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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 03/2021
Contents of Issue 03/2021
Literary criticism
Mekhtiev V.G. - Semantics of Lermontov's poetic myth about the Demon in The Islanders by N.S. Leskov pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the study is the negative-evaluative, satirical layers of the novel "The Islanders" associated with the image of the demonic hero, who, thanks to M.Y. Lermontov, acquired the meaning of an archetype and a poetic myth in Russian literature. The object of the study is N.S. Leskov's stylistic techniques and ideological motives underlying the "desacralization" of the romantic myth. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as 1) the role of Lermontov's poem "The Demon" and romantic poetry of the 1840s in the formation of the myth of the demonic hero; 2) semantic deformations that led Leskov to the deviation of the myth from its conventional meanings; 3) the satirical mode used as the main method of creating the image of Istomin. Particular attention is paid to Leskov's satire in its function of "recoding" the myth. The main conclusions of the conducted research are: the image of the artist Istomin is entrusted with the author's task to debunk the romantic myth. For this reason, evaluative and emotional vocabulary, elements of satire that express the point of view of the "subjective" narrative are grouped around it. All this gives the image a semantic transparency that contradicts the "mysterious code" of the myth of Romanticism. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the discovery of the connections of the myth of the demon with the myth of Prometheus, which is important for understanding the complexity and versatility of the semantic core of the phenomenon under consideration. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author reveals the main motive of Leskov's satirical manner. Its meaning is not to create a "myth about a myth" or an "anti–myth"; in the novel, a "non-myth" is formed in order to achieve the complete elimination of the literary myth about the demonic hero. Satire is necessary for a writer to typify, not individualize, a character.
Ustinovskaya A.A. - Translation of the poem Le parfum impérissable by Leconte de Lisle as an intra-Acmeist dialogue pp. 10-18


Abstract: The subject of this research is the translations of the Russian poets conducted within the framework of various literary and translation paradigms. Translations of the poem by Leconte de Lisle "Le parfum impérissable" made by I. F. Annensky, N. S. Gumilyov and M. L. Lozinsky (the latter two feature cross corrections). The three translators admired the work of de Lisle; Annensky and Gumilyov borrowed the key images from the poetry of the French author in their original works. Research methodology employs comparative analysis of the original texts and translations, with the elements of hermeneutical and component analysis of the text. The main conclusions consists in determination of the conceptual difference between the creative translation paradigms of the early XX century and such in the context of the publisher “The World Literature”. The translation by I. F. Annensky conducted in 1904 presents liberal and symbolic interpretation of the original: the poet places emphasis on the symbol of the never-dying flavor of eternal love, enclosed in the heart as in a vessel. Translations by N. S. Gumilyov and M. L. Lozinsky are notable by adhering to the original form of the sonnet and conveyance of a broad cultural context: the oriental flavor and image of the aroma-genie-spirit of love enclosed in the heart-vessel described by de Lisle. Most accurate translation of the cultural context was carried out by M. L. Lozinsky, whose version is recognized as final in the manuscript revisions of Leconte de Lisle’s texts.
Moskvin G.V. - Essay The Caucasian as a phenomenon of existential paradigm in the prose of M. Y. Lermontov pp. 19-28


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question that has not been previously raised within the framework of Lermontov studies, namely analysis of the essay of Lermontov’s late period “The Caucasian” from the perspective of reflection of existential problematic of literature of the early XIX century therein. The research is conducted on the ideological and artistic arrangement of the text, which represents the socio-psychological aspects of human adaptation to life. The author underlines that Lermontov chose the Caucasian discourse for expressing the personal biographical experiences and creative ideas of his novel “A Hero of Our Time”, which coincide with the period the writer’s military service in the Caucasus and vacation in St. Petersburg in 1841. This essay generalizes the threads of personal life and fate, featuring all possible characters representing the theme: natural. Georgian, state Caucasians, among them are the unnamed heroes of the entire textual space of Lermontov’s mature prose (Maxim Maksimych, Grushnitsky, wandering literary artist, Grigory Alexandrovich Pechorin, as well as female images Bela, Undine, Cossack woman, Nastya). The essay finale is an emotional outcome of futile existence of a human. The author follows the life path of the composite character – the Russian Caucasian from the initial novella “Bela” to finale of the essay “The Caucasian”, which appears to be emotional outcome of vain existence of a human having no real substance.
Shubina A.O. - The study of collocations with game component in the Russian and English-American discourse pp. 29-44


Abstract: The subject of this research is the polysemous noun “game” in the Russian language and the nouns “play”, “game”, “acting”,” performance” in the English language that correspond to different spheres of activity, denoted by the word “game”. The goal of this article consists in determination of most frequent universal collocations with game component in the Russian discourse and their translation equivalents with play, game, acting, and performance component in the English-American discourse. The collocations with game component formed by the scheme adjective + noun and noun + noun, acquired from the dictionaries, as well as Russian and English-American text corpora, served as the material for this research. The article employs the following methods: definitional analysis, contrastive analysis, and etymological analysis. The application of contrastive analysis allowed determining the linear and vector correspondences between the schemes of the indicated lexemes play, game, acting, and performance, as well as revealing the ethno-cultural lacunae. Examination of collocations with game component was conducted on the basis of the Russian National Corpus, Corpus of Historically American English, and Corpus of Contemporary American English; various dictionaries in the timespan (1810-1900) and (2000-2018). It was established that majority of the ten most frequent collocations according to the aforementioned schemes from the Russian National Corpus are present in the Corpus of Historically American English and Corpus of Contemporary American English in the same contexts, but different frequency. The article provides the examples of ethnocultural collocations with game components in the Russian and English-American discourse. It is demonstrated that collocation with the parametric adjectival “big game” has both universal and ethno-cultural characteristics in the English-American language. The relevance of the work is substantiated by recent interest in the development of collocation competence in learning a foreign language.
Literary criticism
Guseinov M.A. - The theme of repressions in Kumyk post-Soviet prose (based on the works of I. Kerimov) pp. 45-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the prose of the prominent Dagestani writer I. Kerimov dedicated to the 1930s repressions. Among other national authors, Kerimov most often referred to this topic. Special attention is given to considerable contribution made by the writer to the development of a certain trend in literature of the post-Soviet period – new interpretation of the ambiguous events of the period of Socialism construction, description of artistic peculiarities of his works “Long Years, Long Roads”, “Trouble from Coal”, ”My Dream or Reality?”, etc.; determination of most commonly used means that adequately reflection of the oppressive atmosphere of these years, which caused the crisis of national consciousness. Literary review of the works of I. Kerimov's work is conducted in the context of the modern concepts of Russian science of literature, with application of sociocultural and analytical methods. The following conclusions were made: being an experienced artists in words, and simultaneously the eyewitness to the events, I. Kerimov reconstructs realities of the past through the prism of the fate of central images and conflicts. The writer testifies to the negative impact of the 1930s tribulations upon emotional state of the society, deformation of the traditional cultural values. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first to carry out a comprehensive examination of the works of I. Kerimov dedicated to the theme of repressions, determining his place and role within the modern literary process.
Jin T. - Chekhov and geographical determinism pp. 55-62


Abstract: Literary scholars have recently shown growing interest in interrelation between Chekhov’s worldview and creativity. This article is dedicated to this topic. The question of the writer's worldview has long caused intense debate. There are multiple works dedicated to Chekhov's religious worldview, natural science materialism, and naturalism; however, the topic of Chekhov and geographical determinism is poorly studied. Although the idea of geographical determinism and the impact of vast expanses of Russia upon people’s lives occurs in the correspondence and works of Chekhov at various times. The subject of this research is Chekhov's works that contain the ideology of geographical determinism. The scientific novelty consists in the systematic and comprehensive analysis of the idea of geographical determinism in Chekhov's works. The influence of the opinions of different representatives of geographical determinism upon Chekhov's worldview is established. The author observes a connection between Chekhov and geographical determinism. Apathy, yarn, exhaustion, hopelessness, loneliness and alternation of excitability and fatigue of Chekhov's characters are associated with the geographical peculiarities of Russia, its vast expanses, severe winters, dullness, and monotony. The conducted research confirms the value of analysis of the connection between Chekhov and geographical determinism in the context of studying Chekhov's writing style.
Kolokol'nikova O.D. - The evolution of conceptual sphere of Robert Bridges pp. 63-74


Abstract: The analysis of the individual writing style is a dynamically developing direction of modern linguistics. An integral part of individual style is the metaphorical system of the author. Metaphors are one of the most accurate markers of individual style, since they give a perspective on personality and mental worldview of the writer. The study of metaphor allows describing the nature of the imagery world of the author or his conceptual sphere. The subject of this research the evolution of the conceptual sphere of Robert Bridges, a prominent representative of English poetry of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The goal consists in elucidation of peculiarities of the author's conceptual sphere. The research methodology leans on the method of studying metaphor developed by N. V. Pavlovich. The article explores the questions of individual writing style, placing emphasis on the dynamics of imagery system of R. Bridges. The scientific novelty consists in revealing the mental worldview in each period of the author’s work, outlining the author's conceptual sphere, and describing the nature of transformations in the author's imagery system throughout his literary path. The acquires results demonstrate the characteristics of conceptual sphere of the author's early and mature lyrics, as well as determine stable and dynamic parameters of his mental worldview. It is established that the structure of conceptual sphere seeks to preserve the fundamentals of the author's view of the world, as well embraces the changes taking place in the poet's worldview.
Character in literature
Muratova T.A., Saichenko V.V. - Soteriological context of the image a righteous man in fictional prose of I. S. Shmelyov. pp. 75-84


Abstract: The object of this research is the embodiment of the Orthodox anthropological ideal in the works of I. S. Shmelyov. Among multiple images of a righteous man described in the literature, I. S. Shmelyov in his works features “righteousness in the world”. Dilogy “Summer of the Lord” and “Pilgrimage” is selected as an example, namely the image of Gorkin as church-going person among others. His image reflects a peculiar worldview model that reconciles the contradictions of worldly and religious life, due to the dominant of Christocentrism — the uniform principle of an Orthodox person. Through the prism of soteriological attitudes, the author traces in the image of Gorkin the embodiment of the principles of Christian morality, love for the neighbor, and orientation towards the Prototype. The main conclusions consist in development of the original concept of a church-going person, which is based on the Orthodox understanding of human. The author distinguishes between the Orthodox and the abstract spiritual, which is essential for an adequate interpretation of the applied artistic method. Based on Shmelev's reference to the fundamentals of Orthodox anthropology, the interpretation of images suggests using the theological concepts and the elements of patristic teachings. A sequential, rather than fragmentary analysis, is carried out on a specific example of the image of Gorkin. The methodological novelty of such approach lies in the establishment of a profound axiological connection between fiction and Christian anthropology, which underlies the artistic uniqueness of Shmelev's works.
Usatov K.A. - Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of third culture (almanac In-Between Time) pp. 85-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov, namely in almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”). I. I. Bashmakov (Ivan Vanenko) is one of the representatives of mass literature of the 1830s – 1850s. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the peculiarities of using folklore plots, motifs, and images in the poetic and prose texts of the people’s writer. Bashmakov uses a thematic diversity of fairy tales, pastiche of folk songs, epic poems, and anectodes. His texts also feature traditional elements of the combination of peasant and urban culture (“third culture”). Analysis is conducted on the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) by I. I. Bashmakov, using the cultural-historical and historical-literary methods. The novelty lies in consideration of folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov in the context of “third culture”. The works contained in the almanac “In-Between Time” (“Mezhdudelye”) are introduced into the scientific discourse. Folklorismus of the works of I. I. Bashmakov is associated primarily with application of folklore plots and images, as well as folklore artistic and stylistic peculiarities, based on which his works are attributed to aesthetic row of the “third culture”.
Ilunina A.A. - Transformation of the images of woman and child in the Neo-Victorian novel (based on the novels Florence and Giles John Harding and The Trial of Elizabeth Cree by Peter Ackroyd pp. 93-101


Abstract: Neo-Victorian novel is one of the main trends in the development of modern British literature. This article traces the transformation of the images of woman and child in the Neo-Victorian novel of the 1990 – 2010s in comparison with the Victorian pretext (the novels “The Turn of the Screw” by Henry James, “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Brontë, “Oliver Twist”, “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens). The research material includes the novels “Florence and Giles” John Harding and “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd. It was determines that the Neo-Victorian novel fools with the audience’s perception of stereotypical gender concepts, as well as poetics of the Victorian novel, according to which the title character, namely a woman or a child, is the object of the author’s and reader’s affinity. The article examines the role of references in the aforementioned neo-Victorian novels to the “thrilling” stories of Edgar. Poe, “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” by Robert Louis Stevenson. It is revealed that the traditional “angel in the house” in the Neo-Victorian novel is transformed into the evil “Mrs. Hyde”, exacting vengeance on the world for the humiliations because of her gender and social status. The author reviews the role of intermedian references in the novel “Florence and Giles”. The conclusion is made that the dialogue with pretexts allows modern writers to touch on the topics of women's education and gender inequality in the past and present.
Deminova M.A. - Interpretation of the event within the structure of news narrative pp. 102-117


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the structure of news narrative, which is relevant the context of interpretation of the event. The author believes that the news texts that do not contain a clear expressive or analytical component, interpretation consists in transformation of the narrative. News hold a special place among other media texts. News genres, to a greater extent that the analytical genres, satisfy people's information needs. If the analytical and publicistic texts the readers choose in accordance with their worldview and value system, then news texts are perceived as neutral, characterized by a stable structure, repeatability, reproducibility; they are virtually not affected by the specificity of a particular editorial policy, and, thus, have broader audience. At first glance, the patterns used for news writing, do not have impact on the audience; however, they are evaluative and interpretative, which is reflected in narrative structure of the text. The attitude of the author towards the event in the central episode is traced. Since the central episode is related to the actual event more than any other component of the narrative structure, it nonetheless, has considerable interpretive potential. Transformation of the key component testifies to the fact that narrative structure of the news material is quite adaptable, and may change under the influence of certain information. The additional secondary components of the narrative structure also have high interpretive potential, since their very presence in the text reflects the author's desire to deliver additional information, the choice of which directly affects interpretation of the event.
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