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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 11/2021
Contents of Issue 11/2021
Linguistics
Shmakova A.V. - Transparency and mirroring of literary translations of fairy tales by the English writers pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36631

Abstract: The subject of this research is the English-Russian translation of fairy tales from the perspective of transparency and mirroring. The goal of this research is to determine the strategy for literary translation of the English fairy tales. Linguostylistic and comparative analysis is conducted on B. Zakhoder's translations of such fairy tales as “Alice in Wonderland” by L. Carroll, “Winnie the Pooh and All, All, All” by A. Milne, and “Mary Poppins” by P. Travers. The modern theory of translation largely focuses on the various aspects of equivalence and adequacy of the original and translated texts; describes the requirements for the quality of translation, including literary translation. Russian and foreign researchers show heightened attention to the concepts of transparency and mirroring in translation, namely literary translation of children's literature substantiated by the specificity of the target audience. The scientific novelty consists in application of the modern postulates of the theory of translation to children's literature, which broadens knowledge in this scientific field. The main conclusion lies in following the theory of translation transparency for the child reader in translation of children's literature. As a result of the analysis of B. Zakhoder’s translations of fairy tales by L. Carroll, A. Milne, and P. Travers into the Russian language, it is noted that they reflect the general patterns of translation children's fiction, take into account psychological characteristics of the audience, text is adapted to be comprehensible for children, considerable attention is given to the emotional component, expressiveness, and humor. Although B. Zakhoder’s translations are not the full interpretation, he follows the theory of transparency. Imaginative interpretation of the text demonstrates the specificity of translator’s individual style.
Language
Akhmeev I., Popova L.G. - Adaptation of Anglicisms complex words in the German and Russian languages (based on publicistic texts) pp. 9-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36148

Abstract: The goal of this article is to determine similarities and differences in the process of adaptation of Anglicisms in the German and Russian languages. The subject of this research is Anglicisms that are structurally represented by complex words. The topic of adaptation of Anglicisms – complex words – was selected due its poor coverage in the comparative linguistics. The article determines the derivational models of Anglicisms used in the German and Russian publicistic texts. The author traces the similarity in the presence of derivational models of Anglicisms, namely: word from the recipient language word + English word, English word + word of the recipient language, English word + English word, combinations of 3 or more English words. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article is first to determine the similarities and differences in adaptation of Anglicisms based on the German and Russian publicistic texts. The conclusion is made that unlike Russian language, German language features a wide variety of compounding models. The German language is characterized by the connecting consonant ‘s’ for linking several word roots; while the Russian language is characterizes by the connecting vowel ‘o’. The author also concludes on the similarities and differences of the compared languages in terms of the tendency of grammatical assimilation of the English borrowings. It is noted that in the Russian language they are often masculine, while in German there are almost as many masculine Anglicisms as neuter, as well as a number of feminine Anglicisms. The acquired results can be applied in reading the lectures on comparative lexicology of the German and Russian languages.
Literary criticism
Li A. - Lu Xun and N. V. Gogol: the unexplored field of poetry pp. 19-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36666

Abstract: Russian literature has had a massive impact upon the creative path of Lu Xun. The researchers of his prose (including sinologist and translator L. Z. Ėĭdlin, literary scholar L. D. Pozdneeva, writer and literary scholar Feng Xue Feng, and others.) oftentimes compared his texts with the works of Russian writers. Despite the fact that Lu Xun wrote poetry throughout his life, his poetic legacy is poorly studied. Comparative analysis is conducted on the poetry of Lu Xun and N. V. Gogol. It is noted that the poetry of both authors reflects their philosophical and cultural views. The similarity of the authors lies in the fact that each used the versification that is traditional for their culture. The content and shape of Gogol’s poetry is based on the Slavic folklore and Orthodox faith, while Lu Xun is one of the initiators of the “New Culture Movement” and is considered an innovator in the Chinese literature. He wrote prose and poetry not in Wenyan (classical Chinese), which was understood by the elite of Chinese society alone, but in Baihua (written vernacular Chinese), the new Chinese literary language. Therefore, Lu Xun made a considerable contribution to the creation of new poetry, and many Chinese literary scholars (Chang Tsao, 1962-2010, Zhu Ziqing, 1898-1948) consider him the founder of the modern versification in China. The article establishes the similarities and differences between the Russian syllabic-accentual verse poems and Chinese new poetry.
Journalism
Gao D. - The key syntactic peculiarities of the Chinese newspaper-journalistic style pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36586

Abstract: The subject of this research is the syntactic of journalistic style of the Chinese language. The object is the Chinese media texts of newspaper-journalistic style. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the fact that although Chinese media system is rapidly developing and requires the knowledge of stylistic patterns, the newspaper-journalistic style remains poorly studied. The examination of newspaper-journalistic style is also important in translation from Chinese to other languages. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of syntactic peculiarities of journalistic style of the Chinese language. The author aims to examine the principles of syntactic construction of the Chinese media text; determine the ratio of simple and complex syntactic constructions in the Chinese media text; analyze the peculiarities of most common sentences of this style. The novelty lies in the summary of syntactic peculiarities of newspaper-journalistic style of the Chinese language based on the analysis of the types of sentences, syntactic constructions, and sentence components. The theoretical importance of the study consists in formulation of the key syntactic peculiarities of this style in the Chinese language. The practical significance lies in the acquired results that would be valuable for creating Chinese media texts and improving the quality of translations of such texts into other languages. The conducted research demonstrates that the newspaper-journalistic style of the Chinese language has its characteristic linguistic properties, the knowledge of which ensures better understanding of the Chinese media texts. The Chinese newspaper-journalistic style often features the special syntactic expressive means, which stir the interest of the readers, and perform the basic function of the texts – broadcast of information.
Mustapha M., Agyei S. - The era of information pollution: new definition of news production in Nigeria pp. 39-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36726

Abstract: This article explores the possibility of redefining professional news production in order to suspend the disseminators of disinformation. For achieving this goal, the author examined the areas of the likely distortion of information: headlines and editors of online news. Headlines play the key role within information ecosystem, since they can deceive the audience. This is acquired by using arresting phrases to draw attention of the audience. It is determined that some editors of online news do not observe certain ethical standards, and thus, post articles without verifying the accuracy of the material. It is noted that politicians have infiltrated the online media space, which affects that the editors choose what to post. It is recommended that headlines should not only be attractive, but also written in a way not to deceive the audience, as well as the extent of influence of the political figures upon media agenda should be established. And ultimately, the people who have no experience in journalism, should be trained by an experienced journalist in order to minimize the information pollution common to the era of Internet and social networks.
Linguistics
Wang L. - Manifestation of the attitude of V. O. Klyuchevsky to the educational reform of Peter the Great (based on the course of Russian History by V. O. Klyuchevsky) pp. 45-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34396

Abstract: This article discusses the peculiarities of manifestation of the category of the author’s image in working with historical sources in V. O. Klyuchevsky course of “Russian History”. Major attention is given to the educational reform during the reign of Peter the Great. Category of the author’s image as a personal attitude of the author to object of depiction, which indicates the beginning of the text, was studied primarily on the material of literary texts in the works of such scholars as V. V. Vinogradov, L. A. Novikov, M. L. Novikova. But is has explanatory potential to the scientific text. I. I. Baklanova gave a general principle for the analysis and identification of the author's image in the scientific text; however, this category has not been studied in a specific work of scientific style. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the category of the author's image in the scientific course of “Russian History” is examined for the first time. The article employs the method of philological analysis of the text; examines the use of linguistic means as a form of expressing the author's thoughts. Comparative method is applied for juxtaposition of the initial idea with the acquired result, as well as for tracing the causal link to determine correlation of the content with the author's idea. It is established that the image of the historian is represented by contrariety of the initial concept of the reform, reflected in the dialogue between the Tsar and Patriarch Adrian, and its actual implementation indicated in the quotations from the decrees (1713–1723). Category of the author's image also manifests in linguistic means used to characterize the selected facts. The obtained results can be used in such university courses as “Philological text analysis”, “Stylistics of the Russian language”, “Russian language and speech culture”. The article reveals that V. O. Klyuchevsky expressed objection to the educational reform of Peter the Great.
Literary criticism
Porol O.A., Dmitrieva N.M. - The Tale of Igor's Campaign in N. Gumilyov's lyrics of the later period pp. 55-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36781

Abstract: This research is dedicated to spatiotemporal aspect of “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” in N. Gumilyov’s lyrics of later period. Based on the lyrical works written over the period from 1913 to 1921, the author contemplates on the role of the Old Russian epic for the poet’s ideology. A hypothesis advanced that the text of the tale is one of the most constructive in worldview of the poet. The article employs the comparative-historical and structural-semiotic methods (juxtaposition of semantics facts that go back to the text  of the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign” and contained in N. Gumilyov's poetry) for establishing correspondence or semantic changes of words in the original text. The method of parallel text search is applied. Textual analysis of the fragments of N. Gumilyov's works and “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” is conducted. The article is first to determine and substantiate the interrelation between N. Gumilyov’s poem “War” (1914) and text of the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign”. Detailed analysis is given to the image of the “sowing” and “reaping” Russian warriors. In his later works, Gumilyov associates the “Tale of Igor’s Campaign” with the highest ethical values, history of Russian and world culture, which underlines the historicism of Gumilyov’s thinking. The article reveals the “horse”, “warrior”, “quiver”, “saber” contained in the text of the tale reflect the true life of N. Gumilyov.
Vorobyova S., Oganova E. - Romantic songs by the Turkish ashik Karacaoğlan: key motifs and system of poetic imagery pp. 63-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34321

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the analysis of romantic motifs and corresponding poetic images in the works of the prominent Turkish ashik of the XVII century Karacaoğlan, as well as in determination of the nature of interaction of the folklore and his original tradition therein. The article employs literary text analysis, as well as the method of description and comparison. Using the specific examples, the author examines the key motifs of Karacaoğlan’s romantic lyrics (praise and admiration of the beauty of the beloved; infidelity of the beloved; separation; doubting the feelings of the beloved, etc.), and the imagery system associated with these motifs: a nightingale, rose, grus, a “burning heart”, a “wounded soul”, landscape sketches (snowcapped mountains, light breeze, etc.). Analysis is also conducted on the artistic means of creating the portrait of a beauty: her face, eyes, eyebrows, hair, manner of walking, clothes, and accessories. Literary works of the Turkish ashik Karacaoğlan have not previously become the object of separate research within the Russian science, which detfines the novelty of this article. The conclusion is made that the traditions of folklore and Diwan (Sufi) poetry are organically intertwined in the works by Karacaoğlan, which determines the specificity of poetics of ashik literature not only of the XVII century, but also the entire time continuum. This study contributes to clarification of the typology and poetics of ashik poetry, as well as the nature of interaction of the folklore and the author’s individual tradition within a single work.
Kolyagina T.Y. - The characters of Eremey Aipin is pursuit of identity (based on the novel In Search of the Primordial Land) pp. 78-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36826

Abstract: The subject of this article is the problem of identity of the characters in the novel “In Search of the Primordial Land” by the regional Khanty writer Eremey Aipin. The goal is to describe the key vectors of reflections of the main characters on personal and national identity. The author aims to analyze the path of spiritual and social becoming, as well as finding true identity in the world and society of the protagonists of the novel — “man of the kin” Matvey Taishin and the hero “without kith or kin” Roman Romanov. The study leans on the interdisciplinary comprehensive approach, with the use of cultural-historical, typological, ethno-cultural, axiological and imagological methods of analysis. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the characters of the literary work from the perspective of their identity and identification. Analysis is conducted on the two ways of finding true identity by the characters in the small and big world. Path of “man of the kin” is the cognition of capabilities of staying in the world, strengthening of inviolable faith as the essential link in the chain of life, nature, Cosmos, and humanity. Path of the hero “without kith or kin” is a series of initiations (according to V. Y. Propp), as a result of which he gradually assimilates to the “earthly world”, having acquired the experience of merging with society. It is proven that solution of the questions on personal, social and national identity of the characters of the novel is interrelated with the author's traditionalistic worldview. The conclusion is made that in a crisis historical situation, the characters of the novel intuitively tilt towards ancient cultural memory of humanity, seeing its as a basis for reconstruction of identity.
Linguistics
Ma J. - For what reason does Raskolnikov laugh? pp. 89-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36874

Abstract: This article analyzes the resources of application of computer technologies for the purpose of visualization of the text semantic field “laughter”. The concept of “laughter” holds a special place in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky, as well as in one of the central semantic fields in the text semantic space of the novel “Crime and Punishment”. Examination of the semantic field within the space of a particular literary text allows determining the peculiarities of the authorial thesaurus within the structure of his linguistic identity. The subject of this article is the concept of “laughter” as the core of the corresponding text semantic field; determination of saturation of the text with the words belonging to a certain semantic field. Despite the fact that multiple questions related to the theory of semantic field are well studied, the scholars take interests in studying the linguistic material, denoted in field linguistics, namely development of the techniques for visualization of the semantic  network through creating cloud tags, semantic text markup, synoptic patterns, rendering, etc. The article offers one of the techniques – visualization based on construction of a plot using a specifically developed computer software. The graphic image illustrates the distribution of units of the semantic field “laughter” in the novel, which enables new interpretations of the content of Dostoevsky’s novel.
Journalism
Lenkhoboeva T.R. - Environmental ethics of Buddhism in regional mass media (based on the example of the Republic of Buryatia): methods of construction pp. 98-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36867

Abstract: This article explores the role of mass media in enviromentalization of collective consciousness by means of Buddhist culture and philosophy. In today’s world, environmental issues are critical. Buryatia is one of the three main Buddhist regions of the Russian Federation along with Kalmykia and Tuva. Thus, religion, namely Buddhism with its ecophilic principles, may play a crucial role in overcoming ecological crisis in the republic. Mass media, as one of the most active social institutions and the leading channel of information for the citizens, also contribute to the formation of environmental awareness. The article aims to trace how mass media affects the formation of environmental awareness of the population. The subject of this article is the methods of construction of environmental awareness in the regional mass media of the Republic of Buryatia. The goal is to determine the methods of construction of environmental consciousness in the Buryat republican media for the five-year period (2017–2021). The research leans on the method of content analysis; employs the publications of the online platforms “Inform Polis Online: and “Gazeta-n1”. The research can be divided into two stages: 1) the results of content analysis of the online platform “Inform Polis Online” and “Gazeta-n1” for the period from 2017 to 2021; examination of the fundamental principles of environmental ethics of Buddhism described in the publications about one of the major Buddhist holidays – Sagaalgan.
Interpretation
Zipunov A., Valganov S.V. - Macro-semantic rhythmic structures in popular author songs pp. 106-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36848

Abstract: Certain author song of the 1950s – 1980s are characterized with such structural peculiarity as semantic rhythms. This pattern manifests itself in two forms: dialectical juxtaposition of the particular and the general (PG-rhythm); as well as the conflict of non-entropic and entropic processes, order and chaos (OC-rhythm). For broader understanding of this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine its place within the framework of the author song as a large-scale cultural phenomenon. The author mass processing of popular compositions using the method of almost full enumeration. The research material includes all 5 thematic national collections that feature 487 songs. The analysis of the lyrics reveals the total number of works with the initial semantic rhythmics: 43% with the PG-structure and 23% with the OC-structure. The application of various strategies of analysis indicates that the sampling of no less than 70-80 compositions should be used for achieving accurate results in partial studies (for example, by authors) . In the course of research, the author determines new versions of manifestation of the semantic structures: PG-structure of fable-type, as well as variability of Brodsky's saw in songs with entropic rhythmics. There are also songs with intersection of both types of semantic rhythms. Correlation is established between the social processes of cultural environment associated with the author song and the dynamics of semantic rhythms in popular compositions. In the early 1970s, a bifurcation point is noticed in the moods of the corresponding social community.
Literary criticism
Ibragimova K.R. - Pathetic speech in Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer pp. 116-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36972

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the peculiarities of pathetic language in Geoffrey Chaucer's “Canterbury Tales” and rhetorical techniques used for saturating the speech of the narrator and the characters. On the example of the “Man of Law's Tale” and the “Second Nun’s Tale”, in which the vicissitudes of the heroines are in the limelight, the author of this article examines the specificity of pathetic speech and its functions in Chaucer’s text. The goal of this research lies in determination of the cause for using pathetic speech in these two tales. Research methodology employs structural, semantic, and historical-cultural methods of analysis of the literary text. The scientific novelty consists in reference to the analysis of rhetorical techniques in the poetics of Geoffrey Chaucer reflected in the context of the categories of tragic and pathetic, which have not been thoroughly studied in the Russian and foreign research tradition. The following conclusions were made: the abundance of pathetic speech is a means to draw the attention of audience; its heightened expansiveness allows reaching the expected emotional response. In most instances, pathetic speech is associated with the positive characters of the tales, as well as the narrator, who comments on the actions of the heroes and emphasizes the touching episodes in their lives. The speech of the negative characters in these two tales is rather neutral, and in some cases replaced by the speech of the narrator. Granting the word to the negative characters, Chaucer means expansion of their role, allowing the audience to look at them not only as the minister of evil.
Journalism
Mustapha M., Agyei S. - Assessment of the impact of new media and political news channels in West Africa: on the example of Ghana and Nigeria pp. 124-129

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36702

Abstract: Rapid technological changes that take place in recent years affect all aspects of life. The emergence and popularization of the Internet is one of the examples of how people get access to political information and news. Previous research were focused on examination of the impact of media upon the audience, or people’s distrust to new media. The online quantitative study that involved 199 respondents from Ghana and Nigeria revealed that many people read political news online, or sometimes listen to the radio in these two regions. Print media received the lowest rating, as people’s interest in it declines. The conclusion is made that the population of Ghana and Nigeria tend to read new media for political news compared to mainstream media. Therefore, mainstream media should invest adequate resources to improve their online presence and the quality of their news content. It is indicated that new media is currently the number one tool worldwide of enticing people to protest against government policies that they believe would have negative consequences for their lives. It is shocking that the majority of respondents claimed that they watch political news on TV, compared to minority who listen to radio. The authors’ special contribution lies in determination of the most frequently used means of political communication among the residents of West African countries. It opens eyes for political communication and researchers, which requires further study.
Literary criticism
Akamov A.T., Gasharova A.R. - The image of Qazi-Mullah in the poetry of A. I. Polezhaev (in commemoration of the 225th anniversary of the birth of Imam Ghazi-Muhammad) pp. 130-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34417

Abstract: The object of this research is the poems (“Erpeli” and “Chir-Yurt”) by A. I. Polezhaev. The authors explore the peculiarities of artistic presentation and interpretation of the image of the Muslim scholar and theologian, first imam of Dagestan and Chechnya, leader of the Caucasian highlanders – Imam Ghazi-Muhammad (Qazi-Mullah) in the poetry of A. I. Polezhaev. The relevance of this publication is caused by heightened interest and enormous controversy around the topic of the Caucasian War and its leading figures. It is noted the evolution of views on the liberation movement of highlanders headed by Ghazi-Muhammad can be traced on the works of A. I. Polezhaev. The article reveals Polezhaev’s perception of the activity of the imam as the manifestation of religious fanaticism. Herewith, A. I. Polezhaev describes the idealized image of Qazi Mullah in a hyperbolized form, objectively depicting his positive qualities. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the analysis of the image of Imam Ghazi-Muhammad through literary works contributes to comprehension of the heroic concept of a real person in literature and profound understanding of the problem of historicism overall. The article leans on the contrastive method, which involves comparative analysis (subjective personal reflections and manifestations of the author are correlated with the historical facts).
Nasr M.T. - Multi-layered scenario of the novel Earth by Mikhail Elizarov pp. 141-151

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36749

Abstract: This article discusses the novel “Earth” by the contemporary Russian writer Mikhail Elizarov. The plot of the novel develops in the context of philosophical views of the writer with postmodernist idea of thanatological concept of the world. The goal consist in analysis of the plot through organizing power of the “motifs” and their modifications. The relevance of this research lies in the fact that this article is first to carry out the motivic analysis of multi-layered scenario of the novel “Earth”. The author explores the thanatological motif that forms the plot of the novel and correlates with other motifs, such as anthropological, philosophical, maturing, romantic, and procedural criminal. The following conclusions were made:  1) The work “Earth” demonstrates the genre characteristics of the novel and balances on the border between realism and deconstruction, The conducted motivic analysis proves the presence of static and dynamic motifs. The theme of hallucinogenic narrative resembles life, death, and fate. 2) The motifs in the novel “Earth” are intertwined, overlaying and complementing each other. The author believes that the key motif is thanatological motif, which manifests on several levels and interlaces with the characters of the novel in most episodes. This motif forms the plot and theme, as well as other philosophical, anthropological, maturing, romantic, and procedural criminal motifs in the novel. 3)  The lyrical motif of the novel “Earth” is the romantic motif. The epic motif is the duel between two Krotyshevs brothers. Dramatic motif is both, thanatological and philosophical motifs, which describes senescence and brevity of life. Motif of maturing along with anthropological motif are considered as individual motif.
Malakhevich D.E. - Zuo Si (250305) as the founder of the tradition of poems about daughters in classical Chinese poetry pp. 152-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36904

Abstract: Zui Si (250–305) is a prominent Chinese poets of the early Middle Ages, however, his poetic heritage and translations of his works are fragmentary within the Russian sinology. His poetry is characterized by pronounced individuality, depicted within the framework of Chinese tradition. Special attention is given to female images in the lyrics of Zuo Si. The remarkable poem “My Beloved Daughters” is the first poem about daughters within the Chinese tradition, which gave rise to the entire subgenre that existed until the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912). This article analyzes the poetics of the poem “My Beloved Daughters” by Zuo Si. The conclusion is made that the main feature of this poem, which determined the poetics and all its imitations, is the use of classical techniques characteristic to gongti shi (宫体诗), i.e. palace-style poetry, which creates a comic effect and casts doubt on the traditional gender stereotypes. The novelty of this research consists in examination of the works of the Chinese poet of the early Middle Ages Zuo Si from the perspective of gender poetics. The author’s special contribution lies in the full literal translation of the poem “My beloved Daughters” by Zuo Si, which is conducted in the Russian language for the first time.
Linguistics
Shcherbakova M.V. - On determination of the part-of-speech affiliation of modal words pp. 161-170

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36637

Abstract: The subject of this research is the part-of-speech affiliation of modal words – a special group of lexemes that are irreplaceable, syncategorematic, and lack formal unity. The author examines four most widespread approaches towards determination of the part-of-speech status of modal words, modal semantics, in particular, and the function of modal meaning; provides summary of the existing in Russian linguistics classifications of modal words, and lists their basic lexical-semantic categories. In the course of studying the genesis of modal words, the author correlates them with other parts of speech. For determination of the part-of-speech status, emphasis is placed on the degree of manifestation within this group of lexemes of semantic, morphological, syntactic and word-forming characteristics, namely the compliance of modal words with the listed criteria. The novelty consists in the analysis of the part-of-speech affiliation of modal words through the prism of the traditional semantic-syntactic approach, considering the formal-morphological aspect of modal words, which allows accumulating the avaliable knowledge on modal words, as well as compiling holistic representation on the nature of their origin and functionality. The research materials can be used in teaching morphology of the modern Russian language, as well as in preparation of lectures and textbooks on cognate disciplines. The conclusion is made that in synchrony, modal words represent an isolated group that is in-between of autosemantic and functional words. The recommendation to classify this group as a separate part of speech remains polemical; however, segregation of modal words in the grammatical system is unarguable.
Andreeva E.Y. - Objective and subjective nature of transformations in translation of a literary text pp. 171-176

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36921

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of objective and subjective nature of translation transformations. The research relies on the biographical novels “Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson” and “Isadora: A Sensational Life” by Peter Kurth and their translations into the Russian language. Research methodology employs the methods of descriptive and comparative analysis. The goal lies in examination of the various types of translation modifications (substitution, inversion, addition, and omission) for determining the inevitable changes in the sentences with syntactic structure on the one hand, and the results of individual approach of the  translators fluent in Russian and English on the other hand. The novelty consists in the analysis of syntactic modifications, taking into account various extralinguistic factors within the framework of a particular genre of fiction literature – biographical novel characterized by a special degree of expressiveness. In is established that in literary translation all transformations can be divided into two groups: objective and subjective. Objective transformations are the result of differences in the formal and semantic systems of the English and Russian languages, while subjective modifications help to express the degree of likelihood of the event, as well as the emotional state or attitude of the characters to the events, people, or things. The acquired conclusions contribute to further study of the role of syntactic transformations in the literary translation from English into Russian, as well as can be used in preparation of specialists who study English at the lectures and seminars on the relevant topics of emotive syntax and literary translation.
Folklore
Lepeshkina L. - Image of the future life in ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region pp. 177-187

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36829

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region of the XIX – early XX centuries. The goal lies in constructing image of the future based on ritual texts, as well as finding common motives and themes therein. Leaning on the archival materials, the author determines the key concepts of the regional folklore: desire of happiness, acquisition/loss of freedom, and loneliness. The content analysis is conducted on ritual lamentations and songs, as well as the most meaningful motives that unite all the rituals of the life cycle. The article employs culturological methods of research that allow identifying the spiritual and moral values and representations of the life cycle in the ritual texts of the peoples of Middle Volga Region. The scientific novelty consists in interpretation of the ritual texts of the population of the region as basic elements essential for constructing image of the future life. The conclusion is made that ritual texts of the inhabitants of the region feature similar theme: admiration of children, desire of happiness and freedom in the context of sending for military service and consummation of marriage, leaving home, and fear of loneliness. Shared outlook upon life created a predictable picture of the future with uniform requirements to a person as a bearer of the traditional culture. Such requirements implied the idea of the importance of reproduction of healthy generation and unification of family.
Interpretation
Pokhalenkov O.E., Klevtsova A.M. - Image of the enemy in political communication (based on the newspaper Znamya for 1944) pp. 188-195

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34361

Abstract: This article is dedicated to realization of image of the “enemy” in political communication (on the example of the newspaper “Znamya” for 1944). Special attention is given to the analysis of image of the “enemy” on different levels of publicistic text: linguistic, figurative, and associative. It is established that the image consists of macro-paradigms and mini-paradigms in spatial zones that are founded on the opposition “own – alien”. Macro-paradigms and mini-paradigms within the author’s view mostly consist of the following oppositions: German – fascist, German – murderer, German – beast, enemy – fascist’ accomplice. The author’s special contribution lies in introduction of the new archival material into the scientific discourse (unstudied the selection of the articles from the newspaper “Znamya” for 1944), which allows analyzing the image of “enemy” that has not previously become the object of research in the publicistic text of the regional media. The scientific novelty lies in the complex use of comparative and structural methods: comparative for tracing the similarities and differences in implementation of the main paradigms of image of the “enemy”; and the structural for determining the composition and content of the image paradigms.
Rhetoric
Kovaleva A.V. - Modern everyday realities in neo-phraseological locutions pp. 196-202

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.34340

Abstract: This article examines the ability of the language to include new everyday realities in neologisms, namely in recently formed phraseological locutions in the German language. The Russian phraseological units (primarily idioms) are involved for comparative purposes. It is demonstrated that the process of creating phraseological units is not left far back in the past, but remains to the present day. The article considers one of the aspects of figurative reflection of reality by means of phraseological neologisms that emerged in the XIX and XX centuries. Phraseological locutions, and idioms in particular, which designate everyday realities, incorporate valuable information on the historical and cultural life of the country of the studied language. The conclusion is made on the degree of reflection of everyday realities in phraseology, as well as on possibility of using phraseology for reconstruction of representations on the life of people of a particular generation. Most of the time, neo-phraseological locutions occur in the language through the metaphor based on figurative reinterpretation of the phenomenon, or relevant situation. Restoration of the resemblance of situation may contribute to using phraseology for reconstructing the representations on the life of people of a particular generation. However, restoration of the image of the past is not always accurate. The emergence of certain phraseological units correlates with a particular historical situation or event.
Language
Bobodzhanova L., Kuznetcova V.A. - The peculiarities of translating English and Chinese children's fairy tales into the Russian language pp. 203-218

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36118

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the peculiarities of translating English and Chinese children's fairy-tales into the Russian language. Analysis is conducted on such key concepts as “children's fairy-tale”, “literary tale”, and “folklore tale”. The author examines the development stages of English literary tale and Chinese folk tale as independent genres. The main translation transformations used in translating English literary tales and Chinese folk tales into the Russian are explored. Special attention is given to the translation of fairy tales as a form of cross-cultural dialogue due to the fact that such works are loaded with the ethnic-cultural components. The conducted analysis reveals the major challenges face by the translators in dealing with fairy-tale literature. The conclusion is made that the translation of fairy-tale requires taking into account not only the unique genre as such, but also the ethnic-cultural distinctness of different linguistic cultures, foreign mentality, and cultural identity. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to establish whether it is possible to achieve success in cultural adaptation of English literary tales and Chinese folk tales into the Russian language. The acquired results indicate that the major challenge in translation and cultural adaptation lies in conveyance of cultural uniqueness, as well as ethnic, historical and national flavor of the original texts; it is essential to remember that translation of children’s fairy tale is part of the process of cross-cultural communication, and the translator must become an intermediary of the dialogue of cultures. Fairy tales bear the cultural code of a particular ethnos, being the key to comprehension of the worldview of its representatives. It conveys the socially significant information, embeds moral values, illustrates ethnic-cultural peculiarities, and preserves cultural heritage.
Linguistics
Yuan L. - Deliberate distortions of the concepts of West and East in media discourse pp. 219-226

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36691

Abstract: This article dedicated to identification distortions in the traditional interpretations of the concepts of “West” and “East” in modern Russian media discourse. The goal lies in outlining separate aspects of distortion of these concepts and determination of causes for the emergence of such distortions in mass media discourse. The object of this research is the modern Russian media discourse that takes place in the online space. The subject is the distortions of media discourse. The article employs the analysis of scientific literature, linguoculturological text analysis, comparison and systematization of research results, continuous sampling, and keyword search. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that that this article is first to examine distortions of the concepts of “West” and “East”. It is revealed that the content of the concept of “West”, namely such aspects as modernity, progressiveness, development of new technologies, wealth, etc., are exposed to distortions the most; while the concept of “East” and its components, such as tradition, ancient civilization, despotism of state power, vestige of the past, impairment of rights of the women, and specific mode of living remain virtually unchanged. The conclusion is made that distortions of the concept of “West” and consistency of the concept of “East” in media discourse may be associated with the orientation of modern Russia towards Eastern civilization, as well deliberate opposition of Russia and the West presented in media discourse.
Discourse
Boginskaya A. - French translations of Eugene Onegin: on the conveyance of stylistic patterns pp. 227-241

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2021.11.36632

Abstract: This research is dedicated to the topic of multivariate translations. Leaning on the text corpus that contains 16 French translations of A. S. Pushkin's novel “Eugene Onegin”, analysis is conducted on the peculiarities of conveying certain characteristic stylistic patterns in French texts alongside other stylistic techniques of the original, as well as changes in translations depending on the poetic form chosen by the translator. The selected extensive material trace traces the evolution of translators’ approach towards the stylistics of Pushkin's text over time. The article focuses on the chapters III and VIII of the novel. Comparative analysis demonstrates the dependence of the stylistic aspect of translation on the poetic form chosen by the translator. Prose translations provide more accurate stylistic equivalents than translations of the verses. Poetry translations are divided into two groups: 1) accurate compliance with the of Onegin’s verse; 2) departure from the rhyme pattern of the original. The frequency of transmitting stylistic techniques of the original in both groups does not demonstrated significant systematic differences. The author determines the consistencies in conveying certain stylistic patterns in various French translations. Periphrases, comparisons, inversions, and metaphors most of the time receive stylistically accurate equivalents in all translations; while metonymy and polysyndeton with conjunction “and” do not. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the text corpus that contains virtually all existing full translations of the novel “Eugene Onegin”.
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