The Venetian Mirror” by P. Muratov and “The Venetian Mirror, or Remarkable Adventures of the Glass Man” by A. Chayanov, as well as their connotation with the literary tradition of the mirror image. Representation of the mirror as a bearer of supernatural power takes its roots in folklore. Image of the mirror and principle of mirroring hold an important place in the poetics of romanticists and symbolists, and gain popularity in literature of the 1920s. Analysis of the image of Venetian mirror in the works of Muratov and Chayanov demonstrates that both texts fall under the tradition of Venetian text of the Russian literature, as well as reveal similar motifs that indicate their typology for small magical prose. However, the author also determines the individual interpretations of the role of magical item in the life of the protagonists: if in A. Chayanov’s novella, the Venetian mirror changes the usual order of things, then in Muratov's novella it sets the tone of narration. The scientific novelty lies in functional comparison of the texts with magical storylines, in the center of which is the image of Venetian mirror. The author comes to the conclusion that the extensive use of magical elements in the romantic context by A. Chayanov is antipodal to  neutral intonations of P. Muratov. It is noted that Chayanov creates a neo-mythological story of the pursuit and cognition of “Self”, personal becoming; while Muratov in his novella realizes the myth of lost harmony.
Akamov A.T., Gasharova A.R. - The image of Qazi-Mullah in the poetry of A. I. Polezhaev (in commemoration of the 225th anniversary of the birth of Imam Ghazi-Muhammad) pp. 130-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34417

Abstract: The object of this research is the poems (“Erpeli” and “Chir-Yurt”) by A. I. Polezhaev. The authors explore the peculiarities of artistic presentation and interpretation of the image of the Muslim scholar and theologian, first imam of Dagestan and Chechnya, leader of the Caucasian highlanders – Imam Ghazi-Muhammad (Qazi-Mullah) in the poetry of A. I. Polezhaev. The relevance of this publication is caused by heightened interest and enormous controversy around the topic of the Caucasian War and its leading figures. It is noted the evolution of views on the liberation movement of highlanders headed by Ghazi-Muhammad can be traced on the works of A. I. Polezhaev. The article reveals Polezhaev’s perception of the activity of the imam as the manifestation of religious fanaticism. Herewith, A. I. Polezhaev describes the idealized image of Qazi Mullah in a hyperbolized form, objectively depicting his positive qualities. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the analysis of the image of Imam Ghazi-Muhammad through literary works contributes to comprehension of the heroic concept of a real person in literature and profound understanding of the problem of historicism overall. The article leans on the contrastive method, which involves comparative analysis (subjective personal reflections and manifestations of the author are correlated with the historical facts).
Pokhalenkov O.E., Nikulicheva S.E. - Female images in the novel “Three Comrades” by Erich Maria Remarque pp. 131-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.10.36379

Abstract: This article analyzes female images in the novel “Arch of Triumph” by Erich Maria Remarque. The research is based on the theory of N. Pavlovich that each image has several similar invariants ascending to the uniform archetype. A hypothesis is advanced that the characters in the works of E. M. Remarque can be divided into two groups: 1) associated with the generally literary archetypes; 2) collective living images. The article also examines female images who have a plot-driven and artistic meaning in the text, although do not belong to the indicated time period. The image of Patricia Holman in the novel is associated with the mythological archetype, which is reflected in the description of her appearance, behavior, and corresponding events. It is noted that all central female images in the novels by E. M. Remarque have are intertwined with the mystical characters from myths and legends. The scientific novelty consists in tracing the evolution in description of the images of public female figures in comparison with another novel – “Arch of Triumph”. The author also examines another narrative parallel between the two novels: similar stories of two families lived in a particular historical time. The conclusion is made that the storyline of many novels by Erich Maria Remarque is based on a certain pattern. The author attempted to reconstruct the aforementioned pattern, which has largely proven the assumptions put forward in the earlier research.
Shestakova I. - Peculiarities of a Motive Organization of Mikhail Shishkin's Novel 'The Hair of Venus' pp. 135-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.4.30651

Abstract: In her article Shestakova analyzes the motive structure of Mikhail Shishkin's novel The Hair of Venus. Based on the analysis of particular images and motifs, the researcher proves her statement that these motifs and images are not just conjunctive narration elements but integrators of a whole range of symbolic meanings acquired by an image in the process of transferring between narration lines. Such dynamics in the development of invariants, transparent motifs and 'wandering' plots demonstrate their ontological perspective and potential for constant development and transformation. This feature marks overcoming of death as one of the key themes in the novel. The researcher has used description as a research method as well as comparison which allows to define intertextual basis of the novel under study. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author discovers implicit isomorphism of poetic and prosaic structures in the novel The Hair of Venus as well as analyzes the main features of Mikhail Shishkin's individual style. For this purpose, the researcher analyzes sound motifs and rhythmic-accoustic effects of the novel that bring close the prosaic structure of the text and poetry. 
Lushnikova G., Chibireva E. - Two Naples in the literary text: contrasting image of the city pp. 135-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.1.32030

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of representation of the city of Naples in “Neapolitan Novels” by Elena Ferrante. The object of this research is the tetralogy of the Italian writer Elena Ferrante “The Neapolitan Novels”. The goal of this article consists in description, analysis, and revelation of a controversial image of Naples in the works of Elena Ferrante “The Neapolitan Novels” compared with the text of other Russian and foreign writers of various times. Special attention is paid to the negative characteristics of the city reflecting the secular chronotope, daily image of the city through the eyes of female protagonists of the novel. Methodology is based on intertextual method, since the analysis suggest comparison of the image of Naples in specific works; and comparative method, which allows noticing the commonalities and differences in the image of Naples. The following conclusions are made: 1) the opposite interpretations of the city – positive and negative – depend on a particular observer, whether he is a tourist or a local; 2) Naples of Elena Ferrante is presented as a source of ethical and spiritual decay; this is the “second” Naples representing dehumanized, backstage image, the inside of a beautiful city. The novelty of this article lies in viewing the dualistic nature of Naples, as well as analysis of Elena Ferrante’s work “The Neapolitan Novels”, which did not previously fall under the spotlight of literary scholars.
Li G. - Geocultural image of Manchuria in the novel “The Root of Life” by Mikhail Prishvin pp. 135-144

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.4.35230

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of geocultural space of Manchuria in the novel “The Root of Life” (Ginseng) by M. Prishvin. In the early 1930s, the writer participated in ethnographic expedition to the Far East. Being a professional ethnographer and a highly qualified agronomist, the artist meticulously explored the nature of Manchuria, interpreting it from the perspective of European (rationalistic) and Eastern (mythological) worldviews. The formed as a result of contact of the two diverse cultures “geocultural dualism”, expanded the boundaries of the novel, revealing a deep philosophical content: the problem of co-creation of nature and man. The article provides a list of geocultural markers of the eastern province of China, as well as gives a detailed interpretation of the artistic content of all the authentic attributes of ancient Chinese culture (among them: spotted deer, velvet antlers, ginseng, etc.). The article offers the interpretation of key philosophical concepts of the novel: “kindred attention” of the Chinese traditionalism, concept of co-creation of man and nature; special attention is given to the natural philosophical views of Mikhail Prishvin. The conclusions are based on the material of zoological, botanical, and seasonal-climatic descriptions of Manchuria. The novelty of this research consists in culturological and philosophical interpretation of the title symbol – the “root of life”. Ginseng assembles the entire semantic charge of the oeuvre, and draws together its geocultural plan. The collected geocultural inventory (naturalistic notes on the life of spotted deer, botanical and entomological observations of M. Prishvin, lifestyle of the ancient Chinese culture) is included into the dialectical structure of the central symbol, suggesting constructive interaction of the Eastern and Western types of worldview. The "root of life" as a demiurgical potential, revealed in the act of individual creativity, is the initial unity of a man (“gin”) and nature (“seng”) in the process of improving the universe. For proving this hypothesis, the author employs the method of culturological; analysis of the behavior of the protagonist, who is experiencing a moral breakthrough in communication with the carrier of Chinese mythological culture.
Borozdina M. - Nikolay Chaev's Poem 'Nadya'. On the Question about Transformation of the Poem Genre in the Russian Literature of the 1870s pp. 136-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.27353

Abstract: This article is devoted to the question of the transformation of the genre of the poem in Russian literature of the 1870s. The object of the research is the poem “Nadya” by Nikolay Chaev, a Russian writer who in the literary environment is mostly known as the author of historical dramas and chronicles from ancient Russian history. The purpose of our study is to confirm the idea that in the 1870s, writers try to peculiarly revive the seemingly outdated genre of the poem, essentially transforming it. In the course of the analysis of the stated theme, the author of the work relies on the following literary methods: cultural-historical, comparative, genre-historical. As a result, the author of this study establishes that Nikolay Chaev, while writing 'Nadya', crosses two lines of the Russian poem of the 19th century, the manor and the folk, thus creating in the second half of the 1870s a new type of poem that best meets the requirements of the times.
Efimov A.S. - Anti-Nihilistic Novel and Gothic Novel: Raising a Question pp. 137-152

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2019.2.29893

Abstract: The article is devoted to an understudied issue, the relation of Russian anti-nihilistic novel (1860 - 1880) to gothic novel or, in a wide sense, European and Russian gothic literature. The scope of the research covers a number of Russian and foreign researches directly or indirectly discussing the relation 'anti-nihilistic - gothic novel'. In accordance with the research objectives and targets, the author provides an insight into the matter and describes the areas for his research. The main research methods used by the author include bibliographical, biographical, motif and plot analysis, comparison and historical literary research. The  main issues related to the Russian nihilism - gothics relation include the question about whether there was a gothic plot in an anti-nihilist novel; the influence of gothic literature on the creative method of particular authors in anti-nihilistic novel, goals of gothic poetics in Russian anti-nihilistic novel, the influence of gothic poetics on the development of eschatological motifs of Apocalypse in Russian anti-nihilistic novels. Trying to describe the general meaning of addressing of anti-nihilistic authors to the poetics of gothic novel, the author of the article comes to the concept of the 'highest analytical meaning' of anti-nihilistic novel when conclusions are mystical prophesy and discovers the need in an anagogic interpretation of a text. Thus, references  to gothics in an anti-nihilistic novel are not limited to the borrowing of expressive means but relate to the Russian eschatology issue.   
Shi Y. - Theatrical tradition in the stories by Nikolai Nosov pp. 139-146

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34351

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of theatrical tradition, which is a manifestation of the game principle in the stories by N. N. Nosov, and is closely associated with life experience and pursuits of the writer. The author carries out a systemic analysis, reviews the embodiment of theatrical traditions on the specific examples, and reveals that in the works of N. N. Nosov, the theatrical principle is reflected in acquisition of the peculiarities of dramatic genres (dialogization, explicit conflict, primacy of action over description, use of declamation, role game as a plot element). Such tools allow creating a comic effect, depict the true character traits of the heroes, convey a bright and creative childhood atmoshpere. The scientific novelty of this research consists in comprehensive analysis of the  theatrical tradition in the works of N. N. Nosov. The relevance is substantiated by insufficient study of the topic of theatrical tradition in the stories by N. N. Nosov, as well as by heightened interest towards his works. The acquired conclusions cab be used in studying literary heritage of the writer. The interpretations of texts offered in this article may valuable in staging the works of N. N. Nosov in the theater or cinematography.
Skryabin V.Y. - Sonnet "Ozymandias" by P.B. Shelley pp. 140-146

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.3.38513

EDN: KEUXBX

Abstract: Thanks to its irony and the famous line "Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!", the sonnet "Ozymandias" has become one of the most famous poems of the romantic era. It was written by Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1817 and eventually became his most famous work. The poem describes the half-buried remains of the statue of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II and contrasts the proud words of the pharaoh with his ruined likeness. The main theme of "Ozymandias" is that any power is temporary and transitory, no matter how proud or tyrannical the ruler may be, and is achieved through a number of poetic techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the poetics of the sonnet "Ozymandias" by P.B. Shelley. This article presents the history of writing the sonnet and attempts to analyze the poetic techniques used in it. The analysis takes into account the peculiarities of literary and critical perception and understanding of the author's works and their translations in Russia. A hypothesis is described explaining the origin of the pseudonym Glirastes, under which Percy Shelley was hiding and under which the sonnet "Ozymandias" was first published in The Examiner newspaper on January 11, 1818. References to the sonnet "Ozymandias" in popular culture are given.
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