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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue ¹ 02/2023
Contents of Issue ¹ 02/2023
Literary criticism
Wang F., Galay K.N. - Comparison of Characteristics of Female Images in Russian and Chinese Rural Prose pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article compares systematically the works of Russian rural prose school and Chinese Beijing school from the point of view of reflection of female image in the works, analyzes the similarities and differences between them, as well as the reasons for their emergence from the position of comparative literary typology, taking into account the ontology of creativity. The village is the land where Russian and Chinese cultures grew and flourished, and rural literature written in the village gained a high reputation in both Russia and China during the period of great social transformations. The subject of the study is the characteristics of women's images in Russian and Chinese literature. The aim of the work is to analyze and compare female images in authors from Russia and China. Research methods – analysis of literary sources on the topic of research. Results of the research: the study of literary works from Russia and China on the theme of rural life was carried out, the portrayal of the female image by the authors of the two countries was compared. Conclusion. The works show an attempt to transform society through the pursuit of traditional culture and morality, in order to achieve an ideal state of society, full of love and freedom. The similarity of national-cultural narratives, themes and artistic styles makes the works of the Russian rural prose school comparable to the works of the Chinese Beijing school of simple fiction, but the differences between the historical and cultural background, religious beliefs and poetic soil of Russia and China make the works of these two schools of writing somewhat different.
Zhirkova M.A. - The tailed hero is a trickster in Sasha Cherny's story "The Cat Sanatorium" pp. 10-21



Abstract: The article presents an analysis of Sasha Cherny's novel "The Cat Sanatorium" (Rome, 1924 – Paris, 1928), the main character of which is considered as the archetype of the trickster. Beppo the cat takes revenge on his master for the hurt and pain caused, but this behavior turns against him: he finds himself on Trajan's forum, where homeless cats and cats live. Beppo does not find a place for himself in a new space for himself. The cat world does not become his own family for him, and for the inhabitants of the forum he remains an oddball. Freedom and independence are the sacred values for which he plays with death itself. Beppo is the image of a tramp, a homeless, but free and independent cat. The study reveals the main features of the trickster archetype in the image of the main character. It is also noted that Sasha Cherny's personal impressions of his stay in Rome, his experience of the historical realities of the turning point of the twentieth century and the writer's creative attitudes towards creating works for children are intertwined in the story.The scientific novelty of the work lies, firstly, in the fact that the "Cat Sanatorium" is subjected to a comprehensive analysis for the first time: the system of images, its structure, and autobiographical elements are considered, and secondly, the main character of the story is confirmed for the first time as a trickster hero. The relevance of the research will be determined by the growing interest in the literature of the Russian diaspora, and in particular, in the work of Sasha Cherny.
Freidson O.A., Verezubova E.E. - Corpus methods in research and study/teaching of the French language. pp. 22-33



Abstract: The aim of the work is to identify the possibilities and specifics of using corpus methods in conducting research on the material of the French language and in teaching French. The growing interest in the methods of corpus research based on specific language data and the insufficient development of the issue on the material of the French language determine the relevance of the work. The analysis has shown that today there are various resources for conducting corpus research on the material of the French language, including literary text corpora, parallel corpora, oral speech corpora, which create a specially organized multidimensional infrastructure of the language space, giving a comprehensive idea of language units, their compatibility, semantics and functions.   The authors have demonstrated that the existing corpus managers can be successfully applied in teaching French at the initial level, from the very beginning forming important linguistic and methodological competencies among linguist students. The scientific novelty of the research consists in a comprehensive review of the existing French corpus resources and the possibilities of their use in research and in teaching French. The results of the study can be used both for further development of research in the field of history, grammar, lexicology, stylistics of the French language based on corpora, and for the development of tasks for teaching French using corpus data, which is of practical significance of the study.
Truong T. - Features of the Anthroponymic Complex of Vietnamese and Russian Languages pp. 34-43



Abstract: The article presents the results of a contrastive description of a fragment of the picture of the world of Vietnamese and Russian as two unrelated and not neighboring peoples. The object of the study is the anthroponymic vocabulary of modern Vietnamese and Russian languages, the subject of the study is the common and non-coinciding features of the anthroponymic complex of these languages under consideration. The study is carried out on the material of dictionaries and cultural studies devoted to Russian and Vietnamese linguistic cultures. The result of the analysis is the conclusions made by the author about the similarities and differences, obtained from a contrastive analysis of the anthroponyms of two unrelated languages. The author does not concur in the tendency to reduce the Vietnamese anthroponymic complex, as well as the rearrangement of its components when mentioned and cited in the scientific literature. The materials and conclusions of the study can be used in teaching Russian and Vietnamese languages, some conclusions can be included in the general theory of anthroponymy.
Zheng Q., Viktor M.S. - The Features of Phrases in the Interlanguage of Chinese Students Studying Russian pp. 44-53



Abstract: The purpose of the study is to find out the features of phrases in the interlanguage of Chinese students studying Russian language. By analyzing a number of works related to the term "interlanguage", comparing the concept of interlanguage in the publications of various specialists, in the article the concept of the term "interlanguage" is clarified, which has been updated in recent years in Russian and foreign linguistics, and similarities and differences in their understandings are found. Highlighting the features of phrases in the interlanguage of Chinese student studying Russian language is an important and urgent task that contributes to the study of interlanguage as a whole. The subjects of the research are oral and written language materials collected by teachers with the help of classroom tests and homework among two groups of Chinese philology students studying Russian language at the Faculty of Philology in Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the authors for the first time systematically summarized and analyzed such features of phrases in the interlanguage of Chinese students studying Russian language as literal translation from native language to target language, the absence or excessive use of preposition, incorrect choice of preposition in phrases in the interlanguage of Chinese students studying Russian language, and the reasons for the existence of these features. The result of the study provides useful advices in the direction of improving the effectiveness of learning Russian language – in classes of second language acquisition, especially in classes of teaching Chinese students Russian language.
Literary criticism
Selemeneva M.V. - The City as a Theme and Text in the Prose of Victoria Tokareva pp. 54-63



Abstract: The subject of the study is the image of the city in small and medium prose by V.S. Tokareva. The author reveals the uniqueness of the artistic concept of the city in the work of Victoria Tokareva, which consists in a combination of the image of a generalized conditional space and recognizable spatial images that can be considered in the context of the poetics of local texts. Clarification of the characteristics of a generalized conditional city occurs through the analysis of a system of characters whose moral and philosophical paradigm is correlated with urban loci. Recognizable spatial images are correlated with the autobiographical context of the author's work and considered from the point of view of the author's contribution to the "Moscow" and "Petersburg" text of Russian literature. The author's main contribution to the study of the poetics of V.S. Tokareva's prose is to clarify the typology of images of short stories and novels and to identify "episodic heroes" - characters with an unformed moral and philosophical paradigm and a life position of non-participation in the destinies of other characters and their own fate. The poetics of the episode determines both the key characteristics of such characters and the properties of the urban loci associated with them. The main artistic techniques contributing to the identification of the characteristics of the characters of urban prose are V.S. Tokareva's precedent comparisons and details revealing the author's position. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that reading Tokareva's small and medium prose through the prism of the poetics of local texts makes it possible to clarify the originality of the author's interpretation of the images of the two capitals. Shifting the research focus to the generalized image of the city is productive from the point of view of clarifying the typological features of the character sphere and identifying relevant moral and philosophical issues.
Savelyev G.A. - Categories of things and words in the works of M. P. Shishkin (based on the material of the novels "The Taking of Ishmael" and "Venus' Hair") pp. 64-74



Abstract: The author puts forward the position that the nature of M. P. Shishkin's creativity is determined by the interaction of two trends: the preservation of a perceptually perceived thing in a word (the word in this case becomes an instrument for fixing a visible image of the world) and the use of a linguistic sign referring to a thing to create verbal and artistic constructions with immanent aesthetic significance. The writer's worldview position assumes that the ethical task of art (in the light of the research topic - the task of preserving the experience of perceiving the world) stand́t above the aesthetic (i.e. the task of creating an expressive art form). The author of the article proves that the poetics of Shishkin's novels is largely characterized by an "attitude to expression" (according to R. O. Jacobson), in which artistic discourse cannot be limited to the task of preserving a thing in a word. The analysis of the means of expressiveness and rhetorical techniques of the novels "The Taking of Ishmael" and "Venus's Hair" confirms the author's idea that the speech of Shishkin's heroes, fixing the results of perceptual interaction with the surrounding world, often turns into poetic speech, the "content" of which becomes the art form itself. Shishkin's creativity, therefore, exists only at the intersection of the two trends mentioned above. The removal of the "thing - word" opposition (with the value predominance of the former) is possible only in the context of a conversation about the novel "The Letter Writer", which the author of the article considers as an artistic text created entirely in accordance with the task of preserving the individual experience of living.
Tyunyaeva O.D. - “American-Style Man of Real Action”: the Image of Vasily Solomin in I. S. Turgenev’ Novel “Virgin Soil”. pp. 75-82



Abstract: The article focuses on the American topic in Turgenev's works. The rise of the diverse image of America drawn by Turgenev is shown in vast framework of what generally was thought about the New World in middle of XIXth century Russia. The author shows certain intersections that existed between the Russian Empire and the United States in the XIXth century, which determines the interest of these countries in each other. Turgenev's interest in the literature and culture of the United States was due not only to the personal tastes of the writer, but also to the general enthusiasm for the New World in Russian society of that time. The main point is the character of “postepenovets” Solomin from the novel Virgin soil. This character comprises several aspects of the major idea of a typical American shared by Russian society in XIXth century. The profound analysis of this last Turgenev's novel lets us to state that the American narrative interests Turgenev due to the new concept of developing Russia from below. Solomin, an American-style "man of real business" is shown like a hero, who can act in the prevailing historical conditions in Russia.
Korzhova I.N. - Who Discovered the Unknown Land? (The Double Motivation Device in the Works of F. K. Sologub and V. V. Nabokov) pp. 83-93



Abstract: The subject of the study in this article is the Sologubov pretexts of V. V. Nabokov's stories "Terra Incognita" and "In Memory of L. I. Shigaev". The paper establishes the genetic connection of these works with the stories "Summoning the Beast" and "Connecting souls" by F. K. Sologub. The work is based on comparative analysis, which helps to identify the commonality of the plots and techniques of the writers, to establish the features of the worldview that lead to a similar choice. The area of Nabokov's artistic attention, like Sologub, is a state of delirium, which motivates the bifurcation of space. An indication of the Sologubov intertext in Nabokov is the image of small domestic evil spirits, textually close to the descriptions of the predecessor. The article proves that the borrowing of plots is due to the aesthetic community of artists: the desire to recreate the twofold world by combining the objective plan with the image of an alternative – subjective or metaphysical – dimension. Ontological instability is recreated by writers using the technique of double motivation. The article examines the attempts of both authors to transform the technique found in prose for drama. Sologub implements them in the unfinished adaptation for the scene of the story "Summoning the Beast" and in the play "The Little Demon". Nabokov seeks to convey the point of view of the hero in the plays "Death", "Event", "The Invention of the Waltz". It is noted that in the field of drama, common attitudes find a dissimilar implementation at the level of techniques.
Tumgoeva F.Z. - On the Grammatical Basis of Single-Compound Sentences in the Russian and Ingush Languages pp. 94-107



Abstract: The subject of this study is to identify varieties of single–compound sentences in two genetically unrelated languages - Russian and Ingush, to describe the structural and semantic properties of the specified syntactic unit from the typological aspect. The following tasks are put forward in this scientific article: firstly, to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the concepts of the predicative center of one-part sentences of the Russian language in comparison with unrelated Ingush; secondly, to identify criteria for determining the types of one-part sentences in the Russian and Ingush languages; thirdly, to conduct a structural and semantic analysis of the predication of the types of one-part sentences. Sentences from two languages studied: Russian and Ingush. The scientific novelty of the study is that for the first time the main structural and semantic features and grammatical ways of expressing the predicative basis of a one–part sentence of two different-structured languages are revealed from a comparative point of view. In addition, the scientific novelty is due to the fact that the predicative basis of a single-compound sentence in nominative Russian and ergative Ingush languages has not been sufficiently studied from a typological point of view: to date, there are no or few monographs, scientific articles and other scientific works in which it would be elaborated in detail or aspect. As a result of the study, seven varieties of single-compound sentences were identified and it was proved that, despite some structural and semantic differences, in general, the predication and types of single-compound sentences coincide in the Russian and Ingush languages.
Kurilova A.D. - Elegance (elegantia) of Elocution in the Coverage of Russian 18th Century Rhetorical Books in Latin pp. 108-113



Abstract: The subject of the research is the concept of elegance of style in the coverage of Russian handwritten rhetorical manuals of the 18th century in Latin. On the example of one of the most important requirements for eloquence, the peculiarities of ideas about style in Russian rhetoric of the 18th century are revealed. The texts of handwritten manuals compiled in Moscow, Kolomna, Nizhny Novgorod, Vologda, Ryazan, Smolensk are analyzed in the context of the New Latin rhetorical sources, among which the most important are the rhetorical treatises of Feofan Prokopovich and Johann Gottlieb Heineckius, dating back to the first half of the 18th century. Their influence on the formation of Russian rhetorical thought is traced. As a result of the study, conclusions were drawn about the sources of the concept of elegance of style as the most important quality of eloquence, various interpretations of the concept of elegance in separate manuals were considered, and the main components of this concept were identified. A special contribution of the author to the study of this topic is that the texts of educational handwritten books intended for teaching rhetoric in secular and religious educational institutions of Russia in the 18th century have become the material of scientific analysis. The results obtained shed light on the Latin stage of the formation of Russian rhetoric and can be used for further research in this area.
Dolzhenkova V., Yakovleva V.V., Kudlai K.S. - Features of stylistic functions of Adverbs on -mente in modern Spanish fiction pp. 114-124



Abstract: The subject of the study is the stylistic functions of Spanish adverbs with the suffix -mente in modern Spanish based on the analysis of corpus contexts of works of Spanish prose of the XXI century. The analysis of functional features was based on the theoretical positions of the authors of domestic and foreign grammars of the Spanish language, works on linguistics. Adverbs with the formant - mente are grammatically multifunctional elements that are polysemantic lexical units that have the ability to acquire additional connotations in collocations with other parts of speech. Stylistic possibilities of adverbial units help to solve such author's tasks as assessment, characterization of characters, achievement of expressiveness of the text and imagery of the narrative.   The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time examples from the corpus of the Spanish language of the XXI century were analyzed, the names of the authors of which are well known to the Russian-speaking reader (Carlos Ruiz Safon), or practically unknown at all (Anton Castro, Diego Torron). The result of the study was the conclusion that the formant -mente has not lost its productivity at the current stage of language development and is a characteristic feature of the artistic style of the modern Spanish language. The findings have both scientific significance for theoretical research in the field of morphology of the Spanish language, and practical value for translators of Spanish prose.
Yan Y., Mitrofanova I.I. - The Concept of Honor in Russian and Chinese Linguistic Cultures pp. 125-137



Abstract: This article is devoted to the actual problem of the concept "honor" in the Russian and Chinese linguocultures. The concept "honor" is important both for the Russian and Chinese language picture of the world, and is found in different contexts with different meanings. The concept "honor" is of interest in the studies of Russian and Chinese scientists, it reflects the cognitive perspectives and psychological state of different peoples. The object of the research is the concept "honor", the subject is the concept "honor" in Russian and Chinese linguocultures. The author considers conceptual studies in the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world. The aim of the research of this work is to fully disclose the concept "honor" in Russian and Chinese linguoculture, as well as to identify national and cultural characteristics of the studied concept, trace the concept of the "honor" with the help of different dictionaries, investigate different concrete and stable expressions of the concept "honor" with similar meaning, including proverbs, sayings and others, analyzing symbolization of the concept "honor" in the mentality of the Russian people. In the process of work were used general scientific methods, inductive, descriptive, comparative, etc. As a result of the study it was possible to find out that the concept is an extremely important subject of study in linguoculturology. From the position of linguoculturology the concept "honor" is a reflection of the external world in human consciousness, which organizes the category of the linguistic picture of the world. Honor as an important concept in the study of linguoculturology, and at the same time one of the main concepts constituting Russian and Chinese national spirit.
Litnevskaia O. - La Rochefoucauld's "Maxims" in the Literary and linguistic context of the Epoch pp. 138-146



Abstract: The subject of the study is "Maxims and moral reflections" by Francois IV de La Rochefoucauld — a collection of aphorisms, first published in 1665 and became one of the most significant works of French classical literature of the XVII century. The question of the originality of this work, as well as its place in the literary tradition of the era, remains, nevertheless, open. The purpose of this article is an attempt to synthesize existing points of view on the originality of "Maxim". The method of research is the lexical and stylistic analysis of the collection and its correlation with the traditions of the era, as well as the requirements for form and content imposed on classical works. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the appeal to a wide range of works and the multidimensional nature of the study of the issue. Although many researchers still turn to the history of the genre and the historical context to find sources that influenced the content of the collection, quite little remains said about the language design of "Maxim" and their relationship with the normative works of the era. In the course of this analysis, we have established that, although the "Maxims" correspond to the canons of a classic work, they are the result of a complex synthesis of a wide range of phenomena. Their writing was influenced by the historical context, beliefs and habits of the French secular elite, the literary tradition of the previous era and the philosophical works of the author's contemporaries. Thus, we come to the conclusion that La Rochefoucauld's specific vision of the world, which in some aspects does not correspond to the generally accepted worldview of the era, is more than a tribute to fashion or a simple imitation.
Li X. - The Wind Motif in the Language of M.Y. Lermontov's Works pp. 147-159



Abstract: The article is devoted to the motivic analysis of literature. The object of the study is the linguistic means reflecting the components of the wind in literature, and their identification in Lermontov's texts. The subject of the study is the most significant works of Lermontov in the 1831-1841s, including words with the semantic component ‘wind'. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that it attempts to identify the linguistic means of implementing the wind motif in M.Y. Lermontov's poetic and prose texts. The purpose of this work is to determine the artistic role of these words and identify their stylistic features. To achieve this goal, the continuous sampling method, the method of classification, analysis and generalization are used in the course of the work. Thus, the presented material allows us to conclude that motivic analysis is especially promising when studying Lermontov's work. The motif of the wind performs an important symbolic function in his works: the wind is not only the movement of the air, but also a symbol of freedom, will, happiness, life's adversities and emotional experiences. Russian literature results can be used in the process of learning the language of Russian fiction, including the work of M.Y. Lermontov, they are also important for mastering the vocabulary of the Russian language.
Li H. - Conceptualization of Nature in Chinese and Russian Folklore Tales pp. 160-169



Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyze nature as a basic linguistic and cultural concept in Chinese and Russian folklore tales, to identify common and different in its verbalization and perception in folklore tales of two linguistic cultures. The object of the study is Russian and Chinese folklore fairy tales. The subject is a comparative analysis of linguistic means of conceptualizing nature in Russian and Chinese fairy tales. The author examines the descriptions of nature in Chinese and Russian folk tales, the relationship of the heroes of fairy tales with nature. Particular attention is paid to the linguo-axiological aspect of nature and the identification of differences in the linguistic representation of nature and attitudes towards it in the two linguistic cultures. The scientific novelty of the work is due to the lack of research on the concept of nature in a comparative aspect in Chinese and Russian linguistic cultures. As a result, it was found that in Chinese and Russian folklore tales nature is described as a basic value – a source of kindness and harmony. The author comes to the conclusion that the main differences in the conceptualization of nature in Chinese and Russian folklore tales are in the expression of the idea of fighting nature. The heroes of Chinese fairy tales resist the challenges of nature, while Russian fairy-tale characters use nature as a source of magical powers, with the help of which they subsequently achieve success.
Lyrics and the character in lyrics
Yukhnova I.S. - Music in the Lyrics of A.N. Apukhtin pp. 170-178



Abstract: The article examines the theme of music and features of the use of musical imagery in Alexei Apukhtin’s poetry. The object of the research are “poems for occasion”, friendly messages and dedications for musicians-friends as well as poems “Barrel organ”, “Life”, “Fate”. To Beethoven’s Symphony No.5 author gives historical-cultural comments on Apukhtin’s works, analyses their ideological and artistic meaning and form. The author pays special attention to analysing the biographical context, summarising the information on the poet’s friendly contacts with composers and musicians, on Apukhtin's perception of music, understanding of his aesthetic position. The other direction of the research is the analysis of the works, in which music is used as a basis for an allegorical depiction of the life path. The novelty of the research lies in the systematic consideration of the theme of music in Apukhtin's works. The article analyses in detail the works addressed to Petr Tchaikovsky, a friend of Apukhtin, demonstrates how their intonation and mood change from irony to sadness. These poems not only reflect the stages of the friendly relations between the poet and the composer, but give an assessment of their own creative destiny. The article reveals the polemical plan of the poem "A Singer in the Camp of Russian Composers" shows what innovations in contemporary opera Apukhtin rejects. The study pays particular attention to poems, the plot of which the poet bases on the very process of perceiving music when trying to find a verbal equivalent to a musical text.
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