Litera - rubric Author's view
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Author's view
Antonova E.M. - William Blake: the poetry of madness and the philosophy of evil pp. 1-24
Abstract: This article examines the legacy of the poet-philosopher William Blake, interest in whom has re-emerged nearly two centuries since his death. Blake and his poetry are still the subject of analysis and research. Nowadays he is considered to be an author and thinker who discovered a new approach to poetry -- poetry of thought and poetry of philosophy -- that was an absolute innovation for the era in which he lived. Blake's legacy is bottomless; it has inspired artistic, philosophical, and poetic thought and we have yet to grasp his extraordinary philosophical depth.
Granin R.S. - The Problem of Objectivation in Nikolai Berdyaev's Existential Philosophy pp. 1-23


Abstract: In article the philosophy of spirit of Berdjaev developed within the limits of his existential metaphysics is analyzed. The basic problem of this philosophy is the relation of existence of spirit to world life, numinosum to phenomenal. The form of such relation, according to Berdjaev, is the function of human knowledge which hypostasis mind designs in effect (universals, substances), then socializes them after what they get categorial obligatory character, their own being. Struggle against the objectivation of spirit is represented by Berdjaev eschatologically, through the transcendental exit from the limits of the phenomenal cause and effect world in a reality of the primordial freedom, the existence.
Kudaev A.E. - Methaphysical and anthropological bases of creative phylosophy of Nikolay Berdyaev pp. 1-95


Abstract: The article includes analysis of the religious methaphysics and ñhristological anthropology by N.Berdyaev, which influenced the formation of the "key theme" of his "life and thought",  his creative philosophy. The author shows the specific features of its understanding, its inclusion within the context of theanthropism. The author reconstructs Berdyaev's mythologem on the human being, which influenced the understaning of creative nature and mission of a human being. A human being is born to create, he should continue creation of the world, otherwise the divine plan shall not be implemented and "world creation shall not happen". The author shows the central role of the primary phenomenon of tragic matters in the entire philosophical and aesthetic concept of N. Berdyaev, which directly influenced his concept of creation and tragedy and creation, from which the understanding of future "creative work" of human being is formed.
Kutyrev V.A. - About Linguistic Counterrevolution, its Cause and Post-Human Prospects (Reflections on A. Nilogov's Book 'Philosophy of Anti-Language Published in 2013 in St. Petersburg) pp. 1-27


Abstract: There is a growing tendency towards critisizing the role of language in the sphere of the humanities. These tendencies form some kind of a counter-linguistic movement. One of the examples is the book 'Philosophy of Anti-Language' written by A. Nilogov. The main causes of these tendencies are the processes of technification and scientization of the modern world. The author of the article describes how these tendencies are presented in the humaities. The first level of so called 'linguistic counterrevolution' consists of the programming and digital communication languages which was implicitly demonstrated in Jacques Derrida's works. The second level presents trasnformation of communication into 'commutation' and 'syncretizing' of the world into undivided equation of the Other. Arithmetic, technological and speechless reasoning becomes the norm and creates a certain paradigm attitude to the world. This creates the grounds for technologization of modern humanities (even philosophy) and transformation of modern humanities into purely 'zombic' thinking on one hand and choatization and inclination to perversions on the other hand.  The author of the article emphasizes the need for overcoming these suicidal tendencies through protecting the language. 
Tsygankova A.A. - Graphic and visual means of creating an individual author's style (based on the texts of Umberto Eco) pp. 9-19



Abstract: In this article, the author considers such means of creating an individual author's style as graphons and phonetic-graphic means. The subject of the study is both deviations from the norm, graphically designed, and purely graphic techniques subordinated to the idea of creating a language game. Among the phenomena considered by the author are italics, typeface variation, author's punctuation, capitalization, strikethrough, underlining, bold, solid writing, as well as special lettering of some characters. The research is based on the material of Umberto Eco's novel "Baudolino" and "Diario minimo". As the analysis has shown, Eco resorts to special character designs to create irony, as well as to enhance the expressiveness of the artistic text. The novelty of this study lies, first of all, in the choice of material that had previously remained outside the limits of linguistic research, as well as beyond the attention of domestic linguists. The novel "Baudolino" has hitherto been the subject of research exclusively among literary critics, semiotics and medievalists, but has not been considered from a linguistic point of view. The same can be said about humorous experiments of Umberto Eco. The theoretical significance of the research lies in attracting the attention of researchers to such means of creating an individual author's style as graphic and visual, based on the material of Umberto Eco's creative heritage.
Klimkov O. - The "Gospel Philosophy" of Tihon Zadonsky in Terms of Russian Spiritual Culture pp. 54-73


Abstract: In his article Klimkov studies the significance of personality and spiritual philosophy of Tihon Zadonsky in terms of secularization processes of the Russian mentality. His main literary works and their influence in modern culture are considered. It is noted that his works are still insufficiently studied at the present time and need a deeper understanding. The historical conflict between imperial ideology, the official church position and the self-consciousness of the individual believer clearly manifested in his life is being analyzed. The researcher also raises the problem of the relationship between state, church and society. Klimkov has used the historical phenomenological method as well as literary analysis and philosophical theological research methods when necessary. Becoming a bishop, he very soon began to dislike established order of doing things and the life of a church official. His work, dedicated to true Christianity, reveals the untruth of false Christianity, which has become ubiquitous. An ideal of true holiness is revealed, connected with the deep needs of the human soul and the world order as a whole. The extremes of religious mysticism and secular rationalism make Tihon to seek a new path for the Orthodox spirituality, as reflected in the increasing personalization of the Christian life and the role of personal faith in comparison with the traditional religious way of life based on rituals and ceremonies. The researcher also analyzes religious and philosophical views of Tihon Zadonsky. Special attention is paid to his anthropology and gnoseology. The Klimkov underlines that Tihon Zadonsky's way of thinking deeply correlates with Orthodox mentality that has gained an adequate theoretic expression despite the scholastic narrative method. 
Gershenzon M.O. - The Teaching About the Business of Life (Nikolai Gogol) pp. 59-73


Abstract: The famous Russian philosopher M. O. Gershenzon considers the sincere drama of Gogol, but rejects the point of view which has developed in literature on the conflict of the writer with V. G. Belinsky. According to Gershenzon, in domestic literature there is no other work, except "The chosen places from correspondence with friends" in which so completely and selflessly the subject of noble service to society would sound. As well as Belinsky, Gogol, according to the author, professed exclusive public idealismAt the same time in article there is no aspiration to eliminate disagreements between the writer and the critic. Gogol's views have grown from his special art talent. The outlook of the writer had, according to the philosopher, two poles: unshakable conservatism in the attitude towards all material reality and the most courageous radicalism in the attitude towards human spirit. In article feature of the internal conflict of Gogol is approved. Having strong art talent, he constantly worked. In him paradoxically ardent pensiveness and a sober practicality was combined. Views of the writer were utopian. But in it and strength of his art genius.Novelty of article consists in attempt to eliminate an unfair assessment of creativity of Gogol who as if has betrayed liberating ideals. Estimating Gogol's creativity, the philosopher doesn't try to smooth internal contradictions of the writer. But Gershenzon in own way sees a being of the public conflict which was reflected in his creativity.
Gorshkov A. - Persian theme in Plutarch’s works based on the episode from the treatise “On Isis and Osiris” pp. 63-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the cultural ties between Greeks and Persians, while the subject is the image of Persia and Persian in Plutarch's treatise “On Isis and Osiris”. The author carefully examines such aspects of the topic as the problem of barbarism, Zoroastrianism as the foundation of Persian worldview, Persians from the perspective of Plutarch, description of Persian religious rites and traditions. Special attention is turned to the problems of borrowing Persian words into the Ancient Greek language (Avestan lexemes are being modified in the Ancient Persian language, and then adapted in the Ancient Greek language). It is noted that Greek language has been influenced by the barbarian languages due to deepening ties of the Greeks with other peoples. The conclusion is made that Plutarch was sincerely fascinated with Persians and certain aspects of their worldview; he compares the sayings of the Greek philosophers and poets with Persian ontology — contrary to the stereotypical perception of the Persians as barbarians, standing below the Greeks in their development. The author’s special contribution consists in juxtaposition of the Zoroastrian doctrinal provisions with the rites and practices of the Persians described by Plutarch. The novelty of this research consists in the advanced hypothesis that explains the rich spirit in the lexeme Ὡρομάζης. The relevance this work lies in examination of interaction between the Greek and Persian worlds, which has not received due attention in the Russian philological science.
Semilet T.A. - The Philosophy of War in the War Correspondence by George Grebenstchikoff for the Newspaper Zhizn Altaya in 1916 pp. 66-73


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the correspondence sent by George Grebenstchikoff to the newspaper Zhizn Altaya from the World War I frontline in 1916. The scholars who have been researching George Grebenstchikoff’s heritage have emphasized mostly his fiction while journalistic texts are yet underexplored and his reports for Zhizn Altaya are still rather archive items than challenges for scholars. The subject of the article is the philosophy of war by George Grebenstchikoff represented in the analyzed set of his correspondence. Scientific works on the essence, sense and structure of the philosophy of war shape the methodological background for this research. Scientific originality of the research is achieved both through penetration into a most underexplored side of George Grebenstchikoff’s writing, namely his war correspondence, and through revealing his attitude towards the war, his understanding of its nature and manifestations, the authors prove that in the analyzed set of correspondence the war is represented as the disaster possessing the features peculiar to a mythical creature who is destroying nature with its iron plod, barbed wire, fire spits, nickel flies and metal frogzillas. The unwritten is crucial for the philosophy of war in the correspondence. It is what the journalist regards as insignificant and not deserving to be written out. War reports by George Grebenstchikoff show no battles and attacks, nor the concept of the enemy, nor the purpose of the military actions, nor heroic words, nor descriptions of offensives or retreats, mediocre or gifted commanders, nor victories and defeats as the false values of wartime. Siberia is regarded by George Grebenstchikoff as the antithesis of the war. It is another dimension, remedy and relief, vivifier and soul purifier. Siberia smells and sounds good, is colorful and beautiful all the year round. It is the true and absolute value.
Krasikov V.I. - "Illegal Eternity": Philosophical Allusions in the Construction of Realities in the Novel "Love for the Three Tsukkerbrines" by Viktor Pelevin pp. 71-79


Abstract: The object of this research article is the conceptual ideas and images in the novel by Pelevin's "Love Three Zuckerbrins". The subject of the research is the philosophical allusions from the point of view of their influence on the author's construction of reality. The article deals with such aspects of the topic as the influence on the philosophical content of the novel of Buddhist and monotheistic traditions, modern cosmology and some fantastic ideas. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the author's interpretations of such spiritual phenomena as transcendence, solipsism, monotheism, theodicy, and dualism. Methodological tools used by the author included typification, comparison, analysis and construction, elements of philosophical reflection and social perception. As a result, historical-philosophical and modern scientific and literary novel's allusions united by common cosmological and anthropological vectors are analyzed. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the analysis of historical and philosophical motives contained in the novel. The novelty of the research is the modeling and identification of the basic philosophical grounds of the Pelevin world-building concept presented in the novel "Love for Three Zuckerbrines". 
Zhang C. - The Lexical Means of Expressing Emotive Semantics in N.V. Gogol's Poem "Dead Souls". pp. 71-82



Abstract: The subject of this study is the lexical means of expressing emotive semantics in Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol's poem "Dead Souls". The object of this article is N.V. Gogol's poem "Dead Souls". The author of this article considers in detail such aspects of research as to investigate the essence of emotive semantics, to identify and analyze the ways of emotional expression in a literary work, and also to present the results of the analysis of lexical means of emotive semantics of N.V. Gogol's poem "Dead Souls". The research methods in this article are the method of analysis, descriptive method, continuous sampling method, and also contextual analysis of lexical units. The main conclusions of the study are that the research conducted within the framework of this article confirms the assumption that the main tool for emotional verbalization is emotive vocabulary, namely various lexical language means. This category of vocabulary is nominative. The reasons for the priority of this tool are due to the fact that in the structure of the lexical meaning of a language unit, it is the emotive seme that stands out most vividly. The scientific novelty of this article consists in the fact that for the first time a linguistic study of the emotive content of such a work by N.V. Gogol as the poem "Dead Souls" was conducted. The results of this study can be applied in the further study of linguistic features of emotive semantics, as well as in the practice of teaching the russian language.
Belyaeva T.N. - The ideological world of the trilogy of the Mari writer N. Lekain «Iron Will», «In the Fire of the Great War», «Land of the Ancestors» pp. 71-81



Abstract: An analysis of the themes, issues, ideas and pathos of the trilogy of the Mari writer Nikandr Lekain is the basis of this article. The novels «Iron Will» and «Land of Ancestors» depict the process of social and national revival of the previously oppressed Mari people. The depiction of the events of the beginning of the 20th century (Stolypin’s agrarian reform, the Great October Socialist Revolution, the Civil War, the NEP) takes place through the prism of the author’s worldview. The writer shows the conditions under which the process of formation of Soviet regime, the implementation of a new economic policy, the growth and formation of a new progressive Man, and the overcoming of the vestiges of the past in the minds of the Mari people took place. The novel «In the Fire of the Great War» by the former front-line soldier reveals the patriotism and heroism of the multinational Soviet people, manifested in the fight against the fascist invaders during the Great Patriotic War. This aspect is considered for the first time in Mari literary studies. The structural-semantic research method makes it possible to evaluate both the ideological world, the author’s worldview, and its individual poetic elements. Through the prism of the writer’s attention, the image of a resisting and fighting Soviet soldier is comprehensively depicted; as well as the heroic actions of the Yevsey’s, Ivan Zuev’s guerrilla warrior detachments in the enemy’s rear; the awful life under occupation of the Sosnovka’s village inhabitants; the cruelty of the German invaders; the spiritual squalor of the traitors. N. Lekain’s trilogy epically reveals the historical events of the late 19th – mid-20th centuries.
Urazaeva N., Morozov E. - The Category of the Subjective Modality in the German and Russian Languages (Based on the Analysis of Wolfgang Borchert's Play The Man Outside) pp. 122-129


Abstract: Modern trends in linguistics pay great attention to the study of language as a means of communication and the transfer of in-depth information of the text, which should be adequately reflected in the translation. This article discusses the means of expressing modal relations in German and Russian. The study is conducted on the example of the play “The Man Outside” by the German writer Wolfgang Borhert. Through the subjective modality, the specific quality of the attitude to what is happening and the characters on the part of the author and / or characters of the play is expressed. The main research methods were the study and analysis of scientific literature, continuous sampling and interpretation of factual material, contextual analysis. The subjective modality is expressed at all language levels (lexical, grammatical, stylistic), since only together they can provide complete information for the interpretation of the text, namely through modal words, modal particles, evaluative vocabulary, interjections, personal pronoun "Self", modal verbs and mood categories, literary tropes. In the study, the core of the subjective modality is the assessment of the characters of the described facts (confidence, uncertainty, condemnation, regret, agreement, disagreement, experience, missed opportunity, positive or negative evaluation). It was revealed that the implementation of the category of modality in German and Russian is different, and not always modal relations are fully reflected in the target language. For the translator, the correct interpretation of the modal characteristics of the text plays an important role, since the transfer of the content to another language is key to the need to retranslate all the nuances of subjective relationships.
Lyubimov N.I. - The image of the grove as a means of expressing the author 's axiological concept in the lyrics of Z. Dudina pp. 151-162



Abstract: This research is connected with the analytical consideration of the system of poetic images of a natural philosophical orientation in modern Mari philosophical lyrics. The aim of the work is to identify the ethnocentric semantic components of the mythopoetic image of the grove in the lyrics of Zoya Dudina and the ways of their artistic embodiment. The research material was the poems included in her collection "Kuanyshym, kuem ӧndal ..." (She was delighted, hugging a birch ...) (2012). The methodology of the research is determined by the structural and semantic analysis of lyrical texts, which allows to identify and describe the main structural components of the poetic image, as well as to understand their interrelationships and semantic organization at the level of the author's axiology. In the article, the author of the study proved that in the lyrics of the Mari poet Zoya Dudina, the multifaceted image of the Mari grove is recreated. In particular, it is presented as part of the divine world, often concretized and given in the form of a sacred tree. The central place in the image of the grove is assigned by the author to the ethnically significant and sacred content and mythopoetics, which does not limit him in the expression of individual creative aspirations, in the assertion of universal values. The grove for the lyrical heroine Zoya Dudina is a symbol of hope, spiritual and moral support, salvation of the soul, as well as the preservation of the Mari people.
Ma R. - Metatext as a means of expressing the linguistic personality of the author-narrator in the text of the memoirs pp. 163-172



Abstract: This article is devoted to the consideration of the linguistic personality of the author-narrator in the text of the memoirs by means of metatextual means used in it. The subject of the study is the linguistic personalities of the authors of the two memoirs selected by us - K.K. Rokossovsky in the memoirs "Soldier's Duty" and M.T. Kalashnikov in "Notes of the designer-gunsmith". The objects of research are metatext tools that participate in the structural organization of the text and reflect the author's attitude to the world around him and his narrative. The author pays special attention to meta-textual means with subjective modality, in particular meta-means with the verbs "to speak-to say", "to name". The main conclusions of the conducted research are the identification of metatectological means used in memoirs as a genre and characteristic of a particular author, determined by his personality, his activities, traits, experiences, etc., and the linguistic personalities of the authors of the memoirs under consideration manifested in these means. The novelty of the research lies in the consideration of the meta-textual means used by the author in the narrative in the first person, taking into account the genre features of the memoirs and the individual realization of the author himself. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is the identification of two constants of the linguistic personality of the author of the memoir text - the constant of logic in the message of events and the constant of the presence of the author-narrator, in which metatextual means play an important role.
Cheng S. - Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of small peoples of Russia (on the example of Yu. Rytheu, E. Aipina, Yu. Shestalov) pp. 163-175



Abstract: The article analyzes the ecological consciousness in the works of writers of the small peoples of the North of Russia. The subjects of the study are the works of Yu. Rytheu, E. Aipina. Yu. Shestalov. Unlike ecological works, ecological consciousness in the works of these writers is more connected with national continuity and cultural heritage. Globalization and modernity have had a huge impact on all spheres of development of national minorities, and they were forced to integrate into the modernization process, whether through active choice or passive acceptance.Modern economic means of industrialization, programming and rationing have an impact on the traditional ways of supporting ethnic minorities. Writers from small nations, as representatives of the advanced intelligentsia of various ethnic groups, were the first to feel this crisis and expressed their concern in their works. This article mainly uses the method of text analysis to analyze ecological consciousness in the work of writers from small peoples. The main contribution of the author is that he offers new methods of studying the literature of small peoples. Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of national minorities differs from other ecological literary works. Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of ethnic minorities is ultimately a matter of survival and sustainability of an ethnic group. At a time when the problem of globalization and modernity is becoming obvious, writers from ethnic minorities use their own literary works to raise this environmental alarm and arouse readers' attention to this problem. The author analyzes the works of writers belonging to small peoples, pointing out the various means and ways in which writers express their ecological knowledge.
Grunina E.O. - Linguistic implementation of author's modality in the series of novels “Manyunya” by Narine Abgaryan pp. 217-226


Abstract: The article examines the peculiarities of representation of personality of the author via linguistic means of literary text. Definition is given to the concept of “author's modality”, which implies the author’s vision, attitude, and value orientations expressed through selection of particular language means. The subject of this research is the linguistic peculiarities of literary text, which allowed the audience to portray the image of the author, and analyze the specifics of representation her linguistic personality. The goal of this research consists in determination of language means that reflects the peculiarities of the author’s linguistic personality, as well as reveal individuality and distinctness of literary style of N. Abgaryan. The research material is comprised of the partially biographical novels of the contemporary Russian writer Narine Abgaryan “Manyunya”, “Manyunya Writes a Fantastic Novel”, and "Manyunya, Ba Jubilee, and other Tribulation”. The analysis is based on the methodological toolset of the theory of linguistic personality proposed by Y. N. Karaulov, literary studies of V. V. Vinogradov, M. M. Bakhtin, L. N. Churilina, etc., dedicated to the author, analysis of linguistic personality of the character of literary work. The scientific novelty of consists in identification of specific manifestations of  author's modality on the example of works of the contemporary Russian writer, which allows fully revealing the image of a modern author. The conducted research highlights and characterize specific features of linguistic implementation of author's modality: priority concepts in the author's worldview (“family”, “time”, “memory”); individuality of creative perception and manners of the author (irony, self-irony, nostalgia, description of tastes and smells); authorial transitions (remarks, references); visual arrangement of the text. The acquired results can be used in the lectures on studying literary texts, classes on linguoculturology, linguopersonology, as well as teaching Russian to foreign audience.
YANG J. - The Problem of “Nationality” in Dostoevsky's Concept of "Pochvennichestvo" pp. 223-234



Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the problem of nationality in the concept of "pochvennichestvo" by F. M. Dostoevsky. The object of the study was the writer’s views on the people and their role in the formation of culture, the subject was the category “nationality”, presented in the journalistic and artistic works of F. M. Dostoevsky. The purpose of the article is to identify the historical context in which the writer’s ideas about nationality were formed and developed, and to highlight various aspects of the problem of nationality in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that the author is the first to consider the problem of nationality in the aspect of Dostoevsky’s attitude to utilitarianism and the formula “the environment is stuck.” The work, along with general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis and generalization, uses descriptive, biographical and cultural-historical research methods. As a result of the scientific research, the author points out the inevitability of the emergence of pochvennichestvo in Russian social life of the second half of the 19th century and analyzes the writer’s position in the dispute between Westerners and Slavophiles, coming to the conclusion that F. M. Dostoevsky did not oppose Western, essentially material, civilization, but resolutely rejected its inevitable by-product - spiritual degeneration. The writer asserted the power inherent in Russian Orthodox culture to resist the erosion of Western culture and called on the Russian people to take upon themselves the mission of the messiah. Dostoevsky’s ideas about nationality, like his pochvenism, prove the writer’s confidence of Russian people and Russian culture. The results of the research work can be used in further study of the work of F.M. Dostoevsky, as well as in teaching the history of Russian literature at school.
Song J. - Newspaper reports about the Polish uprising of 1863 in the perception of L.N. Tolstoy pp. 277-286



Abstract: During the Polish uprising of 1863, L.N. Tolstoy expressed a desire to go to war again, as is known from his letter to A.A. Fet dated May 1-3 and from S.A. Tolstoy's diary dated September 22, 1863. As a result, the very military-political context of 1863, in which this desire was formed, remained practically unexplored. It remained unclear which Polish or pan-European events could actualize Tolstoy's desire in May and September 1863, why this desire is now escalating, then, obviously, retreating. In this article we will fill this gap by recreating the foreign policy context of 1863 on the basis of newspaper reports about the Polish uprising in April-May and September. In the early 60s, the Polish uprising entailed the intervention of Western powers in the conflict. This led to a diplomatic struggle between the Russian Empire and the Western powers. The focus of our attention will be publications from the "Moscow Vedomosti" edited by M.N. Katkov, which Tolstoy most likely followed. The main method of research is comparative and cultural-historical. Using these methods, we analyze in detail what exactly happened in May and September 1863 in the theater of operations in Poland and in the diplomatic spheres of Europe. Recreating the international situation of that time, we will prove that Tolstoy's desire to "take the sword off the rusty nail", about which he wrote to Fet, arose at the most critical moments for European diplomacy, when a new war between Russia and a coalition of Western states (like the Patriotic or Crimean) seemed almost inevitable. And the disappearance of his desire is connected with the elimination of this military threat. This proves that at the time of the beginning of work on "War and Peace", the writer was still quite closely following the modern political agenda, although he refused to participate in the war, the thought of it did not pass without a trace and left an imprint on his artistic imagination. Tolstoy then offered the reader of War and Peace a generally peaceful view of relations between peoples.
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