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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 08/2021
Contents of Issue 08/2021
Komarova K.I. - Short and long forms of the adjectives in translations of the New Testament into the Old Slavonic and the language of Slovene booklore of the XVI century pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article analyzes the instances of using short and long forms of the adjectives the Old Slavonic language, as well as the analytical method of expressing the category of certainty / uncertainty in the Slovene language of the XVI century based on the example of translations of the fragments from the New Testament. The comparison of short and long forms of the adjectives is one of the ways of conveying the category of certainty / uncertainty in the Slavonic language without articles. A similar comparison of short and long forms of the adjectives can be observed in both Old Slavonic and Old Slovene languages. However, in the Slovene language, such juxtaposition ceased to exists as a result of the early contraction in pronominal forms of the adjectives; the XVI century marks the formation of the analytical method of conveying the category certainty / uncertainty using the article “ta” and “en”. The following conclusions were made: the original language could affect the translation strategy and the choice of forms, while in the Slovene language it also pertained to articles; the examples of Slovene translations that preserved the correlation of short and long forms without the presence of the part or article in the originals, testify to the development of special ways of expressing the category of certainty / uncertainty, which replaced the juxtaposition of short and long forms of the adjectives; the analytical forms in the Slovene corresponded with short and long forms of the adjectives in the Old Slavonic language, which emphasizes the similar functional yield of analytical forms with the previous juxtaposition of short and long forms of the adjectives in the Slovene language.
Question at hand
Dai M. - Oriental specificity of in the works of A. A. Fet: comparative analysis of the verbless poems of A. A. Fet and ancient Chinese poets pp. 9-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the works of A. A. Fet, namely verbless poems, which are used as manifestation of his interest in the Orient and ancient Chinese poets. Analysis of A. A. Fet’s works from the perspective of projection on the compositions of Chinese poets and reflection of oriental specificity in his poems is a widespread topic in cross-cultural studies on the peculiarities of the establishment of literature. Multiple Chinese scholars keep seeking similar motifs as the factors mutual interest in depiction landscapes and surrounding reality. The acquired results allow interpreting the works of the poets belonging to different cultures. The scientific novelty of this research lies in combining different opinions on studying the oriental specificity in the poems of A. A. Fet, placing emphasis on the analysis of one his verbless poems. The article presents a compilation of various approaches towards examination of the works of A. A. Fet. The materials can be valuable for those interested in the creative path of the Russian poet. In future structuring the route of interaction and enrichment of knowledge in the field of cross-cultural communication, the obtained result of the works of authors of foreign cultures contributes to the understanding of culture, strengthens relations between the cultures, as well as improves the quality of translation, which is also important in the dialogue of cultures.
Literary criticism
Strelnikova E.S. - Initiatory nature of the opposition child adult opposition in the mythopoetic paradigm of Vladimir Mayakovsky's works of the early period pp. 20-29


Abstract: This research analyzes Vladimir Mayakovsky’s works of the early period (1912-1916) within the framework of a neo-mythological approach, which allows reconstructing the individual authorial mythopoetic discourse. The article substantiates the inclusion of the literary works of Mayakovsky into the philosophical-culturological context, the importance of their consideration as a poetic and peacebuilding whole with its own patterns of transformation of the archetypal and mythological. The object of this research is the individual mythopoesis of the writer. The described “Dionysianism” of the lyrical hero takes roots in the typological similarities established by the author and noted by other researchers of Mayakovsky’s works, which indicates the consistency of referring to the Nietzschean dialectical opposition of Apollonian and Dionysian. The author notes multifacetedness of the category of the borderline as one of the defining dominants of mythopoetic worldview of the lyrical hero. Therefore, the subject of this research is a particular level of this category: the peculiarity of existence and evolution of a human within the world paradigm in the context of “child – adult” opposition. The novelty of the research consists in establishing the initiatory nature of the category of borderline in the works of V. Mayakovsky. This substantiates the specific, liminal personality traits of the lyrical hero, and proves the furute path of his mythopoetic evolution outlined in the pre-October texts. The author traces the dependence of transformation of mythopoetic constructions on the number of connotational changes in the dialectical opposition “child – adult”. The main result of the conducted research lies in the establishment of causal links between the incompleteness of overcoming the own liminality by the lyrical hero and the fundamental incompleteness of the process of his initiatory “maturing”. The author's special contribution to examination of the mythopoetic structure of the texts of V. Mayakovsky of the early period consists in proving the defining role of the “child – adult” opposition within the paradigm of other mythopoetic characteristics. The author outlines the way for further research of the individual authorial mythological discourse of Mayakovsky's works in the context of subsequent initiatory transformations of human and the world.
Davydov T., Gorshkov A.I. - Adaptation of Iranian and Semitic loanwords in the Ancient Greek language: 'garden' / ' garden of Eden (on the example of the lexemes παράδεισος and a number of γάνος-γανναθ (αλ)γοναιναθ) pp. 30-50


Abstract: The object of this research is the problems of functionality of Iranian and Semitic loanwords in the Ancient Greek language, while the subject is the lexemes παράδεισος, γάνος, γανναθ, (αλ)γοναιναθ. The authors meticulously examine such aspects of the topic as the morphological and phonetic assimilation of foreign language lexicon, nonobservance of phonotactics of the Greek language, impact of folk etymology upon the word form , absence of diacritics in conveying Semitic borrowings in the Greek language. Special attention is given  to the problems of etymologization, nuances of dictionary definitions throughout different periods: classical, Hellenistic, Hellenistic-Roman, Late Antique, and Byzantine. It is noted that over time, close ties with barbarian peoples affected the Greek language itself. The main conclusion consists in determination of the gradation of lexemes under review in accordance with the degree of their adaptation to the Greek phonetics and phonotactics, as well as morphology. The author's special contribution to this research consists in proving the results and conclusions of a range of previous studies, as well as in critical coverage of the controversial concepts. The novelty lies in the proposed etymology of the lexeme παράδεισος, and the new interpretation of its vocalism. The relevance of this work lies in involving rare lexicon, which previously has not received due attention within the existing scientific tradition.
Fomicheva A.A. - Lexical polysemy and homonymy in the Middle High German language in light of the problematic of lexical synonymy and lexical-semantic analysis pp. 51-62


Abstract: Based on the compositions of pre-courteous epic poetry and chivalric romance written in the Middle High German language, this article reviews the problem of lexical polysemy in relation to the phenomena of homonymy and synonymy, as well as the problem of structural description of lexis. The need for comprehensive examination of polysemous lexemes in the Middle High German language, which includes structural analysis of the meaning of polysemous word and the lexical-thematic group and/or synonymic row it belongs to, well as the study of contextual implementation of the meanings of polysemous word, is substantiated by the principle of diffusivity of meanings of polysemous word that complicates comprising dictionary definitions and creates difficulties for the researcher in distinguishing the meanings of a polysemous word and separating polysemy from homonymy. Based on the example of lexical-thematic group for denomination of edged weapon in the Middle High German Language, the author demonstrates the appropriateness of using lexical-semantic analysis for establishing systemic relations between the analyzed lexemes, as well as postulates the importance of the context in determination of the structure of polysemous word. Discussion of the given examples from the compositions of pre-courteous epic poetry and chivalric romance written in the Middle High German language is accompanied by the author’s clarifications to the dictionary definitions of the lexemes under review. The conclusion is made on feasibility of the authorial approach towards detection of the discrepancies between lexicographic data and use of the lexeme in the texts written in the Middle High German language. The author also believes that this research is valuable from the perspective of lexicographic practice.
Author's view
Gorshkov A. - Persian theme in Plutarchs works based on the episode from the treatise On Isis and Osiris pp. 63-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the cultural ties between Greeks and Persians, while the subject is the image of Persia and Persian in Plutarch's treatise “On Isis and Osiris”. The author carefully examines such aspects of the topic as the problem of barbarism, Zoroastrianism as the foundation of Persian worldview, Persians from the perspective of Plutarch, description of Persian religious rites and traditions. Special attention is turned to the problems of borrowing Persian words into the Ancient Greek language (Avestan lexemes are being modified in the Ancient Persian language, and then adapted in the Ancient Greek language). It is noted that Greek language has been influenced by the barbarian languages due to deepening ties of the Greeks with other peoples. The conclusion is made that Plutarch was sincerely fascinated with Persians and certain aspects of their worldview; he compares the sayings of the Greek philosophers and poets with Persian ontology — contrary to the stereotypical perception of the Persians as barbarians, standing below the Greeks in their development. The author’s special contribution consists in juxtaposition of the Zoroastrian doctrinal provisions with the rites and practices of the Persians described by Plutarch. The novelty of this research consists in the advanced hypothesis that explains the rich spirit in the lexeme Ὡρομάζης. The relevance this work lies in examination of interaction between the Greek and Persian worlds, which has not received due attention in the Russian philological science.
Question at hand
Anikyan T. - Expressive potential of prosody in the inaugural rhetoric (on the material of 2021 Joe Biden speech) pp. 70-80


Abstract: The subject of this research is the expressive potential of prosody in the 2021 inaugural speech of Joe Biden. Analysis is conducted on the peculiarities of functionality of such prosodic means as melody, accentuation, pausation, rhythm and other. Assessment is given to their interaction with the widespread stylistic techniques, as well as their role in carrying out the traditional functions for inaugural rhetoric that determine its genre distinctness. The article employs the method of auditory scene analysis of speech of the political, which vividly illustrates the significance of modifications of suprasegmental parameters for conveying the communicative intent of the speech. The scientific novelty lies in studying the expressive capabilities of prosodic means within a specific variety of political discourse – the inaugural speech as a genre of epideictic rhetoric, viewing the implementation of specific functions in the unity of linguistic and extralinguistic factors. Attention is given to the general peculiarities of discursive practice of the inaugural speeches, as well as the context of a specific communicative situation – unprecedented circumstances of delivering speech by the the 46th President of the United States, as well as the personal traits of the speaker. The acquired results demonstrate the expressive potential of prosodic modifications in the oral speech, which can be used in teaching students majoring in philology the principles of text analysis of the political discourse through the prism of prosody, expressive syntax, stylistics, and rhetoric.
Literary criticism
Gong H. - Li Qingzhao and A.P. Bunina: the complicated fates of women's poetry pp. 81-96


Abstract: Despite the fact that Li Qingzhao and Anna Petrovna Bunina were not related either geographically or temporally, contemporaries called them Chinese and Russian Sappho. The reason for this was the consonance of their poems to the lyrics of the ancient Greek poetess, the sensuality of the poems they wrote, as well as their independent position, not typical for women of their eras. This article is devoted to comparing the biographies of two outstanding poetesses, each of whom is considered the founder of women's poetry in her own country. Despite the fame of both poetesses and their status as pioneers of women's literature, their work is compared almost for the first time. In addition to their high social status and good education, both poetesses are connected by the fact that their destinies violated the traditional canon of women's behavior: instead of patriarchal family life, they chose self-realization in creativity. The exclusivity of their position, which put them in the focus of public attention and made them pariahs in their own way, on the other hand, gave freedom of choice of issues and artistic language. This allowed them to become the founders of women's poetry, to develop their own artistic manner. It is this circumstance that typologically brings together the work of two poetesses, separated from each other by eight centuries. The subject matter of their work is surprisingly similar, but the imagery is completely different, because it is conditioned by the literary tradition of each country.
Borunov A.B. - Travesty as a cycle-forming technique of B. Akunin's Fandorin Series pp. 97-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is a set of cycle-forming techniques used by Boris Akunin in creating “Fandorin Series” dedicated to the detective Erast Fandorin. One of such techniques is travesty, “gender transitioning” that manifests on the imagery and linguistic levels. A range of characters in the novels and stories about Fandorin disguise themselves as the representatives of the other gender; this is common to the serial criminals who have committed multiple offenses. On the linguistic level, travesty manifests in a way that some characters, having a good command of Russian language, deliberately confuse masculine and feminine genders in their speech or writing. At the same time, travesty is always accompanied by the typical detective motif: the criminal character is initially introduced to the text and conceals his true self, so the detective has foster efforts to track him down. The novelty of this study consists in determination of the two basic strategies of travesty used by B. Akunin in “Fandorin Series”, and as well as in following their realization in various novels and stories dedicated to Erast Fandorin. On both imagery and semantic levels, travesty is more characteristic to the “sealed” type of detective, when the suspect is among a limited scope of persons and gradually reveals his true nature. At the same time, the implementation of such strategy in some texts is consistent (the hero constantly changes his appearance / grammatical gender), while in other texts manifests sporadically.
Ovcherenko U. - Voices of the Night by Rollan Seisenbayev as metafiction pp. 105-113


Abstract: The object of this research is “Voices of the Night” by the Kazakh Russian-language novelist Rollan Seisenbayev. The subject of this research is the metafiction structure implemented by Rollan Seisenbayev in the text field. Analysis is conducted on the layers of narration, transition from the novel to the metafiction level. A precise pattern of interaction between these levels is described. The article explores the authorial question and the “author's mask”, as well as the techniques that allow intentionally confusing the reader in distinguishing between these figures. The subject of analysis is also the need for using metafiction structure in the composition written within the framework of realism. The author analyzes the important theme in the works of Rollan Seisenbayev – interrelation between art and life. The novelty of this paper lies in the fact that Rollan Seisenbayev’s works of the Soviet period are extensively studied by the Soviet critics, while his compositions of the post-Soviet period rarely draw the scientific interest of modern researchers. His contemporary mark the shift from the trends of realism and gravitation towards the techniques of polystylistics, which synthesizes the techniques of various literary directions. The article reviews Rollan Seisenbayev’s novel “Voices of the Night”, which demonstrates the application of metafiction structure. The writer usesthis genre to reflect on the creative act and the nature of creativity.
Shal'nova E.P., Garanina N.V., Guseva A.A., Zharikova D.A., Kondrakova A.A. - On the demand for advertising products (advertising text and advertising slogan) created in the light of the knowledge of the system of modern Russian language, skills and competencies formed on the basis of such knowledge (the description of practical experience) pp. 114-125


Abstract: The subject of the research is the following questions: 1) do the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired in the course of discipline “Modern Russian Language” and the discipline “Culture of Speech” as part of the discipline “Modern Russian Language” contribute to the creation of advertising products; 2) is there is a  market demand for advertising products created based on the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired in the course of the discipline “Modern Russian Language” and the discipline “Culture of Speech” as part of the discipline “Modern Russian Language”. The article describes the practical experience of creation of advertising products (advertising text and advertising slogan), and assessment of their demand on the advertising market. The authors determine the sense of demand for advertising products created on the basis of the developed professional competencies. It is established that the acquired knowledge and skills formed thereof do help to create a high-quality advertising product. The authors experimentally prove the high demand for advertising products created in the light of the knowledge of the Russian language system, skills and competencies formed on the basis of such knowledge. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out the experiment that proves the demand on the advertising market for knowledge, skills and competencies acquired in the course of studying classical humanities disciplines “Modern Russian Language” and “Culture of Speech”. The practical importance of this research consists in a positive answer to the question on the demand for knowledge of the system of modern Russian language, communicative qualities of speech, skills and competencies formed on the basis of such knowledge. The relevance of this article also consists in conveying positive experience to the upcoming generation of students majoring in “Advertising and Public Relations”.
Mukhamedova F.K., Alieva F.A. - On the technique of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains pp. 126-133


Abstract: The subject of this research is the quatrains – a variety of lyrical songs, one of widespread and popular poetic genres in the folklore of the peoples of Dagestan. The object of this research is the method of artistic parallelism in Dargin quatrains, which plays an important compositional role within the text structure, which is reflected in juxtaposition of images from the natural world and the psychological affections of the lyrical hero. The goal of this article lies in demonstrating the functional peculiarities of artistic parallelism technique in each particular case; as well as in determining the basic principle of juxtaposition of the images of nature with the world of human feelings and degree of their convergence, which reveals the emotional state of a person. The research methods of comparative-historical and philological analysis of the lyrical songs are based on the ideas advanced by V. G. Belinsky, A. N. Veselovsky, A. M. Novikova, S. G. Lazutin, Y. M. Sokolov, and others. The method of analysis allows determining the role of artistic parallelism in conveying the emotional state of the heroes. The novelty[WU1]  of this research consists in comprehensive analysis of the structure and content of texts that are structured on the technique artistic parallelism; identification of the peculiarities of its application on the material of Dargin song lyrics, which have not been previously introduced into the scientific discourse. The author demonstrates that the technique of artistic parallelism carries a vast ideological meaning, performs an important compositional function in disclosure of the content of the song, contributing to a vivid and imagery expression of thoughts and feelings of the hero. The article is first to explore the commonly used in Dargin folklore technique of artistic parallelism, when a single principle of syntactic construction is characteristic for two quatrains of the same theme. It is established that the idea laid down in the first quatrain is being further developed, enriching its content and acquiring new details that enhance the emotional perception of the poetic expression.  [WU1]
Zinnatullina L. - Phraseological equivalents in the English and Russian languages pp. 134-143


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of phraseological equivalents in the English and Russian languages. An attempt is made to determine the criteria for finding phraseological equivalents in the English and Russian languages. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of various types of English-Russian phraseological equivalents. Referring to the research of outstanding scientists, the article describes and analyzes the types of phraseological equivalents in the English and Russian languages. The author provides the examples of a range of phraseological units of the English and Russian languages, selected from the Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language, Russian National Corpus, and British National Corpus. Contextual method and method of phraseological description are used for studying English-Russian phraseological equivalents. The scientific novelty of this paper consists in the full or partial manifestation of phraseological equivalence of a number of unique phraseological units in the English and Russian languages leaning on the conducted research of compositional volume. The conclusion is made that the adverbial phraseological units-equivalents are characterized by an exact match of phraseological meaning, structural-grammatical organization, imagery framework, and thus, compositional volume. For determining the degree of match of the structural-grammatical organization, it is essential to consider the specific typological features, which are typical for one language and atypical for another due to difference in the systems of the compared languages. Partial phraseological equivalence of adverbial phraseological units is characterized by the exact match of plane of content and insignificant differences in the plane of expression, which do not affect the identity of imagery of the English and Russian adverbial phraseological unit.
Guskina E.N. - Contextual modifications of a discursive word however and their lexical support pp. 144-151


Abstract: Examination the means of local coherence of the text, namely various auxiliary units, such as conjunctions and conjunctive means, particles, pronouns, hybrid units, etc., remains relevant in studying the text. Same means of textual coherence are classified by the linguists depending on the vector of research. The subject of this article is the discursive word ‘however’. Discursive words are an important part of text studying, and textual coherence in particular. The object of this article is the functionality of the word ‘however’ in the instance of ending narration, as well as the corresponding contextual modification “ending of description / discussion”. The contexts for linguistic analysis that largely contain the word ‘however’ were taken from the Russian National Corpus. Analysis is conducted on the contexts of fiction and popular science styles. The scientific novelty of research consists in examination of the peculiarities of using the word ‘however’ in combination with other words (enough, no more, never mind), as well as the specificity of formation of syntactic constructions with the word ‘however’. The conclusion is made the speaker can end narration, description, discussion due to unwillingness or inexpediency to continue the thought, or due to shifting  onto a new aspect of the given situation.
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