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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 09/2021
Contents of Issue 09/2021
Zinov'eva I.V. - Rein Müllerson in the international law: retrospectives and prospects pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article is dedicated to reconsideration of the ideas of the prominent Soviet, Russian, Estonian and international legal expert Rein Müllerson, which he introduced to the theory and practice of international law. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the contribution made by Professor Rein Müllerson to the Soviet system, as well as the contribution he continues to make to the modern domestic, foreign, and universal doctrine of international law. In 201, the author of multiple articles and monographs that are published in different languages and countries, Professor Rein Müllerson released his summarizing work – the autobiography “Living In Interesting Times: Curse or Chance?”, which in reality is not an autobiography. This monograph, which determines the topic of this research, is dedicated to the most relevant issues of international law and international relations, which underlie the scientific reflections in the latest published work of Professor Müllerson. The goal of this article lies in the analysis of manifestation of subjective realism and new philosophy of modern international law declared in the 2021 monograph. Using such instruments of the modern researcher of international relations as liberalism and democratization, globalization and regionalization, correlating the theory built in the Soviet scientific paradigm with the practice tested in the UN structures, he brought the international law to a higher level of comprehension, as a complex system of regulators of multinational behavior. The neutral and non-politicized views of Professor Müllerso answers on the majority of modern international problems, along with his vast experience in practical implementation of legal norms, should be duly appreciated by present and future generations of researchers interested in building a new world – free from warfare and confrontations.
Xu M. - Nonverbal communication in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language pp. 11-18


Abstract: The command of nonverbal communication skills contributes to the establishment of interpersonal contact, creating a favorable atmosphere, including during the classes “Russian as a Foreign Language”. In the context of teaching Russian as a foreign language, nonverbal communication plays a significant role in the communication process. The subject of theis research is the peculiarities of nonverbal communication in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The object of this research is the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The article employs comparative, descriptive and analytical methods of research. Methodology is based on the works of the  Russian authors (T. A. Gridina, V. N. Kunitsyn, V. U. Nogaev, and others). Practical importance lies in applicability of the acquired results to the development of textbooks on the topic, as well as “Russian as a Foreign Language” classes. The author examines various aspects of nonverbal communication and determines the means that may complement verbalization, thereby improving the learning efficiency. The novelty of this paper consists in the attempt to broaden didactic methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language from the perspective of effectiveness of nonverbal means of communication as a didactic instrument. The conclusion is made that flexible use of nonverbal communication in teaching Russian as a foreign language may enhance motivation of students; improve the learning process alongside professional competencies of the pedagogue.
Question at hand
Shagbanova K.S. - Analysis of personality of the hero on the example of hagiography of Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky pp. 19-27


Abstract: The article discusses the problem of depicting personality of the hero based on the hagiographic material of Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky. The author outlines the genre peculiarities of “The Tale of the Life of Alexander Nevsky”. The author actualizes the role of personality of Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky in formation of the value attitudes of our contemporaries. Depiction of the real historical figure is the foundation for the development of image of the hero as a spiritually whole person in literature. Multifacetedness and complexity of the phenomenon of heroism are revealed through the behavioral model of Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky, through people’s perception of the results of his rule, through the characteristic of the unchangeable constants of heroic traits demonstrated by him. In the context of patriotic education, special place belongs to the broad term “heroism”, which since olden days expresses high morale, loyalty to duty, unconquerable will, national and personal dignity, willingness to self-sacrifice in the name of the Homeland. The article offers possible ways to improve the educational work among younger generation based on the literary heritage dedicated to the image of our outstanding compatriot. The importance of the impact of Russian literary works upon the formation of patriotic qualities of the Russians is underlined.
Malakhovskii A.K., Durgam N. - Peculiarities of the Syrian media space in the time of armed conflict pp. 28-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Syrian mass media at the current stage. The object is the Syrian media space in the time of armed conflict (2011 – to the present). The goal lies in determining the peculiarities of functionality of the Syrian media during the armed conflict. The authors traces the path of establishment of the Syrian modern mass media system, to examines its peculiarities prior to the conflict and at the time of its escalation, examines the key groups of mass media that became parties to the conflict. Such aspect as the fragmentation of the Syrian media space by military-political grounds is discussed. The conclusion is made that throughout several decades of the rule of the Ba'ath Party under the leadership of Hafez al-Assad, the country has established the single-party system of control over mass media; slow transformations have been noticed after his son Bashar al-Assad came to power. The armed conflict that began in 2011 divided the country and its media space into three areas: governmental, oppositional, and Kurdish. It is extremely difficult to overcome such fragmentation of media space with its versatile narrative and agendas in the conditions of protracted armed conflict.
Literary criticism
Volkova K.B. - The evolution of female image in the works of Vajiravudh pp. 37-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of female image in the works of King Vajiravudh of Siam, who is considered the father of modern Thai literature. The subject of this research is the portraits of heroines in the original Thai-language works of the monarch, both dramatic and epic, which allow us tracing the artistic transformations of female images. The historical and biographical methods reveal the status of women in the new Thai society of the early XX century and how it affect the author’s views. The problematic of the “feminine” was associated with the author’s pursuit of ideal of Thai woman from ethical perspective. This is the first research on the topic within Thai or foreign historiography. The female images, the role of women in society and fate of the nation is the pervasive theme in all works by King Vajiravudh. The author disrupts the traditional canon and depicts a new woman, who claims her rights to the freedom of choice despite the patriarchal principles. At the same time, the entire gallery of female images is an attempt to find compromise between the progress and traditional values, to create the ideal of Thai woman, which could find realization in real life.
Grudeva E.A. - The reflection of Russian mentality in proverbs (on the example of proverbs with the semantic component summer and autumn) pp. 45-55


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelation between mentality and language. Mentality is conventionally understood as subconscious, archetypal manifestation of the system of values and attitudes of ethnolinguistic consciousness. National mentality is traced in the process of studying the semantics of idioms and paroemias of the language. The genre of proverbs, due to its semantic peculiarities, is characterized by various means of expression of mental groups, which corresponds to their cognitive-pragmatic status. Idioms and paroemias play the role of representatives of the mental characteristics of the ethos, which contribute to preservation of cultural distinctness and affect the mentality of native speakers, lead to the behavior stereotypical to the Russian culture and allow assessing life situations from the perspective of stereotypes. The main conclusion of the analysis conducted on paremiological units indicates that national mentality traits reflected in proverbs and idioms are associated with certain stereotypes in perception of the surrounding world, assessment of life situations, reconsideration of the essence of the phenomena, response to the ongoing transformations and events. All of the listed above fully corresponds to the main edificatory, didactic function of paroemias and idioms, as well as the key purpose of proverbs – enculturation of a person in the process of familiarizing with behavioral norms and riles, recommendations, dogmas and basic stereotypical models of perception of the surrounding worlds and the phenomena occurring therein.
Xiao D. - Specificity of representation of the dichotomy young age senior age in the Russian and Chinese worldviews pp. 56-65


Abstract: The goal of this research is to determine the specificity of representation of the dichotomy “young age – senior age” in the cultural-linguistic space of Russia and China. The article explores the peculiarities of the representation of the dichotomy “young age – senior age” in the Russian and Chinese folk tales as the texts that reflect mentality and folk traditions. In the context of dynamic globalization processes, increase of migration processes, and development of the new transcultural linguistic personality, which encompasses ethno-linguocultural distinctness of both countries, the author determines the specificity of representation of the dichotomy “young age – senior age” in the Russian and Chinese languages within the framework of lexical-semantic space of phraseology. Special attention is given to synergy of the linguistic and cultural worldview. This is the first comparative analysis conducted on the topic that allows revealing the specificity of representation of the dichotomy “young age – senior age” in the Russian and Chinese worldviews, which defines the novelty of this work. It is proven that the reflection of the dichotomy “young age – senior age” in the worldview of both nations (Russian and Chinese) was largely affected by folk and historical tradition. In the Chinese worldview, a senior person is much regarded, while in the Russian language it is more commonly to come across such representations as worsening of mental and physical abilities, as well as uselessness of senior people.
Borisova I.V. - Fulfillment of stylistic potential of the English-language advertising slogans in the Internet discourse pp. 66-81


Abstract: The article examines the English-language advertising content of modern Internet discourse (2010–2021). Leaning on the existing theoretical postulates of Russian and foreign scholars in the area of advertising business and taking into account the accumulated discursive practices of scientific research, the author analyzes the examples of the authentic English-language advertising slogans for the purpose of determining most common and effective stylistic techniques. The validity of the acquired results is substantiated by scientific rigor in selecting the methods of research that correlate with the goals and tasks set by the author: continuous sampling, contextual analysis, statistical data analysis, descriptive and comparative methods. The results presented as a diagram most vividly demonstrate the current trends in fulfilling stylistic potential of the English-language advertising slogans to influence the Internet communicants in the most effective way. The specifics of the online advertising discourse is defined by the fact that Internet is an experimental platform for language artistry of the communicants, who are able to appreciate the nonstandard linguistic intentions of the advertiser and their creative implementation. The author offers to continue the analysis of the stylistic component of the online advertising discourse, as well as trace the dependence of the success of realization of the tactics and strategies of the advertisers on the use of certain stylistic techniques in advertising slogans.
Arsentyeva Y.S. - The peculiarities of euphemistic nomination of phraseologisms-euphemisms that denote poverty in the Russian and English languages pp. 82-88


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian and English phraseologisms-euphemisms that denote poverty as one of the concepts of euphemistic reflection of the real world. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of euphemistic nomination of phraseologisms-euphemisms with the meaning of poverty in the Russian and English languages. This article is first to examine the Russian and English phraseologism-euphemisms that denote poverty from the perspective of expressing the pejorative real denotation using euphemistic units, the key goal of which is mitigation and hazing of the concept of “poverty”. Such phraseologisms-euphemisms are characterized by pejorative assessment that can be “improved” by neutral or humorous affective evaluation. In conclusion, the author proves that in both languages the key role in better pejorative assessment of poverty is played by figurativeness and prototype of the analyzed phraseologisms-euphemisms. In both languages, a number of phraseologisms-euphemisms are characterized by ameliorative-evaluative prototypes, which in turn, lead to neutralization of pejorative rational assessment. The scientific novelty consists in application of the new approach towards analyzing the phraseological meaning of a peculiar type of phraseological units based on euphemistic nomination. The acquired results can be used in studying the semantics of phraseological units, lexical and phraseological euphemisms, including in the comparative aspect.
Cheng S. - Mythical images in the novel The Great Wang by N. A. Baykov pp. 89-96


Abstract: This article analyzes the mythical images in the novel “The Great Wang” by N. A. Baykov. In this work, the writer depicts such mythical images as the tiger – Great Wang, the wise old man – Tong Li, and the lotus flower. The tiger is assigned a significant role in many works by N. A. Baykov – the novels “The Great Wang”, “Tigress”, “The Black Captain”, “On The Hills and Woods of Manchuria”, as well as the scientific articles “The Manchurian Tiger”, “Tigers in The Far East”, "Tiger Hunting" , etc. The unique peculiarity of the novel under review lies in combination of the expressive techniques of Western literature with the exotic themes of Eastern nature, simple natural worldview of inhabitants of the East. The specifics of the novel lies in the fact that the idea “The Great Wang” is based on the Chinese folk myths and legends, which attach a rather mystical and mythical hue. All forest animals anthropomorphized by the writer have their own thoughts and emotions. The conclusion is made that using mythical images, the well versed in the Chinese culture and folklore writer, combined mythical images with his narrative, and expressed his opinion on the man – nature relations. N. A. Baykov was against anthropocentrism, and advocated for the harmonious coexistence of man and nature. In the current context of deterioration of environmental situation, the reflected in “The Great Wang” ecological problems deserve attention of each one of us. The name of N. A. Baykov should be inscribed in the history of the world ecological literature.
Liu M. - Conceptual reconsideration of nominations of limbs in the paremiological fund of the Chinese language pp. 97-106


Abstract: This article is dedicated to reconsideration of nominations of limbs reflected in the phraseological fund of the Chinese language. The goal of this work consist in determination of the conceptual attributes of nominations of human limbs in the Chinese linguistic worldview by analyzing their linguistic representation in the paremiological fund of the language. The author leans on the vast theoretical material, gradually describing the key approaches towards the analysis of “bodily concepts” and the study of phraseologisms of the Chinese language in the conceptual paradigm. The author reveals several primary and secondary meanings of words that represent limbs in the Chinese language, demonstrating the interrelation between the origin of the word and the number of its secondary conceptual meanings. For example, the hieroglyph 脚 (foot) is the “youngest” and most commonly denominates part of the body. The article also proves the possibility of actualization of cognitive meanings of particular linguistic concepts through the analysis of paremias. Namely, the concept “arm” implies the meanings of “mastery”, “distance”, “tool” and “weapon”, while the concept  “foot” – the meanings of “foundation”, “motion”, “prosperity”. The author comes to the conclusion that the ways of reconsideration of human body and its parts in descriptive and comparative terms of different cultures is one of the most effective instruments for cognizing the fundamental of the linguistic worldview.
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