Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 03/2022
Contents of Issue 03/2022
Linguistics
Solovyeva A., Shishkina T.G. - English military aviation terminology as the object of lexicography pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37547

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the English military aviation terminology and its characteristic, the analysis of which is essential for the development of special terminological dictionary. The goal lies in examination of the peculiarities of creation of the dictionary of English military aviation terminology. The author sets the task to analyze the key theoretical issues associated with the development of dictionaries; determine the stages of this process; consider these stages in the context of working on the dictionary of English military aviation terminology. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the need for various types of terminological dictionaries, namely for the cadets of military aviation universities. The article explores the peculiarities and stages of creating the dictionary of English military aviation terminology. The research and practical lexicographic work lean on the scientific works of Russian and foreign scholars. The dictionary under development is the first attempt to create the terminological resource that incorporates the terms related to the operation of military aircraft (namely helicopters), and the characteristics of the ideographic dictionary and textbook. It will be supplemented with special academic and methodological complex.
Journalism
Kunic Z., Muzykant V.L. - The image of Serbia in the Russian media in terms of language techniques and its impact on bilateral relations between the two states in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic (2020-2022) pp. 12-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37565

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to get an idea of the peculiarities of the perception of Serbia by the Russian media and to identify the linguistic and cultural features of its image created in the Russian media space. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that no analysis of the linguistic characteristics of the image of Serbia in the Russian media has been carried out before in science. In particular, for the first time, based on the materials of the Russian media, the linguistic features of the creation of the image of Serbia and the main categories of the linguoculture of the Russian language used in this process are investigated. As a result of the study, the nature of Serbia's image reflected in the Russian media was not only determined, but also the main lexical techniques used in this process were identified. The purpose of this study is to get an idea of the peculiarities of the perception of Serbia by the Russian media and to identify the linguistic and cultural features of its image created in the Russian media space. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that no analysis of the linguistic characteristics of the image of Serbia in the Russian media has been carried out before in science. In particular, for the first time, based on the materials of the Russian media, the linguistic features of the creation of the image of Serbia and the main categories of the linguoculture of the Russian language used in this process are investigated. As a result of the study, the nature of Serbia's image reflected in the Russian media was not only determined, but also the main lexical techniques used in this process were identified.
Linguistics
Kovrigina E.A. - Folk ideas about the diseases sent (based on the material of the Arkhangelsk dialects) pp. 21-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37581

Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the linguistic and cultural semantics of the diseases sent, namely uro, prizo, moat and kila, based on the material of Arkhangelsk dialects extracted from the data of the card index of the Arkhangelsk Regional Dictionary and the author's own field records. The data of etymological and other dialect dictionaries are involved. The meanings of the analyzed words are being clarified. The aim of the study is a comprehensive description and systematization of culturally significant information about the evil eye and corruption, presented by dialect texts, and reconstruction of a fragment of the traditional linguistic picture of the world associated with folk medicine. The article uses the method of cognitive analysis of linguistic material and the ethnolinguistic method. The field of folk medicine, to which the evil eye belongs, has repeatedly aroused the interest of dialectologists. However, despite this, much still remains beyond the scope of their research. The subject of our consideration is also poorly studied. There is a change in the semantics of uro ́cov and prizórov associated with the loss of the internal form of the analyzed words, indicating the method of malicious influence. The content of the concept of kila is clarified, namely, the possible manifestations of this disease are indicated. The cause of the evil eye or damage, as a rule, is tense social relations between fellow villagers. The analysis of dialect material demonstrates that the folk culture of a villager turns out to be filled with mythological and religious ideas about the world. Belief in the evil eye, conspiracy, corruption, supernatural forces, the perception of illness as an expression of the evil will of a person still characterize the attitude of a villager.
Poetics
Dai M. - The World of the East in the works of A. Fet pp. 30-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37591

Abstract: The presence of philosophy in the texts of Russian writers is quite natural. Many researchers in their works focus on the peculiarities of the formation of the creative path of authors from Russia, emphasizing the proximity and understanding of eternal problems, motives, and the meaning of life. A.A. Fet is one of such authors. The personality is attractive from the point of view of the analysis of creativity and the foundations of the ideological meaning of the formation of the creative path and the presence of a philosophical orientation in poetry. Whether this is a natural phenomenon in this particular author and in what exactly the world of the East manifests itself in Fet's work is to be found out in this article. A number of examples are collected here – excerpts from Fet's poetry as a sign of proof of the eastern philosophical orientation of the texts. Among the main tasks of the work is: analysis of the historical time in which Fet lived and worked from the position of the influence of philosophy on various spheres of life of Russian society; a detailed examination of the presence of Eastern philosophical motives in the work of the Russian writer using excerpts of texts.The main conclusions are made: there are philosophical motives in the poetic speech under consideration, in particular regarding the expression of conceptual worldview foundations: the presence of unity and integrity of all living things, the infinity of being, the divine origin of life, reflections on death, symbolic transmission of secret meaning and the urge to reflect on eternal categories in the reader of the work of A.A. Fet. The images show the presence of a deep level of semantics of the poetic text, translating the topics touched upon in poetry into the sacred plane. In our opinion, A.A. Fet's appeal to the motives of Eastern philosophy is due, on the one hand, to the depth and capacity of the author's own reflections due to his education and his own emerging writing style, and, on the other hand, to the popularity of symbolism, love and craving for philosophy in society.
Literary criticism
LIN Y. - The genre of the diary of a madman by N.V. Gogol and Lu Xin is an analysis of the stories of the same name "Notes of a Madman" from the text to the context pp. 44-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37611

Abstract: The subject of the study is the genre of the diary of a madman by the Russian writer N. V. Gogol and the Chinese writer Lu Xin and their stories of the same name "Notes of a Madman". The object of the research is the primary narrative, the consciousness of the hero and the author, and the social consciousness in the diary genre. The author examines in detail the typological similarities and differences of the genre of the diary of a madman by N. V. Gogol and Lu Xin, analyzes the structure of the text, modes of artistry, the personality of the hero and the author's voice from a psychological and cultural-historical point of view, traces the theme of madness in the Russian and Chinese literary tradition. The main conclusions are that the genre of the diary of a madman by N. V. Gogol and Lu Xin is characterized by tragedy, lyricism and a full-fledged image of the personality and inner world of the hero, and that both writers combine rational and irrational factors in their work, combine the point of view of the hero and the author's voice in the form of a first-person narration on behalf of a madman. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is to identify the differences in the types of thinking of two heroes, two writers and two countries, and to indicate the psychological and cultural-historical grounds for the appearance of this genre in Russian and Chinese literature. The novelty of the research lies in synthetic research, typological comparison, and the use of methods of psychoanalysis and poststructuralism.
Linguistics
Vei K., Sheremet'eva E.S. - A nameless relativ BY EXAMPLE: the degree of grammaticalization pp. 60-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37615

Abstract: Abstract: In the article, in relation to the nameless relativ, one of the syntactic criteria for determining the degree of grammaticalization of a significant word is considered by EXAMPLE. The relevance of the study is determined by the need to determine the place of each derived unit of the service type in the language system. The object of research is a prepositional unit BY EXAMPLE, which is included in the group of nominal relatives. The subject of our research is the degree of grammaticalization of the nameless relativ BY EXAMPLE. The purpose of the study is to determine the grammaticalization stage at which the nameless relativ is located BY EXAMPLE. The paper uses a descriptive method and a corpus method of collecting research material. The scientific novelty consists in the first described models of interaction of a prepositional-case combination, FOR example, with adjectives included in its composition. Based on the analysis of the linguistic material presented in the National Corpus of the Russian language, two main types of models have been established – with a pronominal and a non-nominal adjective. It is shown that a non-nominal adjective in such a model acts in two functions: the actant name function and the modifier function, which is typical for a significant number of similar structures with other prepositional derived units. It is revealed that personal pronominal adjectives also indicate the name of the actor. It is determined that demonstrative pronominal adjectives do not have named functions. Their entry into the model indicates the absence of a service function in the combination FOR EXAMPLE. The article concludes that the nameless relativ, by example, is only at the initial stage of grammaticalization.
Literary criticism
Kondrasheva E.V. - Love as a macroconcept of V. Tokareva's artistic conceptosphere (on the example of collections of works "Short Beeps", "About what did not happen", "To say – not to say...") pp. 70-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37635

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of love as the dominant concept of the artistic world by V. Tokareva on the material of the collections of the writer's works published by the publishing house "ABC-Atticus": "Short beeps" (2015), "To say – not to say ..." (2019), "About what did not happen" (2021). The purpose of this study is to examine the artistic world of the writer through the prism of the concept of "love". The solution of the following tasks contributes to the achievement of this goal: to explore the concept of "love" as a macro concept, to identify its most significant life-meaning landmarks, to analyze the structure of images that fill this concept with new content and meanings. The research methodology is based on conceptual and functional methods, there are elements of comparative and descriptive methods, component analysis of the text. The study found that the writer returns to the concept of "love" in short stories and novellas, exploring this feeling at different levels of human relationships; love for objects of the material world is considered. The macro concept "love" is the center of the writer's conceptual sphere. It is he who holds together the conceptual sphere of V. Tokareva and allows us to perceive the multifaceted art world as a single one. The writer's creativity from the point of view of the influence of artistic concepts on the formation of the conceptual sphere has been studied sporadically and requires further development. The results obtained in the course of the study can be used in the practice of university teaching of special courses dedicated to the artistic concept, as well as in conducting seminars on the history of Russian literature. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the proposed interpretation of the macro concept "love".
Linguistics
Lu Z. - Cultural and connotative information of some verbal phraseological units with the abstract substantive thought pp. 78-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37647

Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of some verbal phraseological units in which the semantic component of thought is performed by the subject of action. In such phraseological units, the thought is combined with such verbs as to return / to return, to be carried away / to be carried away, to flow, to sink / to fall. The article adopts a linguoculturological approach to the study of such phraseological units. In this article we understand phraseology, following V.N. Telia, as a unit characterized by stability, reproducibility, idiomaticity [Telia 1996: 56], when analyzing phraseological units, a linguoculturological approach to research and lexicographic description developed by V.N. Telia and other authors in the "Great Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language" is used [2017]. For our analysis, we have selected phraseological units that are represented in the National Corpus of the Russian Language (https://ruscorpora.ru/new /), including the abstract noun thought, which performs the function of the subject of action.Summing up, we can draw the following conclusions: 1) In the analyzed FE, thought independently performs various actions, moves freely in space, is beyond human control; 2) All the FE presented in this article, in general, correlate with the anthropic code of culture, and taking into account this opposition, with the spatial one. And all FE, taking into account the verbal components, still correlate with the activity code of culture. 3) The image of all FE is created by a metaphor that likens thought to a moving object or object that moves freely in space, does not depend on the will of an individual; 4) The metaphorically figurative basis of the units analyzed by us as a whole reflects a stereotypical idea of the process of mental activity beyond the control of a person.
Journalism
Baranova E.A. - Innovative ways of financing print media and finding ways to reduce costs in the context of media convergence pp. 87-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37527

Abstract: With the emergence and development of various types and types of mass media, their business models, which were formed in the first half of the XX century, were transformed. However, media convergence has become a process that has led to changes taking place not only at all stages – from creation to distribution of content, but also to the search for new ways to finance the media business. The subject of the study is the transformation of media business models in the context of the convergence process. The object of the research is innovative ways of financing print media in the context of media convergence. The author analyzes the following new ways of financing print media: 1. creation of online stores on websites (sale of various goods on the publication's website or on a specially created Internet resource). 2. transition to data journalism (sale of the received data to other mass media and (or) other organizations; sale of data visualization services). 3. Introduction of automated technologies (using artificial intelligence to create content) as a way to reduce costs. 4. Allocation of editorial office space for rent (for example, for organizing forums, conferences). For the first time, the author comprehensively examines these new ways of financing print media. The phenomenon associated with the development of online stores on Russian media sites is described on the basis of data obtained during in-depth interviews of the author with employees of the Komsomolskaya Pravda Publishing House, Moskovsky Komsomolets Publishing House. The article concludes that these methods of monetization of the media business in the conditions of convergence can only be considered as additional (often very small) sources of financing. It should also be borne in mind that the experience of individual mass media cannot always be successfully used in other editorial offices.
Baranova E.A., Shnaider A.A. - Forms of submission of materials in data journalism pp. 98-107

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37556

Abstract: The term data journalism appeared in 2005, however, a single definition of the term "data journalism" has not yet appeared in the scientific community, researchers give different interpretations. This is largely due to the fact that there are discrepancies in understanding the essence of the phenomenon: whether it is a new direction of journalism development or a new genre, format of providing information. As part of the preparation of this article, E.A. Baranova conducted expert interviews with Konstantin Poleskov, the editor of SAĬta novayagazeta.ru , Roman Anin, editor of the investigation department of "Novoi Gazeta", Tina Berezhnaya, Advisor to the General Director for Information Technology of the TV channel "Russia Today", Alexey Smagin, a graduate of the Department of Data Journalism of the Higher School of Economics, an active specialist working at Novaya Gazeta. The experts were asked questions concerning the prerequisites for the emergence of data journalism, the forms of providing materials in data journalism, the development of new competencies among media workers, ethical problems that may be associated with the development of data journalism. The subject of the research is data journalism as a new direction of journalism development. The object of research is the forms of submission of materials in data journalism. The authors studied the data materials published on the websites of Russian and foreign media on the Yandex platform. The article highlights five forms of content submission in data journalism: analytical article; picture; flashcards; longrid; interactive multimedia project. The authors of the article come to the conclusion that data journalism today gives a new development to traditional journalistic genres - analytical article, investigation, news genres. The development of data journalism is associated with the emergence of ethical issues. To date, there are practically no specialists in data journalism in Russia, in order to develop this direction, it is necessary to reform educational programs in journalism.
Linguistics
Savina E. - Macrostructural and microstructural stylistic figures based on legal vocabulary describing the form and content of social relations as a means of expressing the author's irony in the third volume of M. Proust's novel "In Search of Lost Time" ("la recherche du temps perdu") "At Guermantes" ("Le Côté de Guermantes") pp. 108-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.35575

Abstract: The article analyzes microstructural (metaphor and figurative comparison) and macrostructural (allusion) stylistic figures, including legal vocabulary, through which the author ironically describes both the essence and the form of social relations, primarily between representatives of the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. Legal terms from the field of criminal procedure, as well as administrative, constitutional, criminal, civil and commercial law used as a figurative part of these figures were selected as the object of the study. Traditionally, terms are divided into commonly used, i.e. used in everyday life; terms used in many branches of knowledge, not only in jurisprudence, but, say, also in logic, and special legal terms that indicate phenomena peculiar to law. In this work we use the methods of lexical, semantic and stylistic analysis. For the analysis of stylistic figures, we turn to the classification of J. Molyneux, who divides them into macrostructural (not having any pronounced features; not always noticeable in the text and may not be understood: in our case, this is an allusion to the situation from constitutional law) and microstructural (immediately noticeable in the text; used to create them vocabulary cannot be replaced by another; they are understood unambiguously; in our case, these are metaphors and figurative comparisons). Through the use of these figures, the author's irony is expressed at all levels: both in describing the social relations of aristocrats and bourgeois among their own kind, and in their interaction with each other. In the contexts under consideration, the "sublime" vocabulary also sometimes coexists with the vocabulary of a more "low" style, which allows you to create a contrast between how certain social relations are seen by the characters and what they really are.
Popova L.G., Shatilova L.M., Khukhuni G.T., Krasnikova A.D. - Linguistic characteristics of the German letter of recommendation (diachronic aspect) pp. 121-132

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37379

Abstract: This article discusses the features of letters of recommendation: types, structure and criteria for evaluating work certificates. The relevance of the work lies in the fact that letters of recommendation have been around for a long time and are an integral part of the business sphere in Germany. Given the lack of workbooks in Germany, providing a letter of recommendation for consideration by a potential employer is a prerequisite. This speech genre requires detailed attention and consideration from the point of view of linguistic and structural features. The object of research is the speech genre "recommendation letter". The subject of the study are structural and substantive features, types of letters of recommendation. The purpose of the work is to consider the types and features of letters of recommendation in the German language in a diachronic aspect. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the types and linguistic characteristics of the German-language recommendation letter are studied from the standpoint of diachrony. The research material was a German website containing archives of old letters of recommendation: Arbeitszeugnis-forum.de.In the course of the study, it was found out that the most preferable is a qualified letter of recommendation containing a detailed description of the employee and opening him a wider range of further career opportunities. Qualified recommendation letters in German have the following features: 1) a letter of recommendation must comply with the principles of truth and benevolence, therefore it must be written positively; 2) a qualified letter contains information about the work performed, various qualities and achievements of the employee, about his behavior among colleagues and clients, as well as thanks and wishes for the future. The analysis of letters of recommendation showed that until 1900, there were mainly simple working certificates in use in Germany. The letter of recommendation did not have a clear structure. The qualified certificate has received great relevance and has been supplemented with characteristics, approximately, since the 1940s.
Kazakova I.E. - Extralinguistic features of the development of modern English in New Zealand pp. 133-141

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37634

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to determine the trends of linguistic development in the territory of the New Zealand region within the framework of the redistribution of ethnosociogroups, as well as to assess the linguistic prospects of the southern and northern island parts in a comparative analysis. The article reveals the main extralinguistic factors influencing the linguistic space of the south and north of New Zealand, which provoke evolutionary linguistic shifts with the formation of new variations of the language. The most important comparative characteristics of ethnolinguistic groups are identified and described on the basis of a statistical assessment of their redistribution over the past few years, taking into account covid realities. The subject of the study is the New Zealand language space at the present stage of development. The scientific novelty of the study is to present the current language situation in New Zealand based on a comparison of the changing ethnic and sociolinguistic conjuncture of the southern and northern islands. Official statistical data on the New Zealand region, as well as a socio-ethnic atlas with forecasting up to and including 2038, were used as materials. The study provides a justification for the linguistic shift in the territory of New Zealand, and also presents a summary table of comparative data on the ethnic composition and linguistic groups of the southern and northern regions with an assessment of possible scenarios for future language development in the context of ethnosociolinguistics.
Language
Gao X. - Verbalization of the concept of "earth" in the Russian translated text of Mo Yan's novel "Tired of being born and dying" pp. 142-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.3.37568

Abstract: The object of the study is the conceptual sphere of the novel "Tired of being born and dying" by the great Chinese writer, Nobel Prize winner Mo Yan, and its subject is the concept "earth". The purpose of the study was to identify the linguistic implementations of the concept of "earth" in the text and to determine the meanings that this concept is endowed with. It is suggested that in the translated text of the novel, the concept of "earth" continues to translate the meanings that the author of the work put into it. The concept is understood as a mental formation in which the experience, traditions of the people are concentrated, its history and mentality are reflected. The concept finds implementation in the language through a set of lexemes and combinations expressing certain semantics.   The scientific novelty of the study is that it for the first time examines the concept of "earth" in Mo Yan's novel "Tired of being born and dying" from the point of view of its role in the picture of the world of the Chinese peasant. Conceptual analysis has shown that the land for the Chinese peasant of the second half of the twentieth century is a source of well—being, a condition of well-being, an object of management and protection, the basis and part of life, connecting life and death, heaven and earth. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that the verbalization of the concept of "earth" is associated with the linguistic and cultural meanings that it expresses in a literary text.
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