Litera - 8 2020 . - - . ISSN: 2409-8698 - NotaBene
Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 08/2020
Contents of Issue 08/2020
Question at hand
Bugorskaia V. - To the question of central conflict in M. Y. Lermontovs novel Vadim pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33494

Abstract: This article examines the unfinished Mikhail Lermontov’s novel “Vadim”. This oeuvre is one of the signature works of the writer: on the one hand, it recapitulates the earlier period of Lermontov’s works, while on the other – represents a stepping stone, characterized by mastering new genres and reflecting general trends of Russian literature of the beginning of the 1830’s. The goal consists in the analysis of central conflict unfolded between the protagonists Vadim and Olga, which reflects choice of a person between good and evil. The historical-literary and hermeneutic methods are applied in the course of this research. The novelty lies in the author’s suggestion to examine romantic conflicts in the context of Christian worldview. The implications of M. Y. Lermontov’s novel are decoded via attraction of the texts of Holy Scripture, which leads to the conclusion that the beginning of work on the novel “Vadim” coincides with Lermontov’s heightened interest to the problem of good and evil in Christian understanding. Mastering the new prosaic genre, the writer continues to amplify the common to his works theme of interaction of the Divine, angelical, demonic and human beginnings.
Linguistics
Bakhmatov D.A. - On life cycle of a phrase (a case study of German language) pp. 9-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33502

Abstract: The goal of this research consists in identification and complex description of the stages of existence of a phrase. The subject of this research is changes in the use that afflict phrases in diachrony. The author determines the types of such changes, which characterize the stages of existence of a phrase since its emergence, as well as possible ways of development of a phrase (in terms of unchangeability of its composition and level of idiomaticity).Based on the material of verbal-nominal phrases in German language, both free and phraseologisms, and attraction of corpus-based data, the changes in use are perceived as elements of a single process. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to describe the models of diachronic changes as cyclic processes; reveal common trends in development of phrases and in applicability of the definition of “life cycle” to the indicted processes. The concept of “life cycle”, used in various sciences for designating the natural, repeating processes, found its reflection in linguistics. However, cyclic processes in phraseology yet remain unstudied, despite the existing description of such phenomena as usualization, phraseologization, and dephraseologization. In conclusion, the author presents a dynamic model of life cycle of a phrase; the changes in use are viewed as its part; as well as offers the terms “deusualization” and “reusualization”. The obtained life cycle model can find application in further research in the area of diachronic phraseology and phrase formation.
Linguistics
Firstov L. - Reconsideration of classification of phrasal verbs in the English language pp. 21-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33496

Abstract: The goal of this work consists in formulation of definition and classification of phrasal verbs in the English language. The subject of this research is the semantics of English phrasal verbs. Lexicographical analysis became the main method for this research. The author also carried out semantic and comparative analysis of English and Russian prefixed verbs; examines the peculiarities of distribution of pitch accents between “simple” verb and postposition as one of the determinant attributes that allows classifying phrasal verbs into an independent lexical group. It is demonstrated that some word combinations, which are traditionally considered phrasal verbs, should not be attributed to this category of lexical units. The author determines the attributes that allow unifying interpretation of the term “phrasal verb”. The scientific novelty consists in the new perspective upon classification of phrasal verbs, distinguishing three types of these lexical units based on the logic of their formation. The author underlines that all phrasal verbs are amenable to the proposed classification, excluding the cases when the status of second element within them does not deem it as postposition. The acquired results significantly simplify the understanding of such verbs and can be applied in teaching or further theoretical developments of the subject of phrasal verbs.
Literary criticism
Dulina A.V. - In the center of a circle: poetics of space in Dantes Divine Comedy and H. Melvilles novel Moby-Dick, or The Whale pp. 29-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33584

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of space arrangement in the “Divine Comedy” by Alighieri and the novel Moby-Dick, or The Whale” by Herman Melville. On the examples of structural mythologemes “journey inside yourself” and “path towards the center of a circle”, present in both works, the author notes the impact of Dante upon Melville and determines the differences in their poetics of space. Structural, semantic and comparative-historical analysis of the texts in question allows speaking of the transformation of symbolism of the images of circle and its center, circular, vertical and horizontal movement, as well as reconsideration of meaning of the category of chaos and order, opposition “internal-external” from Dante’s works to worldview of the authors of the era of Romanticism. The novelty of this work consists in simultaneous analysis of the impact of Dante’s poetry upon Melville and comparison of peculiarities of the poetics of space of both authors for determining fundamental changes in representations of the structure of world space and space of the inner world of a person. In artistic realm of H. Melville, symbolic point of the center of a circle – “center of the world” –is no longer static, it becomes unreliable, depicting heads of madman characters and the images of the objects, which semantics does not resemble the concept of emptiness. The motif of the loss of structuredness along with the motif of mutual reciprocity of spatial dimensions and characteristics distinguish Melville’s poetics of space, delineated in the dialogue with distinct features of space arrangement in Dante’s works.
Question at hand
Kropacheva K.A. - "Livre qui traictera de toutes sortes de poëmes": a list of genres of "French poetic art" by Pierre Lodin d'egalier pp. 42-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33594

Abstract: This article is devoted to the specifics of the functioning of normative poetics in France at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries on the example of "French poetic Art" by Pierre Lodin d'aigalier. The author of the treatise raises a fairly wide range of issues in his work, but the subject of our study is only one rather narrow aspect: the problem of the gradual systematization of genres in France of the XVI century. The purpose of the study is to study the list of genres of "French poetic Art" by Pierre Lodin d'aigalier, to determine what its uniqueness is, and also to find out what role this treatise played in the process of forming a system of genres. The novelty of the work consists in an attempt to comprehensively consider the question of the gradual formation and formation of the genre system in French poetry. Loden's poetic art is practically not studied in the Russian literary tradition, and therefore this study becomes relevant for expanding ideas about the theoretical texts of the French Renaissance. We can identify a number of features that allow us to talk about the special role of the treatise in the formation of the French genre system. Firstly, Pierre Lodin d'aigalier characterizes the current situation of genres, which contributes to rethinking the meaning of a particular form within the framework of a gradually emerging system. Secondly, Loden includes solid forms in his list of genres, such as le, virelle, kok-a-lan, blazon, which the poets of the Pleiades called for to be discarded. Thirdly, "French Poetic Art" stands out among other treatises by its desire to fix the real situation of modern poetry by describing new genres that were not previously mentioned in theoretical treatises. Thus, the "French Poetic Art" by Pierre Lodin d'aigalier presents an original list of genres, one of the main goals of which is to summarize the evolution of national literature and the theory of poetry by the end of the XVI century.
Literary criticism
Papadopulo M. - Opposition living lifeless and antique imagery in Tales and Trials of Love by Jeanne Flore pp. 49-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33604

Abstract: This article examines the previously unstudied aspects of the concept of true love in “Tales and Trials of Love” by Jeanne Flore based on the material of second novel in the compilation. The subject of this research is the ancient images, which reflect the central topics of the book – role of sensuality and dangers caused by it. A detailed analysis is conducted on the opposition “living – lifeless”, which is structured through the motifs of sight, word, kiss and image of a human-statue. Within the new concept of true love, which dictates to reciprocate the feelings of those seeking love, the danger hides not sensuality, but in resisting it. The novella in question stands out in the compilation, as it is the only “tale” which focus falls on sensorics to convey a warning. Special attention is given to the images of eyes and mouth, which mark the boundary between external and internal, and play the key role in the motif of poisoning. When does a fatal act takes place? When “lifeless" is behind the living (which can be achieved only by witchcraft), and the other way around. Using the ancient images, Jeanne Flore demonstrates how a sight and words of the heroes can be poisonous and upon contact with the Other can translate characteristics of the hero’s inner world (such as indifference, static character, lifelessness) to others, thereby "poisoning" them to death. This article is first to analyze the opposition of “living – lifeless” on the material of references to ancient mythology in “Love and Trials of Love”, which defines the scientific novelty.
Linguistics
Britsyna N.M., Kovshikova E.V., Tatarinov M.K. - Application of cross-system method in translation of criminal procedure terminology from Russian to English pp. 58-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33635

Abstract: This article presents the results of analysis of application of cross-system methods in conveying Russian criminal law and criminal procedure realias in English. The specific examples of Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation illustrate substantial discrepancies in the existing within Russian criminal law systems and Anglo-American type of criminal law system, which cause most difficulties in translation of relevant terminology from Russian into English. Leaning on the considered linguistic and extralinguistic factors, the authors suggest the original solutions of the set communicative tasks. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence of the official English version of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, while the need for the corresponding paperwork (request for legal assistance, extradition request, etc.) is significantly growing. The following conclusions are made: criminal procedure discourse of Russian-language and English-language community constructs different and most of the time nonequivalent models of legal reality, which increases the value of comparative jurisprudence for the translator; at the same time, detailed analysis of not only the direct structure of common law and continental law systems, but also methods of their verbalization, allows comprising a more precise portrait of linguistic persona to have an idea of their experience, worldview, thesaurus and other cultural-specific peculiarities that are essential for improving efficiency of communication.      
Zinnatullina L. - National-cultural specificity of adverbial phraseological units in English and Russian. pp. 72-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33636

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the national-cultural specifics of adverbial phraseological units in English and Russian. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of the three levels of manifestation of the national-cultural specificity of phraseological units: 1) in the aggregate phraseological meaning, 2) in the meaning of individual lexical components, 3) in the direct meaning of a free phrase that has been figuratively reinterpreted (i.e. in prototypes of phraseological units). The paper gives a characteristic of each level of manifestation, based on the analysis of the study of the component composition of phraseology. Russian Russian and English phraseological units, selected from the Dictionary of Russian Phraseology, Russian and British National Corpus, are analyzed in the analysis of examples of a number of phraseological units of the English and Russian languages. The scientific novelty of the work is to determine the manifestation of the national - cultural specificity of a number of unique phraseological units of the English and Russian languages that do not have correspondences, based on the conducted study of the component composition. The methods of studying phraseological units are: contextual method, method of phraseological description. The main conclusions of the study are the following: The first level of manifestation of the national-cultural specificity of phraseological units is associated with non-equivalent or lacunary adverbial units. Phraseological units of the second group, the number of which is very limited, have a national-cultural component in their component composition, which can be represented by words denoting the realities characteristic of English or Russian peoples – speakers of two languages. phraseological units of the third group reflect the history of the peoples – native speakers of English and Russian, their peculiar traditions, customs, historical facts, superstitions, originally laid down in the prototype.
Question at hand
Kerimov I.A., Memetova L.A. - New touches to the biography of the educator Ismail Gaspirali pp. 80-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33563

Abstract: The subject of this research is the details of biography of Ismail Gaspirali, preserved in the Arabographic notes of the contemporaries, which allow adding new touches to his biographical portrait. The goal of this article lies in analysis and introduction into the scientific discourse of certain episodes from the life of Ismail Gasprali, which are of special value in comprising his full scientific biography. The dominant method for this work became the biographical research based on studying the persona of Ismail Gaspirali in the context of his life journey and relationships with other people. The principle of historicism allowed defining the stages of evolution of national mentality as a result of progressive activity of the reformer and his supporters. The author was able to determine the previously unknown episodes from the life of Ismail Gaspirali, trace the challenges that faced in implementation of his conceptual views, outline the circle of close associates who shared his aspirations figure, and were next to him to the last days. The scientific novelty lies introduction into the discourse of new details on the life of Ismail Gaspirali, which can be used in comprising his scientific biography, as well as further research of ideological-aesthetic views of Gaspirali and his supporters. The acquired results contribute augment the existing knowledge on versatile personality of Ismail Gaspirali, as well as positively affect modern research on his persona.
Literary criticism
Kudryashov I.V. - Gleb Uspensky on the national spirituality (based on the material of the cycle Sketches of the Transitional Period pp. 87-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33658

Abstract: Based on Gleb Uspensky’s cycle “Sketches of the Transitional Period”, this article analyzes the ethical-philosophical views of the writer upon national spirituality, Russian world and its future. Uspensky believed that the great mission of Russia consists in the desire to become a unifying spiritual center for the entire world civilization. However, due to its location in-between the West and the East. Russia is spiritually dying, and along with it in the global chaos and hostility of Western and Eastern civilizations, dies all of humanity. Russia’s position within the spiritual confrontation of East and West, the writer describes as "uncertain": Russia wants but is not able to impede the imminent spiritual demise of humanity. Such "uncertainty" contains the spiritual tragedy of Russia itself, which appears to be in a questionable situation with regards to its world goals and objectives. This article suggests a new approach towards understanding the cycle of G. I. Uspensky “Sketches of the Transitional Period”, based on peculiarity of his philosophical and ethical views associated with the idea of Russian messianism, its specialness in the context of the confrontation of Western and Eastern civilizations. The conducted systemic analysis of the cycle “Sketches of the Transitional Period” demonstrated that Uspensky comprehensively reflected the own understanding of spiritual tragedy of the Russian life, founded on a deep insight into the surrounding post-reform Russian reality of the 1850s-1880s. The revealed specificity of Uspensky’s worldview opens a new perspective for an overall scientific assessment of the later period of his works.
Linguistics
Knyazkov D.A. - Invectives as a linguistic manipulation in the song discourse (on the example of compositions from Eurovision song contest) pp. 98-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33536

Abstract: The subject of this research is the abusive language (invectives) prohibited by the rules of the International Song Contest “Eurovision”. The goal consists in substantiating the role of obscene language as a linguistic manipulation in song discourse of “Eurovision” contest. The tabooed words and expressions represent a wide array of lexical units for research by modern linguistic science based on the materials of various voice compositions. Using the lyrics of songs that participated in “Eurovision” and made top 10 chart, the author determined those that contain invectives. The scientific novelty consists in the first ever analysis of song lyrics that contained the lexical units of abusive language prohibited by the rules of “Eurovision”. It was determined that the compositions of multimodal discourse contain various invectives in verbal component. The authors of songs for “Eurovision” apply different linguistic manipulations to influence the live voting and ensure a spot in the finals for their composition. This is directly related to increase in the number of participating countries; therefore, the structure and content of verbal component of a musical-poetic composition of Eurovision plays an important role. Despite the prohibition by rules of the context to use tabooed lexicon in song lyrics, the author was able to identify certain violations in the English-language and Italian-language compositions. The conclusion is made that invectives in the song discourse are effective linguistic manipulations that enhance suggestive semantics of speech act, since all compositions made it to the top 10.
Shatilova L.M., Potashova A.A. - Semantic representation of the concept of fairness in the sense of honesty in of modern politicians (based on English and Russian journalistic texts) pp. 106-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33582

Abstract: The goal of this work consists in semantic analysis of the synonyms of the concept of “fairness” in the sense of "honesty" in speech of English-language and Russian-language modern politicians. The subject of this research is the semantics of lexemes representing the concept of honesty in speech of English and Russian politicians. The existing gaps in comparative linguistics with regards to comparative analysis of the concept of “fairness” and its semantic component in English and Russian journalistic texts define the relevance of this article. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt of comparative analysis of the semantic component of the synonyms of core lexemes of “fairness/honesty”, and their functionality in speech of modern politicians reflected in journalistic texts. In English and Russian languages, the concept of “fairness” is described by the following terms: honesty, law, objectivity, truth. The author conducts comparative analysis of semantics of the synonyms of the concept of fairness in the sense of “honesty”. It was established that in English and Russian journalistic texts featuring the speech of modern English and Russian politicians, honesty implies not only an honest attitude towards something, but also moral, professional, and social dignity that inspires respect, as well as informedness of society on the key decisions, freedom of opinion. Honesty is also openness of borders; willingness to consider ideas and opinions that differ from personal; certain rules and measures that do not lead to unworthy or unacceptable results, as well as an independent decision of the highest authorities. However, in speech of English-speaking politicians, honesty carries rather a legal character, as well as social justice; while in speech of Russian-speaking politicians, honesty means failure to commit immoral, antisocial doings, as well; as being honest first and foremost with yourself.
Poetry and the poet
Zhitenev A. - Poetology of Vyktor Ivaniv pp. 116-126

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33616

Abstract: The subject of this research is the corpus of auto-reflexive texts of the contemporary poet Vyktor Ivaniv – his research, essayistic, literary-critical writings. The goal consists in reconstruction of V. Ivaniv’s poetology, which implies the system of representations on ultimate characteristics of poetry, poeticity, and poetic. It is established that poetological system of V. Ivaniv can be described as an example of radicalization of “magic” intentions of historical avant-garde. The novelty of V. Ivaniv consists in reassessment of the ideas of transformation of the world using such term as “utopic”. Having determined the genetic affinity of the constructs of Russian avant-gardists with the ideas of Nicholas of Cusa, Rene Descartes and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Ivaniv highlights their rootedness in the traditions of European rationalism. The novelty of the research lies in the comprehensive analysis, which allows restoring a universal system of representations on poetry based on the comparison of texts belonging to different types of discourse. Formulation of aesthetic principles in Ivaniv’s works is inseparable from philological reflection over the nature of symbol and its typology. Analyzing the principles of the construction of image at different stages of the establishment of avant-garde mentality, V. Ivaniv creates the concept of iconic symbol as a substitute of the event and a semantic operator, which replaces false meanings with true ones. According to Ivaniv, transgressive introduction to the truth of being – ecstatic and dangerous – comprises the essence of the poetic.
Linguistics
Kalyatin I.S. - Analysis of grammatical means for the expression of reason in German, Italian and Russian scientific text of the XXI century pp. 127-143

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.8.33476

Abstract: The goal of this work lies in definition and scientific description of combination of the basic grammatical means for expression of category of reason in a scientific text (on the material of German, Italian and Russian languages). The subject of this research is a comparative analysis of the structural and semantic peculiarities of grammatical means for the expression of reason in a scientific text of the XXI century (on the material of German, Italian and Russian languages). The relevance is substantiated by insufficient study within comparative linguistics of the ways to represent the category of reason on grammatical level by comparing several languages (in this case, German, Italian and Russian). The scientific novelty of consists in conducting comparative analysis of grammatical language means for the expression of semantic category of reason in German, Italian and Russian scientific text of the XXI century. Within the framework of contrastive analysis, the author revealed the peculiarities of structuring the functional-semantic field of reason on the example of the texts under consideration. The acquired results allow concluding that in such type of texts the functional semantic field of causality is represented by grammatical means that express reason in a general form or with additional connotation. The presented materials can be applied in the course of lectures on comparative typology of the German, Italian and Russian languages.
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