Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 02/2022
Contents of Issue 02/2022
Linguistics
Fomicheva A.A. - Stability parameter as the aspect of studying the evolution of lexical synonymy in the language of the Middle High German epic (on the example of denominations of weapon) pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37466

Abstract: Based on the example of synonymic chains as part of the lexical-thematic group of denominations of weapon in the Middle High German epic, this article demonstrates the use of the stability parameter of lexical synonyms for studying the evolutionary processes in language lexicon. Correlation between the stability parameter and the sphere of historical lexicology is drawn based on the concepts of lexical, nominative and semantic stability of the word offer by I. A. Ershova. The concept of word stability implies the presence of at least two chronological periods for comparison, which includes the stability parameter into the paradigm of methods for studying the evolution of language lexicon. This research highlights two stages in the history of German literature of the High Middle Ages: pre-courtly epic and courtly romance. Examination of the stability of lexical synonyms in the language of the Middle High German epic reveals the functionality and restrictions of this method of studying the evolution of lexicon. Reduction of the absolute values of stability parameter of the separate elements of synonymic chain to the parameter of relative stability of the entire row provides a systemic description of the evolution of lexical synonymy in the Middle High German language. Comparison of the three types of stability for different synonymic chains with transformations within their structure alongside the synonyms leads to the conclusion on the role of stability parameter in studying the evolutionary processes in lexicon as a manifestation of their presence or absence, as well as a means for determining the development vector of language vocabulary. The restrictions of this method are associated with the need to prove or expand the data on evolution of lexicon using cultural-historical and stylistic analysis.
Kopaneva A.V. - Accentual arrangement of BBC news programs in the light of affective syllabics pp. 16-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37430

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarity of the position and means of creating the effect of accentuation in the modern English language. The research material leans on the speech of the leading BBC news programs, which is being processed in accordance with the principles of cognitive syllabics. The author also applies the methods of auditory analysis of the original sounding text and its pragmaphonetic modeling, determining the instances of accentuation that goes beyond the scope of neutral English phonation and is implemented via affective syllabics. The relevance of the research is defined by the need to pinpoint the attention upon the shift in communicative priorities that is taking place in the English language and broaden the prosodic and rhetorical arsenal used by those who learn English for creating the accentuation effect. The scientific novelty lies in the application of categorical approach towards the phenomenon of accentuation in the genres of intellective communication that are important for philological education. The article introduces the category of markedness/ unmarkedness of accentuation, which is supplemented by the so-called borderline or intermediate instances of accentuation, which are revealed only after thorough cognitive processing of the material, and determined primarily by the ethical aspect of modern English speech. The acquired results allow describing the phenomenon of syllabic and verbal accentuation in the dynamics and evolution, as well as the use of the means of affective syllabics for imparting timbral coloring to speech that meets expectations and preferences of the modern English-speaking community.
Question at hand
Boulberhane M., Aouati S., Saad H. - Love and trauma in "The Lady with the Dog" and "The Great Gatsby" pp. 27-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37439

Abstract: This article carries out comparative literary research of the short story "The Lady with the Dog" by the Russian writer Anton Chekhov and the novel “The Great Gatsby” by the American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald for determining the possible mutual influence between these two authors and their works. For achieving the set goal, the article reveals the most significant similar incidents and differences in relation to the aspects of love, ego, and trauma that were selected for the analysis. The comparison relies on the Freudian view of love and trauma in order to analyze the psychological struggle after the loss of love experienced by the protagonists of the aforementioned literary works – Gurov and Gatsby. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive comparison of the theme of love between the authors and their protagonists, as well as with the protagonists themselves. Unlike other existing scientific works, this publication compares the psychological aspects of not only love, but the trauma and ego of Gurov and Gatsby as well, revealing the similarities and differences between the aspects of love, ego and trauma alongside their perception by the protagonists. Both main characters fall in love with the women who are married to other men. Thus, they both have experienced a traumatic situation they could not cope with. The research sheds light on the similarities between Chekhov and Gatsby and their narrators in both case studies. The acquired results can be applied in practice of literary psychoanalytic criticism, as well as in practice of comparative research.
Linguistics
Breusova E.I., Rudneva O.V. - Reflection of orthographocentrism in dictations as a form of input control pp. 38-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37512

Abstract: This article is prepared at the intersection of several branches of science, reflecting one of the problems of Russian language teaching techniques through the prism of metalanguage consciousness of the native speakers. The subject of this research is the reflection of the signs of orthographocentrism in dictation as a form of control. The object is dictation as a form of control. The article aims to prove that dictation as a form of input control manifests orthographocentrism as one of the presumptions of metalanguage consciousness of the native speakers. The analysis of dictation results written by the first-year students of non-philological specialty in the beginning of the academic year, once again confirms that this type of control is only the spelling literacy level check of the students, rather than their communicative competencies. The main conclusions are as follows: dictation does not detect the level of formation of communication skills of the school graduates thar are essential for training and effective interaction in society overall. Dictation tests the level of orthographic (and punctuation) literacy. The analysis of dictations indicated that besides the familiar types of errors, they may contain incorrect spellings that are outside the traditional classification methods for teaching the Russian language. Spelling errors should be considered as communicative hindrances within the communication structure, since orthography as the language section can be presented in the communicative aspect. In this regard, the existing classifications of errors can be revised, so are the criteria and evaluation of students' written tests.
Question at hand
Seldikov A.M., Salykova V.V. - On the cross-cultural formation of conceptology pp. 45-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.33620

Abstract: This research focuses on examination of the concept from cross-cultural perspective. It is substantiated by the fact that currently the study of cross-cultural communication on the level of concept is important due to the idea of spiritual unity of people of different nationalities and increase of the ethical level. The article reveals the theoretical specificity, role and place of the concept. Analysis is conducted on the concepts of linguistic worldviews The author explores the key approaches towards comprehension of the concept as a cross-cultural formation – as the basic unit in mental world of a person, as the unit of cognitive semantics, as the intermediary between words and reality. These approaches are based on definition of the concept as what denotes the content of the concept. The researchers associate the concept of concept with the cognition of the world. The representation of linguistic worldview may be on the lexical level, as well as on the level of various texts, which implies fuller coverage of the material. The worldviews reflect the perception of the world by linguistic personalities of different ethnic groups, affecting their mentality. Such influence manifests in assessment of the state and changes in the environment, role of the linguistic personality, its attitude towards the world, itself, others, as well as its behavior. The linguistic worldview is mobile, and thus devoid of passivity and rigid standardization. It is established that the linguistic worldview is represented on the level of linguistic unit, as well as the level of various types of text interpreted in a particular culture. Representing the view and perception of linguocultural community, the worldview determines the mentality of the representatives of a particular culture or nationality, which manifests in their assessment of the state of the environment and the possibility of its change, position and attitude of a person towards the world, nature, animals, himself, and other people, as well as in behavior.
Literary criticism
Markova A.S. - Beyond memory: the absence of spirit ("Perfumer" P. Suskind) pp. 52-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37230

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify the role of collective (M. Halbwax) and cultural (Ya. Assman) of memory in the formation of the inner image of his "I" as a reflection of the perception of the "other", the spirit (der Geist), in a brilliant personality. The research material will be P. Suskind's novel "The Perfumer. The story of a murderer." To achieve the purpose of the study, it is proposed to identify the spiritual and anatomical and physical foundations of genius, correlate them with types of memory, trace the influence of collective and cultural memory (or rather, the absence of this influence) on character formation. And also to determine the role of the memory phenomenon in the structure of the work.   The study revealed the role of collective memory as a significant architectonic element in the novel "The Perfumer. The story of a murderer." Grenouille's separation from society and from himself is connected with the hero's inability to be attached to the historical and cultural heritage. It was also revealed that society itself, losing touch with its origins, inevitably degrades. However, the novel itself, which carries a complex cultural code, gives the attentive reader a holistic perception, sounds like a parable, offers a choice. This work offers an analysis of the nature of genius as a phenomenon inextricably linked with memory. This approach allows not only to discover the reasons for the disunity of the main character of the novel with society, but also to penetrate deeper into the structure of the work itself. The appeal to collective memory makes it possible to understand the significance of direct and indirect references to other works of art as attempts at dialogue with cultures and epochs. This concept can be used for further research.
Linguistics
Xiao D., Yuan' L. - Linguistic markers of the dichotomy "youth vs. old age" in the news discourse pp. 62-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37483

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the linguistic implementation of the dichotomy "youth vs. old age" in the modern Russian news discourse. The most important concepts for the national linguistic picture of the world are reflected in language, including in such a form of its implementation as news discourse. According to the definition of O.A. Pantina, "news discourse is a type of media discourse, the purpose of which is to inform and inform." News discourse at this stage of media development is implemented primarily in the space of the Internet. Ideas about youth and old age as defining anthropological qualities are very important for a linguistic personality. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the fact that it contains the components of the dichotomy "youth vs. for the first time in the framework of news discourse, the concepts are considered in opposition, as well as by the fact that an attempt is being made to establish the peculiarities of the perception of this dichotomy by a modern linguistic personality, reflected in the mass media. As a result, it was revealed that news publications are much more likely to tell about the actions of young people, give them assessments. As a result of such preferential attention, a general orientation of the media towards young people and the positioning of the priority of young age is created. The components of the dichotomy are interpreted differently by the linguistic personality: the concept of YOUTH is characterized mainly by a positive perception, while the concept of OLD AGE is mainly negative.
Koval A.A. - Discursive creativity as a way of constructing a stereotype of a female politician (using the example of American and French media) pp. 71-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37497

Abstract: The research is devoted to the study of the discursive construction of gender from the standpoint of linguocreativity. The subject of the study is the linguocreative means of constructing a stereotype of a female politician in the American and French media. The object of the study is the mass media discourse of the USA and France, represented by electronic versions of national publications. The aim of the work is to compare the discursive means of constructing a stereotype in the mass media discourse of the USA and France and to identify the socio-cultural aspect of linguocreative transformations. The research methods are a combination of discursive, contextual and content analysis. The analysis reveals the linguocreative techniques of constructing a stereotype at the lexico-grammatical and pragmatic level of the language.   The author's contribution to the research of the topic is the establishment of linguistic patterns and models in the construction of the stereotype of a female politician. In particular, a pattern in the use of verbal predicates and role grammatical models was revealed. The author also formulated and compared the identification features of gender stereotypes of the USA and France. The research may be of interest to specialists in the field of discursology, gender studies, linguoculturology, and intercultural communication. The revealed patterns and techniques of constructing stereotypes can be used in the interpretation of English- and French-language literature to identify the gender component of culture. The study makes a conclusion about the stability and reproducibility of gender stereotypes in the media, about the pragmatic potential of linguocreative discourse, about the presence of a gender shift in American and French cultures and about the mutual influence of gender stereotypes.
Linguistics
Gilemshin F.F. - Features of the use of pronouns in Tatar works of the kyssa genre of the second half of the XIX – early XX century pp. 82-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37391

Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of pronouns that are used in Tatar translated works related to the kissa genre. The object of our research is texts published in the second half of the XIX – early XX century in the Tatar language, which had a serious impact on the formation of the norms of the modern Tatar literary language. In the texts of the works of the kissa genre, personal pronouns are widely represented, and differ in phonetic variability. The parallel use of two or three forms in the language of one work can be explained by the writer's desire to find the most acceptable form close to the vernacular language. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the functioning of pronouns in the texts of Kyss were not the object of special scientific works in Tatar philology. The analysis was carried out using descriptive, comparative-historical methods. The material for the analysis was selected by the continuous sampling method. The results of the study allow us to conclude that in the texts of the kyssa pronouns are represented by Turkic-Tatar lexemes and differ in ambiguity. Within the framework of one work, the lexemes of the vernacular and Old Tatar written language are used, thereby demonstrating the peculiarities of the formation of the modern Tatar literary language. As a result of the analysis of the functional features of pronouns, it turned out that the authors operated on a wide range of pronoun semantics common in the Tatar spoken language.
Arsentyeva Y.S. - Cognitive Strategies of Transformational Use of English Phraseological Euphemisms in Linguistic Experiment pp. 91-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.37445

Abstract: Cognitive strategies of occasional transformational use of English phraseological euphemisms in linguistic experiment are subject to consideration. The purpose of the study is to determine the cognitive strategies of the occasional use of phraseological euphemisms. The subject of the research: the types of cognitive strategies, which are used in ocasional transformations of English phraseological euphemisms, the study of which was performed after the literature survey and a brief description of the linguistic experiment. Research methods: the method of phraseological analysis developed by A.V. Kunin, which exists in two forms - phraseological identification and phraseological description, contextual analysis method, definitional analysis, component (seme) analysis. The novelty of the study: as a result of the linguistic experiment, for the first time, cognitive strategies of the transformational use of English phraseological euphemisms, combining the characteristic features of both phraseological and euphemistic nominations, were determined. Results of the study: two cognitive strategies were identified that are characteristic of all types of occasional use informing strategy and the strategy of expressivization. Evaluation strategy is defined when using the addition of a component / components, insertion and replacement of a component / components; objectification strategy is revealed in the cleft use of euphemistic units; accentualization strategy when using phraseological reiteration, permutation and phraseological saturation of context. For the first time, we have singled out the strategy of cognitive deployment of the image, which is characteristic of the most complex types of occasional use of phraseological euphemisms, namely, phraseological pun, extended metaphor and phraseological allusion.
Discourse
Legkodukh E.A. - International journalist on TV: the evolution of the profession from the program "International Panorama" by V. Zorin to the "International Review" by E. Primakov pp. 98-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2022.2.35191

Abstract: This work is devoted to the study of the evolution of the profession of an international journalist on television, the study of common and distinctive aspects of the work of international observers. The subject of the research in the article is the informational and analytical television programs "International Panorama" by V. Zorin and "International Review" by E. Primakov. For the research, the author considers the following materials: releases of the program "International Review" on the channel "Russia 24" in the period from 2015-2021; recordings of the program "International Panorama" 1982-1984 on the channel "Soviet Television". The research method includes a comparative analysis of creative techniques in the work of a modern international journalist and an international observer of the Soviet school. The main objective of the study was to identify the retained and acquired (new) skills and abilities in building international programs, to detect trends in the evolution of the profession, to identify positive and negative features of the transformation of an international journalist. Such a study is being conducted for the first time, which explains its novelty and significance. During the analysis, the following conclusions were made: the processes of modification in the profession of an international journalist are inevitable. With the development of information technology, there is widespread access to information, respectively, interest in the resources of the Internet platform is growing every day. The methods of work of journalists are changing, who need to adapt to the requirements of a modern audience, prepare content that is interesting to most viewers. Programs with entertainment content have the highest ratings, therefore, in order to retain the audience, the hosts of international political programs are forced to submit complex analytical information through the focus of entertainment genres. As a result, there is a daily modification of journalistic genres, transformation and loss of classical techniques in work, a departure from the Soviet school of international journalism. However, despite the changes in the International Review program, Yevgeny Primakov holds the bar for high–quality international analytics - the content of his releases has not become entertaining, all the experts of the program are highly qualified specialists in their field.
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