Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 04/2023
Contents of Issue 04/2023
Semantics
Derevskova E., Pozdniakova N., Franchuk O. - Componential Analysis of Lexical Meaning of an Occasional word (Based on the Russian Language) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40001

EDN: FNDJVQ

Abstract: Basing on their own experience in teaching linguistic disciplines, the authors of the article reveal the most complicated issues in Lexical semantics learning. Being involved into new system of education, the first and second-year students need not only to get new knowledge, but also to master skills of the research work by studying the term paradigm. The subject of the study is one of the possible methods of training, which allows forming the theoretical knowledge of students through practical skills. The authors believe that future linguists should have knowledge about the meaning side of the language units of different levels and be aware of the componential analysis of the words meaning. The authors technique is a system of creative research tasks designed to help students master important concepts of modern semantic research, form the ability to use the terms that make up the theoretical basis of the topic Componential analysis of the lexical meaning of a word correctly and consciously. At the first stage students individually need to determine the lexical meaning of the occasional word relying on the paradigmatic and syntagmatic links of the words (creative work is based on the novel by T. Tolstoy Kys). Then students form lexical meaning of the words of the same thematic group. At the final stage students write the dictionary entry. This technique not only helps students to understand fundamental concepts while studying Componential analysis of the lexical meaning of a word, but also make the results of the research work productive and the conclusions conscious.
Linguistics
Shagbanova K.S. - The Linguistic and Cultural Nature of the Concept of "Patriotism" pp. 11-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40116

EDN: NVWFFJ

Abstract: The concept of "patriotism" has been the focus of research interest since the very first stages of the formation of science. Its uniqueness is due to the combination of polysemy, high nominative density and conceptual stability with a component of abstractness and active use in speech and text. This mental education is characterized by the ability to nominate actions and behavior patterns, reflect conceptual and linguistic specifics and constitutive features. The factuality component is implemented through a pair of correlates "the concept of "patriotism" the intention of the speaker", expressing a nuclear or peripheral meaning relevant to a certain communicative situation and type of discourse. The extralinguistic aspect of the concept under study is formed by a set of culturally significant associations and the degree of interaction with a particular subsystem of the language. The article notes that the concept of "patriotism" plays a significant role in the modern national linguistic consciousness. The article focuses on understanding the concept of "patriotism" based on the traditional values of national culture. It is emphasized that the studied linguistic unit performs its functions in the aesthetic space as one of the connecting elements between the individual and society. The author attributes to the key features of this phenomenon such as praxeology, appeals of concentrated and dispersive properties, high conceptual stability, limit, polysemy.
Tsygankova A.A. - Precedent Names and their Functions in Umberto Eco's Novel "The Name of the Rose" pp. 20-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40385

EDN: OCWRKY

Abstract: The subject of this study is the precedent names in Umberto Eco's novel "The Name of the Rose". The author relies on the theoretical provisions developed in relation to the precedent names of E. A. Nakhimova. With the help of computational methods of analysis and subsequent manual verification of the results, a list of all precedent names present in the novel was obtained. The names invented by Eco itself were also analyzed, precedent components were found in them, which were also analyzed. As a result, a list of 544 names was obtained, which the author classified into several groups. Next, the functions were defined in which the existing precedent names are used. The scientific novelty of this study is due to two factors. On the one hand, the author contributes to the development of the concept of "precedent name", which entered science quite recently (in the 2000s). On the other hand, the novelty is determined by the very material on which the research is carried out, since the texts of Umberto Eco until today are more often the subject of literary research, while their linguistic aspects remain out of the field of view of specialists. The author discovers the predominance of pragmatic and modeling functions of precedent names in the text of the novel. There are also examples of the use of case names in the human function and the evaluation function. At the same time, due to the theoretical provisions of postmodernism, in accordance with which the novel was developed, it can be said that the password function is concomitant with everything else. In addition, we can say that the massive use of precedent names in the text of the novel is used as a technique. Although science has not yet developed a single term for this technique, following the Danish researcher Jon Kyust, the author suggests using the term "neimdropping" for this.
Literary criticism
Ustinovskaya A.A. - The Facets of Intercultural Dialogue: Russian Symbolists in Translation Counterpoint with French Modernists pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40386

EDN: MTWSAK

Abstract: The subject of the study is the translation strategies of Russian symbolist poets formulated in a creative intercultural dialogue with foreign symbolist poets. The object of the research is the strategy of paraphrastic free translation, common in the Russian translation heritage of the early twentieth century. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the dynamic interaction of the original text with the translation text, as well as various translation decisions taken by the authors of the Silver Age, due to the use of which they radically changed the goal setting and implication of the translated text. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the original and translated text and the moments of discrepancy between the translation and the original. The main conclusions of the study are the formulated characteristics of the early Symbolist translation, until the moment of active participation in the process of Valery Bryusov, and then - the publishing house "World Literature". A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the study of the purpose of the original and translated text and the identification of counterpoints in this regard of the intercultural dialogue between the author of the translation and the author of the original. The novelty of the research lies in the formulation of dialog strategies of Russian poets-translators - representatives of symbolism, their practice of dynamic interaction with equal, in their opinion, representatives of foreign language culture, and the creation of a creative translation based on the original text.
Psycholinguistics
Hasanov M.M. - The Problem of Language Insecurity of Azerbaijani School Graduates Living in Russia: Methods of Overcoming it pp. 39-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40419

EDN: MUTHCQ

Abstract: The object of the study is the linguistic uncertainty of Azerbaijanis who live in Russia. The subject of the study is the causes of the phenomenon of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools who received education in Russian in Azerbaijan, as well as the main reasons of a social and individual nature that contribute to its manifestation. The article describes the main reasons that have become the source of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools who have received general secondary education in Russian in Azerbaijan. The authors of the article investigated the existing methods of teaching Russian in schools in Azerbaijan, the main problems that arise during the teaching of students, as well as obstacles that may affect the process of formation of language skills and knowledge of students. In order to study the causes of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools in the course of communication while in the Russian Federation, we conducted a series of interviews with graduates of a number of schools in the capital of the country, in the city of Baku. The definition of the concept of language insecurity is given and the main reasons of both social and individual nature are shown, contributing to the manifestation of language insecurity in a number of students who have graduated from Azerbaijani schools with the Russian language of instruction.
Folklore
Kartasheva A.O., Ustinovskaya A.A. - Valery Bryusov and Urban Folklore: a game with genre tradition pp. 49-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40532

EDN: QUTDJM

Abstract: The subject of the study is a literary game with the genre tradition of urban romance and factory (working) songs in the poetry of the poet of the Silver Age Valery Bryusov. The object of the study is Bryusov's genre palette and his creative searches in relation to the extensive development of genres of domestic and foreign literature, as well as folklore. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as Bryusov's genre strategies, his playing with genre constants and the deliberate distortion of the genre "grid" of the working song with the involvement of features of another, related genre of violent urban romance. Special attention is paid to the catamnesis of Bryusov's texts: their further embodiment in music as songs, both purposeful and spontaneous. The main conclusions of the study are observations on the stylization of folklore in the literature of the Silver Age and reflections on the genre nature of the works of one of the most significant collections of poems by Bryusov, Urbi et orbi (1903). A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is their consistent tracing in Bryusov's "songs" of the presence of references to specific realities included in the apperceptive base of the reader and the author himself. The novelty of the research lies in the appeal to the genre of urban romance and factory song in Bryusov's work and in the expansion of the evidence base of observations on the genre diversity of the work of this poet and prose writer.
Literary criticism
Kuptsova M.Y. - The vicissitudes of life in the mirror of Nikolai Gumilyov`s literary reputation in the post-symbolist period pp. 58-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40539

EDN: OLZPNK

Abstract: Nikolai Gumilyov is one of the key figures of acmeism and the literary life of Russia in the 20th century. The image of Nikolai Gumilyov, aspects of his work and influence on literature are of keen interest for modern philology. The article is devoted to a review of the elements of the biography that affect the literary reputation of the poet. The chronological framework of the study is the period from 1910 to 1914, from the period of the decline of symbolism to the outbreak of the First World War. The subject of the study is the reputation of the poet N. Gumilyov in the post-symbolist period. The analysis of the subject is carried out by means of system-typological, biographical and cultural-historical methods. The ups and downs of N. S. Gumilyov's fate influenced not only the creative process, serving as inspiration, but also the literary reputation of the poet, which determines the scientific novelty of the study. The result of the work carried out was the selection, through the analysis of selective places from the biography of N. S. Gumilyov, of such components of his reputation in the period of post-symbolism as writer, traveler and lover. The conclusions presented in the material can serve as a basis for considering both literary reputation in general and directly in the analysis of the image of the poet, as well as in determining the specifics of other periods of Nikolai Gumilyov's work and their influence on the literary reputation of the poet.
World literature
Soloviev R.S. - Philo and Numenius in the Neoplatonist-Christian struggle for true philosophy in the third century pp. 66-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40567

EDN: RXCEKY

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of interschool interaction between Platonists and Christians in the third century on the example of the figure of Amelius Gentilianus. Amelius' openness to the tradition external to Platonism finds precedent in the second century with Numenius, who was familiar with Christian scripture and included biblical quotations and information from the Apocrypha in his writings. Numenius himself was familiar with the Jewish tradition, also thanks to the texts of Philo of Alexandria, whose convergences the author analyses specifically in the text of the article. Philo of Alexandria, in turn, influenced the Christian tradition, not only through his allegorical method, but also through his teaching of Logos (Justin), which Numenius and Justin the Philosopher have in common. The figure of the Christian Ammonius, a pupil of Numenius, is a key figure in third-century philosophy: his pupils Origen, Longinus and Plotinus developed the doctrine of Logos. The lineage of the Philo-Numenian tradition proved productive of both Christian and Platonic philosophical schools, which not only created a common philosophical foundation, but also defined each school's claim to philosophical renewal.
Journalism
Smekalina K.S. - The trichotomy of the methodology of journalistic activity in the context of a gradual transition to the universalization of the psychological portrait of a journalist pp. 82-91

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40436

EDN: SKCZSX

Abstract: The subject of the study is the relationship of temperament and communicative patterns with the primary experience gained during attending classes, completing assignments and passing practice. The object of the study is the personal characteristics of potential journalists in correlation with their professional experience and identified difficulties. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the likelihood that journalism students experience problems with interpersonal communication during their professional activities and collecting material, as well as how this correlates with their psychological type. A special opinion is given to the consideration of the ratio of representatives of various psychological types among journalism students of 1-4 undergraduate courses. The main conclusions of the conducted research are: adaptation in the training and work of a journalist depends on the type of his psychological predisposition; according to the results of the conducted research, more than 60% of students of journalists experience difficulties in collecting information; distribution and emphasis on methods of collecting information regarding the commitment of a journalist to a particular activity is determined by the results of the conducted research. A special contribution of the author in the study of the topic is the consideration of the ratio of representatives of various psychological types among journalism students of 1-4 undergraduate courses. The novelty of the research lies in the establishment of the need to orient the methodology of journalistic activity on the psychological predisposition of a journalist to its implementation.
Anisimova O.V., Makarova I. - Mythopoetic Images of Irish Mythology in American Fantasy (the Case of Roger Zelazny's "Chronicles of Amber" - Corwin Cycle) pp. 92-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.39999

EDN: VOHZCA

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of key images of Irish mythology, widely used in fantasy literature, in particular, in American novels written in the second half of XX-th century. The paper considers the images of ship, tree and raven. Special attention is paid to their artistic interpretation in the novels of a famous American science fiction writer, the representative of New Wave - Roger Zelazny. The paper examines the etymology of these images, their origins in Sumero-Akkadian, Jewish and Greek mythologies, their main symbolic meanings and further interpretation in Zelazny's key novel - "The Chronicles of Amber". As a result, the complex characteristics of the three images both in the ancient mythologies and in the context of first five parts of the novel by the American science fiction writer, namely in the Corwin Cycle, have been provided. The findings achieved show that ship turns out to be connected with the key image of the novel - the Pattern, among other things symbolizing the process of initiation of the main characters. The tree, in its turn, acts as the primary basis of the Amber universe, its multilevel structure. Finally, the raven, the alter ego of the main character - Prince Corwin - stands for his destiny, filled with contradictions and relentless battles.
Literary criticism
Ma M. - On the question of the reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin in Russian Literary Studies pp. 102-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40546

EDN: WSGBXA

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin in Russian literary studies. The theory of the polyphonic novel by M.M. Bakhtin has been attracting the attention of researchers for more than 90 years. To date, a large number of works devoted to the study of Bakhtin's polyphonic theory have been published in Russia. A broad dialogue between researchers led to an increase in the degree of perception of Bakhtin's polyphonic theory, as well as to the deepening of research on Dostoevsky's novels. The purpose of our work is to identify the state and main trends in the reception of the theory of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel in Russia. In the article, the author gives an idea of the gradual development of Bakhtin's polyphonic idea in Russian literary studies, analyzes the specifics of the reception of the theory of the polyphonic novel at each stage. Based on the analysis, we came to the conclusion that the reception of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel theory in Russian literary studies is connected not only with the publication of the book by the scientist Dostoevsky, but also with the state of perception of Dostoevsky's work, and the hottest discussions in the process of receiving Bakhtin's theory are around the question of the independence of the voices of heroes and the role of the author in Dostoevsky's polyphonic novel, Bakhtin's methodological approach to the analysis of Dostoevsky's creativity. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the fact that the author considers various interpretations of the theory of Bakhtin's polyphonic novel in Russian literary studies.
Zhai D. - Secondary text and its features in E. P. Rostopchina's "Chatsky's Return to Moscow...." pp. 110-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40549

EDN: WQIUAK

Abstract: The purpose of the study: to consider the relationship between the secondary and the original literary work at the level of images of heroes, storylines, and text; to determine the features of dialogic in books, as well as to identify similar features of the original and secondary works, as well as to establish differences between them. The subject of the study is the artistic techniques of aging of continuation texts, identified on the basis of a dialogical text of the Russian writer of the XIX century E.P. Rastopchina. The method used was the analysis of the texts of the original and secondary works using the classification of intertextual interactions by Gerard Genette to identify connections based on excerpts from texts. This side of Evdokia Petrovna Rostopchina's creativity has been little studied not only in Russia and China but also around the world. Studying this sphere allows us to explore the phenomenon of dialogicity and thereby opens up new opportunities for studying the theoretical basis in this direction. The analysis of the play "Chatsky's Return to Moscow" shows that it is characterized by close intertextual ties with the primary work. In addition, the "Note from the author" in Rostopchina's play creates a paratextual connection between the two works. It is also possible to trace architexturally in the texts. At the same time, it is important to note that for these works it is the least obvious kind of intertextual relationship, and even the genre of the original and the continuation is defined differently by the authors. Nevertheless, both in the original and in the secondary work there are elements of a comedy of intrigue and a sitcom. This gives reason to talk about architextual intertextual connections. And finally, the conducted research of the works allows us to say about the presence of hypertextual connections, which are noticeable due to close paratextual and intertextual relations.
Linguistics
Kravchenko M.A. - Metalanguage reflection in modern advertising, or when metatext is more important than text pp. 118-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.37948

EDN: WRQXSE

Abstract: The article considers the advertising language as a specific linguistic phenomenon, the main characteristics of which are creativity, interactivity, expressiveness, culturogenicity, intertextuality and polycode. These characteristics of the advertising language, which determine its uniqueness, were the result of the influence of external and internal factors. An external factor is the pragmatic nature of advertising, which manifests itself in its suggestive orientation. The internal factor determining the uniqueness of the advertising language is the orientation of the producer to the code. The advertiser consciously and carefully selects the method of encoding the message, so the creation of the advertising text takes place in the process of deep metalanguage reflection: creolized texts of modern advertising are permeated with metalanguage contexts. The analysis of the corpus of examples of modern advertising texts, taking into account the assumptions put forward, allows us to conclude that a high concentration of meta-texts is one of the main defining features of advertising discourse. The objectives of this article are to identify and manifest the key characteristics of the advertising language; to resolve the question of how legitimate the very fact of distinguishing the "advertising language" as a specific linguistic construct can be considered; to determine the key parameter that forms the "superstructure" of the advertising language over the basis of natural language. The key characteristics of the advertising language are determined by the communicative orientation of advertising texts. The latter is purely pragmatic in nature. The main purpose of the advertising text is to have an effective impact on the recipient. Moreover, this effect is characterized as indirect, having a manipulative nature. The suggestiveness of advertising is perceived as its immanent property and basic category. At the center of the study of the language of modern advertising is the problem of the correlation of text and metatext. Metalanguage reflection plays a great role in the creation of advertising texts. Creolized texts of modern advertising are permeated with metalanguage contexts. A high concentration of meta-texts is one of the main features of discourse. For the advertising discourse, this feature is decisive.
Boyarkina A.A. - Representation of the Green Color in Journalistic Texts by English and German Nouns and Verbs pp. 131-144

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.39149

EDN: YGFVYW

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed work is to identify similarities and differences in the manifestation of green symbolism in English and German journalistic texts, the sources of which were online media. The subject of the study is the semantics of English and German nouns and verbs representing the green color in the compared languages. The symbolism of this color designation was chosen due to its insufficient study in the framework of comparative linguistics. In this article, based on the material of lexicographic sources, the dictionary meanings of these lexemes are determined, which can display the symbolism of the studied color in journalistic texts in English and German. The scientific novelty of this study is that for the first time it establishes similarities and differences in the transmission of green symbolism through nouns and verbs on the material of modern English and German journalistic texts. It was found that in English texts, in comparison with German texts, a greater number of nouns denoting green are used. In the course of the study, the comparative method, the method of semantic analysis, the modeling method, the quantitative method and the method of component analysis were used. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that in English journalistic texts, the symbolism of the green color, represented by nouns and verbs, is used to neutralize the green color of objects of material reality. In addition, the green color is able to display the positive symbolism of the permission of the requested action, environmental protection. In German journalistic texts, the symbolism of the green color can be both positive and negative. Basically, there is a positive symbolism of green when it comes to environmental protection. The symbolism can also be negative when the political activity of the Green Party in Germany is sharply criticized.
Al'-Avad A.R. - The Doctrine of Language and Speech Sounds in the Works of Al-Jahiz and A.A. Potebni: Similarities and Differences pp. 145-151

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.39877

EDN: YFRPMW

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of works of two philosophers and linguists A.A. Potebnja and Al-Jahiz "Thought and Language" and "The Book of Eloquence and Interpretation". Their ideas in the field of the philosophy of language turned out to be meaningful and advanced for their time, Al-Jahiz managed to synthesize the views of previous Arabic and Persian scholars, applying them to Arabic, he managed to draw logical conclusions about the system of the Arabic literary language and collect a four-volume collection of Arabic poems and sayings. His teachings covered not only grammar, but such areas as dialectology, paralinguistics, proverbs and sayings, eloquence up to experimental linguistics. The most important contribution of the Arab scientist, which has not yet been fully studied by modern scientists, is his exhaustive definition of articulate sound as a thought-organizing part of the human body. The purpose of our study is to identify similarities and differences in the views of scientists regarding the sounds of speech and their differences from the sounds of other animals.
Zhu Y. - Emotivity Category as a Way to Popularize Scientific Knowledge in Edutainment pp. 152-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40406

EDN: VSBLNG

Abstract: The purpose of our research is to study the category of emotivity in the Russian popular science text. The main research methods in this case are descriptive method, content analysis and emotive analysis. The linguistic category of emotivity is the subject of the study, and the popular science video "The Russian Language in 18 minutes" is the object. Special attention is paid to the function of the category of emotivity in a popular science text related to the popularization of scientific knowledge. In our work, we have shown that popular science text involves not only emotion-neutral components, but also emotive components, which include, for example, emotive-potentiative, rhetorical question, emojis and emoticons. It is also proved that with the help of emotive components, rigorous scientific information turns into accessible even for non-specialists. The novelty of the research lies in the analysis of the representation of the category of emotivity in a strict scientific style. As a result, it is proved that the category of emotivity can systematically manifest itself in a scientific style as a means of popularizing scientific knowledge, in particular in a popular scientific text. Russian in 18 Minutes, the material we have chosen, can be used as a good example in the class of Russian as a foreign language, the results of our research can also be used in the course of stylistics.
Language
Pervukhina V.A. - Associative-verbal network of thymological assessment in the Russian language pp. 161-169

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.38127

EDN: WDPFYY

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of reactions to the important in three associative dictionaries: "SEABASS Russian regional associative database (Siberia and the Far East)", "Russian regional associative dictionary-thesaurus EVRAS" and "Russian associative Dictionary". The research material is valid, since the associative experiment is one of the reliable methods of psycholinguistics. Reactions explicitly expressing the idea of a person are excluded from consideration in connection with their consideration in the author's previous work. The relevance of the research is connected with insufficient development of scientific ideas about the category of important in modern Russian linguistics. The description is based on the semantic gestalt method. The author identifies and describes the semantic groups formed by the reactions under consideration. Their analysis demonstrates the structure of the world, which is built by the category of importance. This world is not elementary and simple, it is multicomponent and complex. In it, a person is a subject with the ability to actively think and create abstract objects and names for them. A thinking subject uses an evaluation scale and can choose what is important to him (T-rank) and what is not (t-rank). This is one of the tools that a person uses to control their activities. Based on these conclusions, the author comes to the conclusion about the "human dimension" of the category "important" in the Russian language.
Linguistics
Knyazeva N.V. - Occasional complex words in the journalism of V. Nabokov pp. 170-179

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.40433

EDN: WEOZHE

Abstract: The object of the study is the individual author's complex lexemes of V. Nabokov. The source of the language material is the author's journalistic works, which, due to the specifics of the genre, contain a large number of occasional formations of various kinds, including word-formation derivatives. Composite words are considered as a manifestation of the phenomenon of language play in the author's text, on the one hand, and as the implementation of V. Nabokov's "game style" in journalistic texts, on the other. A wide range of philological research methods were used for the objective analysis of occasionalisms: semantic-stylistic, component and contextual analysis, and an intertextual approach was also implemented as meeting the content parameters of V. Nabokov's texts as a whole. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time occasional composite words were analyzed in the framework of a multidimensional approach based on the material of V. Nabokov's journalism. As a result of the analysis, conclusions of general and particular order were drawn, namely: - the author's journalism of V. Nabokov is characterized by a deep game stylistics of texts, which is expressed, among other things, with the help of word-making; - the use of occasionalisms in journalistic texts makes it possible to actualize the author's meanings, give capacious, figurative characteristics, at the same time reflect the position of the author; - occasional composites as a result of word composition are distinguished by linguistic compression and at the same time a great semantic saturation, including connotative meanings; - in V. Nabokov's journalism, the comic often becomes ironic, even sarcastic, going beyond the comic is determined by the specifics of the style: relevance, sharpness of the subject, emphasized by the freedom of the author's self-expression; - from a semantic point of view, V. Nabokov's occasional composites have a high degree of generality, often created by the author for the nomination of typical phenomena of reality, including typical images, characters.
Stream of consciousness
Al'-Avad A.R. - Prerequisites for the Formation of Arabic Medieval Scientific Terminology in the Works of Arabic Scientists as a Special Transition to Scientific Knowledge pp. 180-189

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2023.4.39411

EDN: WIQGMV

Abstract: Jabir ibn Hayyan, is one of the greatest figures in Arab culture and in applied chemistry. He contributed to the formation of chemical terminology in the Middle Ages, the vast majority of which still continues to function in modern chemistry and medicine. The article discusses the significant contribution of the Arab thinker in the formation of the Arabic medieval scientific chemical discourse at the first stages of its formation, which was revealed on the basis of Aristotle's methodological principles, the language of alchemy, translation from ancient Greek and Egyptian texts into Arabic. This led to the synthesis of ancient scientific concepts and the emergence of Arabic scientific terms denoting specific concepts of chemistry and the emergence of the first classification of substances and medicines. Continuous experimental studies of substances led to the emergence of new names of previously unknown substances, such as alkali, nitric acid, etc. In this paper, the achievements of Arab medieval scientists in applied chemistry were characterized and the main chemical vocabulary used in the description of various substances was analyzed. On the basis of the collected material, attempts were made for the first time to generalize the achievements of the Arab chemist using modern methods of studying terms and concepts. The attention is drawn to the inner side of the Arabic scientific term, which constitutes its conceptual base and the definition of which largely depends on the regulation of linguistic activity in the sphere of alchemy.
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