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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 12/2021
Contents of Issue 12/2021
Karpova Y.A., Stefanchikov I.V. - On the origin of the Uruguayan voseo pp. 1-14


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the origin of the phenomenon of voseo in the Uruguayan Spanish. Description is given to the evolution of the use of pronoun ‘vos’ and the corresponding verb forms in the Old Spanish and classical Spanish language, as well as to specificity of the development of the forms of voseo in Latin America (namely the process hybridization of the paradigm). Special attention is given to the spread of this linguistic phenomenon in the Río de la Plata, which includes the territory of modern Uruguay, in the context of the history of colonization. The author examines the theory of the two “norms” (urban and rural) to clarify the correlation between ‘tú’ and ‘vos’ in the Uruguayan Spanish of the XVIII – XXI centuries. This article is first within the Russian Spanish studies to examine the forms of address in the Uruguayan Spanish from the diachronic perspective, as up to the present it has rarely become the focus of attention of the Soviet and Russian philology. The following conclusions are formulated: 1) the key factor in wide spread occurrence of voseo in the Spanish language of America lies in the specificity of assimilation of the Spanish language by autochthonous and mixed population; 2) unlike Spain and some regions of America, the forms ‘vos’ prevalent Río de la Plata with the beginning of colonization have not been displaced by the form ‘tú’ due ti peripheral location of the territory and remoteness from cultural centers of the empire; 3) at the same time, the presence of tuteo was more noticeable in the cities, which led to the formation of two “norms” in the region – rural, characterized by voseo; and urban tuteo, which was oriented towards Pyrenean norm.
Literary criticism
Stepanova V.E. - Artistic peculiarities of the philosophical works of S. S. Vasilyev-Borogonsky pp. 15-24


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the description of artistic uniqueness of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev. The author reviews the problem of the poetic language of Vasilyev’s philosophical poems from the perspective of determination of the role and function of poetic images, as well as the techniques of rhetorical patterns, stylistics and syntax as method of expressing the original philosophical views. Examination of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev required an overview of the context of philosophical poetry of the Yakut classics – A. E. Kulakovsky, A. I. Sofronov – the forerunners of S. S. Vasilyev.  It is worth noting that the poet scrupulously adhered to the experience and traditions of his forerunners. The lyrical works of S. S. Vasilyev were oriented towards the poetics of philosophical works of the first poets. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the poetics of the philosophical lyrics of S. S. Vasilyev is examined on the basis of literary studies for the first time. The author determines the main ideological content of the poet's philosophical lyrics: he enhanced the semantic meaning of poetic images borrowed from the folk lyrics. The designated by the poet symbolic images are comprehensible and effective means of artistic reproduction of the philosophical concepts. The rhetorical references, questions that are specific to the philosophical lyrics overall, served as the main techniques of developing the theme of the philosophical works of S. S. Vasilyev, described his personal reflections, as well as the author’s idea of the lyrical works.
Saitbattalov I.R. - Turkic-language interpretations of Quran from Bashkiria of the XIX century as literary monuments pp. 25-33


Abstract: The subject of this research is the literary-aesthetic characteristics of interpretation of Manzil written by Bashkir theologians Bahadirshah al-Qaynawi and Taj ad-Din ibn Yalchigul: the presence of coherent narratives based on the authorial approach towards the interpreted text, literary-aesthetic interpretations of plots and images reflected in the Quranic text directly, intertextual connections of interpretations with the works in other genres. The goal of this article lies in determination and description of the meaningful literary-aesthetic characteristics of interpretations of Manzil. The following tasks are resolved within the framework of this research: 1) determination of the key characteristics of the Tafsir genre, 2) revelation of the role of works under review for the tradition of the Turkic-language interpretation of Quran, 3) description of the literary-aesthetic characteristics of the interpretations by Bahadirshah al-Qaynawi and Taj ad-Din ibn Yalchigu, 4) translation of fragments of their interpretations that are significant from the perspective of literature into the Russian language. The scientific novelty and practical importance of this publication lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of two previously unexplored literary monuments that have not been translated into the Russian language. This significantly broadens the knowledge on the literary process in Bashkiria of the early XIX century. The author concludes that the interpretation of Quran fragments should be viewed in the context of evolution of Bashkir literature of the pre-national period. This opens great potential for studying their intertextual correlations with Turkic-language literary of the earlier period in the genres of “chronicles”, “history of the prophets”, and “miracles of the created”, as well as with sententious literature of the later period.
Shevchenko A.R. - Clash of cultures in the short stories by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie pp. 34-47


Abstract: The object of this article is the English-language multicultural prose of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The subject is the situation of clash of cultures. The research material is based on individual short stories by the contemporary US-Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie published in the book “The Thing Around Your Neck” (2009). The goal of this article lies in determination and analysis of the peculiarities of artistic expression and functionality of the situation of clash of cultures in the writer’s short stories. The relevance is substantiated by the following factors: 1) clash of cultures is typical for the relationships in modern multipolar world during the globalization era, thus it is relevant in literary works of the authors of the XX–XXI centuries;  2) literary studies currently indicate heightened interest in covering various aspects of fictional multicultural prose; 3) Adichie is a remarkable figure in the modern literary process. The short stories by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are unique in their reference to signal trends in the development of the English-language literature, and thus are a relevant in the context of studying the designated topic. Unlike the works of multicultural writers of the second half of the XX century, which have repeatedly been the object of scientific research, the multicultural prose of the late XX – early XXI centuries is poorly studied. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the analysis of short stories from the collection “The Thing Around Your Neck” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, which is not translated into the Russian language, is carried out for the first time within the Russian literally studies. The conclusion is made that the situation of clash of cultures in Adichie’s stories becomes the factor that induces mental crisis in the minds of the characters. There is no constructive dialogue of cultures, and their clash leads the characters to either the loss or substitution of identity.
Poetry and the poet
Temirshina O.R., Belousova O.G., Afanas'eva O.V. - Onomastic codes of the Poem Without A Hero by A. A. Akhmatova as hidden intertextual addressing pp. 48-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the principles of correlation of onomastic code of the “Poem Without A Hero” with the text frame of its various editions, viewed from the communicative-pragmatic perspective. The object of this research is nine editions of the “Poem Without a Hero” and intertextual references marked within the text frame. The author dwells on such aspects as the interrelation between the literary onomastics and hidden meanings of the poem, transformations of the text frame, methods of “instilling” the authorial meanings to intertextual sources (the works of Byron, Pushkin, and Gumilyov). Special attention is given to projection of the personal myth of Anna Akhmatova, which is traced through the poem, on Western European and Russian literature and the evolution of the text frame. It is demonstrated that the ensemble of epigraphs, which represents an implicit dedication to the poet fallen in disfavor, dissolves leaving imprints in the form of mentioning of Byron and Don Juan in the text of the poem. The main conclusion lies in the establishment of a number of semantic correspondences between the text frame and the historical-cultural halo of names, which on the one hand are associated with the imagery-motif level of a particular poem, while on the other – with personal mythology of the poet. The author’s special contribution to this research lies in outlining the strategies aimed at preservation of special intertextual memory in the names. The novelty consists in determination of the semantic halo of the name, which specifies a range of implicit meanings of the poem. It is revealed that these meanings are “supported” by the corresponding references. Such reminiscences, interweaving into a complex ornamental pattern, on the one side are conceptually programmed by the very structure of the “Poem Without A Hero”, and on the other side, determined biographically.
Mutalov R.O. - The systems of demonstrative pronouns and derivative adverbs in the Dargin languages pp. 57-63


Abstract: This article is examines the demonstrative pronouns and derivative adverbs in a number of the Dargin languages and dialects. The Dargin languages have a rich deictic system that helps the native speakers to navigate in the severe conditions of mountain terrain, and found its reflection in pronouns and spatial adverbs. Recent changes observed in the traditional way of life of highlanders, along with the migration processes, lead to extinction of this layer of lexicon. The problem of early documentation and research of locative adverbs retains its relevance. The goal of this article lies in comparative analysis of the systems of demonstrative pronouns and spatial adverbs in different Dargin idioms. For achieving the set goal, the article employs descriptive methods and methods of field linguistics. This article is first to conduct the comparative analysis of locative adverbial form, which defines its scientific novelty. As a result, description is given to the deictic systems of pronouns and adverbs in the Akushin, Urakhin, Kajtak, Sanzhin and Itsari idioms. It is established that most Dargin idioms feature two forms of demonstrative pronouns, which differ depending on the visibility or vastness of the object. Various affixes allow forming spatial adverbs that can function in one of the local cases – lative, directive, essive, or elative. The obtained results can be valuable in preparing comparative-historical grammar of the Dargin languages.
Wang Y. - Nationally oriented automotive marketing in China pp. 64-72


Abstract:   This article examines the specificity of formation of nationally oriented automotive marketing in China. The object of this research is the Chinese nationally oriented automotive marketing, while the subject is verbal and nonverbal means of its creation. Special attention is given to the analysis of the techniques of creating texts for nationally oriented automobile advertising in the Chinese language, in which multimodal means are used for the development of a positive image of the country and impact upon the domestic audience. The goal lies in determination of the specific features of multimodal media characteristic for such type of advertising. The article employs the methods of lexical-semantic and contextual analysis to reveal the linguopragmatic potentials of the text; method of linguoculturological commentary to describe the ethnocultural specificity; method of multimodal discourse analysis to examine the interaction of semiotic complexes in advertising The scientific novelty consists in studying the nationally oriented marketing strategies from the perspective of the theory of multimodality, which requires the analysis of semiotic heterogeneous codes in the advertising text. It is proven that the specificity of multimodal complex in the texts of Chinese nationally oriented automobile marketing manifests on the level of verbal and nonverbal means used therein. This is substantiated by the unique cultural-historical and social factors, as well as the peculiarities of the Chinese linguistic system. The acquired results may find practical implementation in teaching Chinese language, as well as in research on marketing linguistics.  
Ezhkova V.A. - Two traditions of studying modality: plan of expression pp. 73-81


Abstract: This article advances a hypothesis on the existence of two linguistic traditions of studying modality from the perspective of the plan of expression. The first tradition – the national one – stems from the works of V. V. Vinogradov. The second tradition – the foreign one – harks back to the studies of the philosophers and logicians. The author explores the views of the scholars of both traditions, concluding on their ways of expressing modality. It is noted that researchers use different principles of grouping the modal means; divide them into the markers of objective and subjective modality, epistemic and non-epistemic modality, grammatical and lexical, as well as implicit and explicit. At the same time, there is no uniform systemic representation on the ways of expressing modality in different languages or in a particular language (in this context – Russian). Solution to this problem requires demarcating modality and subjectivity as the different categories of modus. Modality is a way of expressing irreality of events with regards to semantics (current status of a sentence) and pragmatics (illocutive function of a statement). Subjectivity is a method of conveying emotional and mental attitudes of the speaker in relation to the content of his utterance, reality, as well as other parties to communication. Therefore, modal means should include the linguistic units, which introduce the irreal plan of the possibility and necessity. Leaning on such interpretation of the category, the author lists the means of expressing modality in the Russian language.
Question at hand
Malakhovskaya V.V., Kiiko E.D. - On the modern Russian online radio broadcasting pp. 82-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is broadcasting in the modern digital age. The object is the modern Russian online radio broadcasting. The goal lies in examination of the role of online radio broadcasting in the modern Russian digital space. The author aims to trace the dynamics of the development of online radio broadcasting in Russia and abroad, summarize the conclusions of the Russian researchers on the development trends of online radio broadcasting in Russia for the past decade, analyze the current state of Russian online radio broadcasting with its positive and negative sides, make recommendation for optimization of the study of Russian online radio broadcasting. The novelty of this article lies in the analysis of evolution of the Russian online radio broadcasting in the context of modern trends of the Russian and US information space. The conclusion is made that online radio broadcasting occupies a special niche within the global and Russian digital information space for the two decades of the XXI century. The dynamically developing information technologies enhance the convergent nature of this type of media, contributing to its penetration into modern social networks through mobile telephony. The US statistical data indicate testify to the growing popularity of online radio broadcasting in the United States. Various Russian data indicate a decline in the popularity of radio broadcasting overall, but rise of popularity of online radio broadcasting among certain segments of the Russian audience. The Russian academic community should increase cooperation with the media research centers to arrange consistent sources of statistical information for optimization of the study of online radio broadcasting in Russia.
Malakhovskaya V.V., Banifadel' M. - Peculiarities of the content of modern Palestinian segment of social media pp. 93-101


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Palestinian mass media. The object is the modern Palestinian segment of social networks. The goal lies in examination of peculiarities of the content of Palestinian segment of social media for the last decade. The author examines the Internet and social networks, their place in the modern Palestinian information space, content of the leading social networks that enjoy popularity among Palestinians. Analysis is conducted on the discourse of the Palestinian segment of social networks in the context of the attempts to establish pan-Palestinian dialogue, as well as in the context of Israeli–Palestinian conflict in recent years. The novelty of this work lies in examination of the content of social media through the prism of modern Palestinian theme. The conclusion is made that despite the territorial fragmentation and unsettled issue of creating the full-fledged Palestinian State at the current stage, the author claims the Palestinian information space in modern social networks. Palestine ranks high in the Arab world by the level of Internet and social media coverage. The most demanded Facebook and Twitter materials are the pages of the Palestinian pop singer and public figures who support the anti-Israeli discourse; YouTube is used mostly for entertainment content. The attempts to develop pan-Palestinian discourse in social networks achieved modest success in the mid-2010s. However, reaching the common agenda between leftist and Palestinians, as well as promotion of the content of Israeli authorities in social media, do not elicit response from the Palestinian audience. In the last two years, due to recurrent escalation of Israeli–Palestinian conflict, multidirectional discourses have prevailed in social media platforms, which testifies to aggravation of the Israeli–Palestinian information war.
Literary criticism
Zhigalov A.Y. - "The Nestorian Chronicle in the Prague Lectures... of Alfred Bem pp. 102-110


Abstract: During the interwar period, Prague was truly an academic capital of emigration. A unique scientific environment that formed therein a century ago was favorable for the study of Russian literature, including the ancient period. Among the philologists, who emigrated to Czechoslovakia, was Alfred Bem, known to modern science as a talented researcher of the works of Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Blok, Gumilyov and Mayakovsky. However, hardly anyone remembers Bem as Medievalist. The article analyzes the “Lectures” on the history of Old Russian literature (up to the mid XVII century) read to the students of Russian Pedagogical Institute named after Jan Amos Komenský in Prague in the winter semester of 1923 that have been nearly forgotten by now. These are the sheer bibliographic rarity. The circulation of this unique publication is small, just a few copies taken by duplicating machine from the typewritten original, which contains typos and corrections made by the author. “Lectures...” – a full textbook on the history of Russian literature of the XI – first half of the XVII centuries. A significant part of is dedicated to the “Tale of Bygone Years”. A. L. Bem’s view of the "Nestorian Chronicle” reflected in the Prague “Lectures...” is analyzed within the framework of studying the extensive historiographical topic of the “Research of Old Russian Literature in Czechoslovakia in the 1920s – 1930s”. This defines the novelty of this article. The conclusion is made that Alfred Bem made a considerable contribution to the study of the major Russian chronicle, provided in-depth and accurate characteristics to the “Tale of Bygone Years”, determining its historical and literary role. His contemplations on the genre and stylistic uniqueness of the “Tale” have subsequently found reflection in the works of Russian and foreign Medievalists. He also paid special attention to the history of the Corpus, thereby touching upon the question that is yet to be resolved.
Zhigalov A.Y. - The concept of Russian sanctity in the book The Venerable Sergius of Radonezh by B. K. Zaitsev pp. 111-119


Abstract: The book “The Venerable Sergius of Radonezh” by Boris Konstantinovich was first published in Paris in 1925. A. V. Amfiteatrov-Kadashev assumed that it is “the best work of the writer, imbued with the warmth of humanism, but, at the same time, truly national, Russian in spirit”. It is hard to disagree with this statement: B. K. Zaitsev not only describes the path of the Venerable Sergius of Radonezh, but also reflects a peculiar concept of the Russian sanctity. The fate Sergius of Radonezh resembles the path of Russia. The key traits of the true national character, the Russian soul merged in the image of the venerable old man. His image embodied the idea of the sanctity of the Ancient Rus’ and modern Russia – inwardly and spiritually true Homeland. An attempt is made to determine the essence of this concept give a brief description to its main characteristics. This substantiates the novelty of this study. The author concludes that the image of the venerable old man Sergius of Radonezh resembled the image Rus’ itself, which conveyed modesty, humbleness, purity and lightness, braveness and frankness, departure from rebel and extremes, humility and meekness, communication with God, love for the father’s house and parents, inner beauty and outward humbleness, sincere faith. All of these features are inherent to the Russian soul. Although it is not easy to discern such natural spiritual wealth in oneself, it will point the right path and lead to true sanctity that was achieved by the Venerable Sergius of Radonezh and described in the book of B. K. Zaitsev.
Naduda N.V. - National character in the allegorical prose of M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky pp. 120-127


Abstract: This article analyzes the Russian national character as the main theme in the works of M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky. The criteria for selecting the research material is the date of publication (2019) and the presence of an allegorical plot, which depicts the traditionalism, spirituality, controversy, and at the same time holism, sense of humor, and depth of national character. The author views national character as the foundation of artistic world in the allegorical prose; as well as gives characteristics to the key motifs, such as faith, labor, challenges, antagonism of the alien, unfamiliar to a Russian person. The article employs the systemic-holistic approach towards revealing the typological features of the modern traditionalist prose by M. Tarkovsky and A. Bushkovsky. The research is based on the comparativism, which allows determining the common trends and uniqueness of both authors. The article identifies the invariant constructions and images (portrait, landscape, detail, language). The elements of biographical method are used for correlating the hero with personal experience and worldview of the author. The structural-semantic method allows focusing on the aesthetic object, revealing the semantic meaning of methods used by the writers to create the image. Hermeneutics characterizes the allegory and symbol as fundamental means of expressing the authorial intentions, which reflect the ideological and aesthetic changes in the literary system. This article is first to analyze the literary texts of modern authors from the perspective of ethnopoetics.
Apal'kova E.S. - The image of Venetian mirror in the magic storylines of P. P. Muratov and A. V. Chayanov pp. 128-136


Abstract: This article examines the role of the image of Venetian mirror in the novella “The Venetian Mirror” by P. Muratov and “The Venetian Mirror, or Remarkable Adventures of the Glass Man” by A. Chayanov, as well as their connotation with the literary tradition of the mirror image. Representation of the mirror as a bearer of supernatural power takes its roots in folklore. Image of the mirror and principle of mirroring hold an important place in the poetics of romanticists and symbolists, and gain popularity in literature of the 1920s. Analysis of the image of Venetian mirror in the works of Muratov and Chayanov demonstrates that both texts fall under the tradition of Venetian text of the Russian literature, as well as reveal similar motifs that indicate their typology for small magical prose. However, the author also determines the individual interpretations of the role of magical item in the life of the protagonists: if in A. Chayanov’s novella, the Venetian mirror changes the usual order of things, then in Muratov's novella it sets the tone of narration. The scientific novelty lies in functional comparison of the texts with magical storylines, in the center of which is the image of Venetian mirror. The author comes to the conclusion that the extensive use of magical elements in the romantic context by A. Chayanov is antipodal to  neutral intonations of P. Muratov. It is noted that Chayanov creates a neo-mythological story of the pursuit and cognition of “Self”, personal becoming; while Muratov in his novella realizes the myth of lost harmony.
Arsentyeva Y.S. - Methods of translating nonequivalent units in the Russian-English Dictionary of Phraseological Euphemisms pp. 137-146


Abstract: This article explores the problem of adequate translation of English equivalents of the Russian phraseological euphemisms in the compiled by the authors “Russian-English Dictionary of Phraseological Euphemisms” – the first bilingual dictionary of euphemisms. Special attention is given to preservation of the significative and denotative component of the meaning of Russian phraseological euphemisms in their translating into English. The subject of this research is the methods of adequate transmission of the semantics of nonequivalent reinterpreted Russian euphemisms. The goal lies in the description of possible methods of translating nonequivalent Russian phraseological euphemisms into English: the right part of the dictionary entry is still under study. The novelty of this research lies in the discussion of possible methods of translating nonequivalent phraseological euphemisms that combine the characteristic features of both phraseological and euphemistic nominations. These typical characteristics are reflected in the right part of the dictionary entry. The acquires results prove that existence of four methods of translating nonequivalent phraseological euphemisms: using loanwords, lexical, descriptive and compound translation; the letter is crucial in delivering necessary information on the Russian phraseological euphemisms. The conclusion is made on the need to include additional information on the peculiarities of euphemistic nomination of the Russian phraseological euphemisms in form of descriptive translation into English, as opposed to the method of translating nonequivalent phraseological units in the existing bilingual phraseological dictionaries.
Iakovleva E. - Interpretation of symbols of female destiny in the novel Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes by G. Yakhina pp. 147-157


Abstract: Many aspects of the life of Tatar women of the past remain obscure for others, which is substantiated by the tradition. This prompts the study of the topic in the genre of literary realism. Analysis is conducted on the fate of Tatar woman in the novel “Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes” by G. Yakhina. The hermeneutical method reveals the key symbols of life of the woman, which reveal what is hidden. Such symbols as coffer, kiln, baby cradle, bird, son, honey embody the feminine principle and have national roots. The symbol of train resembles the progress and new foundations of existence, which partially disclose the hidden aspects of the life of Tatar women. Social changes affected the fate of Tatar women, giving an opportunity for self-realization and attainment of happiness. The novelty of this research lies in the analysis of the hidden in the life of Tatar women, dynamics of its evolution in the context of shift in sociocultural dominants caused by historical development. The acquired conclusions can be valuable in reconstruction of the fate of Tatar women of the XIX – XX centuries, determination of the finest nuances and details unknown to others, as well as restoration of the cultural-historical picture of their everyday practices. The interpretation of fate of the heroine of the novel through symbols allows applying a similar method to the analysis of other literary works dedicates to the female theme in culture.
Afshar M. - Transformations in linguocultural image of Persia in the novel The Death of Vazir-Mukhtar by Yury Tynyanov in comparison with The Travel Notes by A. S. Griboyedov pp. 158-167


Abstract: The subject of this research is the lexical means of creation of the linguocultural image of Persia in the novel “The Death of Vazir-Mukhtar” by Yury Tynyanov in comparison with “The Travel Notes” by A. S. Griboyedov The goal is to reveal the patterns of creation of linguoculturological image of Persia. For achieving the set goal, the lexical means are classified into lexical-semantic groups and subjected to semantic analysis. The article explores the lexical-semantic groups: nonequivalent lexicon (realias); proper names, including toponyms and anthroponyms; and common nouns that denote cultural realities, particularly denominations of people, place, holidays and calendar events, and artifacts. The scientific novelty consists in diachronic research of the process of formation of the image of Persia. The main results lies in the proof that the linguoculturological image is formed on the basis of certain lexical-semantic constants. The analysis of lexical units indicated that the semantic groups of words with linguoculturological component in these two works coincide, but the linguocultural image of Iran created by Y. Tynyanov in the novel “The Death of Vazir-Mukhtar” 100 years after “The Travel Notes” by A. S. Griboyedov is expressed by a wide range and variety of thematic lexical groups. This fact is explained not only by the genre differences of the texts, but also by the fact that with the course of time, the linguoculturological image of the country changes; it develops around certain constants, the semantic core.
Asanova Z. - Compound Adjectives in the Linguistic Works of the XX XXI Centuries (on the Material Crimean Tatar Language) pp. 168-173


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of theoretical knowledge about compound adjectives in the Crimean Tatar language. The reviewed material allows determining the lacunae that serve as the basis for the study of compound adjectives. It is revealed that compound adjectives have not previously become the special subject of research; some information can be found in scientific works of the early XX century. Modern researchers outline the main methods of formation of compound adjectives, such as word composition and lexicaliziation of the phrase (sometimes combined with affixation); as well as determine compound adjectives with compositional and subordinating relations of the components.. The novelty of this work lies in carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the history of compound adjectives in the Crimean Tatar language. The conclusion is made that compound adjectives overall and their orthography in particular did not receive due attention in all grammars, which led to different interpretation of their spelling variations. Practical significance of this topic lies in the fact that the acquired results and materials can be used in the practice of teaching Crimean Tatar and other Turkic languages in secondary and higher schools.
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